Concept of Learning
Learning can be defined as any relatively
permanent change in behaviour that occurs as
a result of practice or experience.
It is also defined as acquisition of a new
It involves new ways of doing things, and it
operates in an individual’s attempt to
overcome obstacles or to adjust to new
Gates defined learning as the modification of
behaviour through experience.
Skinner considers learning as a process of
progressive behaviour adaptation.
Crow and Crow defined learning as the
acquisition of habits, knowledge and
1. Individual Variable (Nature of the learner)
2. Task Variable (Nature of the learning material)
3. Method Variable (Nature of the learning situation)
Variables in Learning
• Length of material:
If the length of the learning task exceeds the
memory span of the learner, the time taken to
learn will be more.
• Meaningfulness of material:
It is easier to learn ad retain a meaningful
material than a meaningless one. Meaning
enable the leaner to identify previous experience
to which the new task can be associated.
• Difficulty level of material:
The learner has to spend more energy and time and
this create fatigue which in turn slows down the rate
of learning of such material.
• Organisation of material:
The learning material should be arranged in order of
• Method of learning:
Learning success depends upon whether the learner is
adopting the whole method or part method.
• Amount of practice:
Retention increases with practice. Over-learning is
recommended for better retention.
• Availability of Incentives:
It has been found that availability of incentives in learning
situation encourages better learning and longer retention.
• Nature of Sensory approach:
Senses are the gateway of knowledge. Effectiveness
of learning depends upon the number of senses
involved in the learning process.
• Distribution of practice:
is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up
into a number of short sessions - over a longer
period of time.
• learn items in a list more effectively when they are
studied in several sessions spread out over a long
period of time, rather than studied repeatedly in a
short period of time, a phenomenon called the
• The opposite, massed practice, consists of fewer,
longer training sessions.