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ASEEM R.
aseem128@gmail.com
Presented
By
Introduction
Concept of Learning
Learning can be defined as any relatively
permanent change in behaviour that occurs as
a...
Definitions
Gates defined learning as the modification of
behaviour through experience.
Skinner considers learning as a ...
1. Individual Variable (Nature of the learner)
2. Task Variable (Nature of the learning material)
3. Method Variable (Natu...
• Length of material:
If the length of the learning task exceeds the
memory span of the learner, the time taken to
learn w...
• Difficulty level of material:
The learner has to spend more energy and time and
this create fatigue which in turn slows ...
• Method of learning:
Learning success depends upon whether the learner is
adopting the whole method or part method.
• Amo...
• Nature of Sensory approach:
Senses are the gateway of knowledge. Effectiveness
of learning depends upon the number of se...
• learn items in a list more effectively when they are
studied in several sessions spread out over a long
period of time, ...
Variables in Learning.
Variables in Learning.
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Variables in Learning.

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Variables in Learning.

  1. 1. ASEEM R. aseem128@gmail.com Presented By
  2. 2. Introduction Concept of Learning Learning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience. It is also defined as acquisition of a new behaviour pattern. It involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individual’s attempt to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations.
  3. 3. Definitions Gates defined learning as the modification of behaviour through experience. Skinner considers learning as a process of progressive behaviour adaptation. Crow and Crow defined learning as the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes.
  4. 4. 1. Individual Variable (Nature of the learner) 2. Task Variable (Nature of the learning material) 3. Method Variable (Nature of the learning situation) Variables in Learning
  5. 5. • Length of material: If the length of the learning task exceeds the memory span of the learner, the time taken to learn will be more. • Meaningfulness of material: It is easier to learn ad retain a meaningful material than a meaningless one. Meaning enable the leaner to identify previous experience to which the new task can be associated. Task Variables
  6. 6. • Difficulty level of material: The learner has to spend more energy and time and this create fatigue which in turn slows down the rate of learning of such material. • Organisation of material: The learning material should be arranged in order of increasing difficulty. Task Variables
  7. 7. • Method of learning: Learning success depends upon whether the learner is adopting the whole method or part method. • Amount of practice: Retention increases with practice. Over-learning is recommended for better retention. • Availability of Incentives: It has been found that availability of incentives in learning situation encourages better learning and longer retention. Method Variables
  8. 8. • Nature of Sensory approach: Senses are the gateway of knowledge. Effectiveness of learning depends upon the number of senses involved in the learning process. • Distribution of practice: is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time. Method Variables
  9. 9. • learn items in a list more effectively when they are studied in several sessions spread out over a long period of time, rather than studied repeatedly in a short period of time, a phenomenon called the spacing effect. • The opposite, massed practice, consists of fewer, longer training sessions. Method Variables

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