Consumer Battery Technology


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Consumer Battery Technology

  1. 1. Consumer Battery Technology <br />By Alyssa Durden<br />Eng 1105<br />Ms. Owens<br />
  2. 2. Batteries are a Large Commodity<br />The demand for materials used in the production of batteries and fuel cells has been on a steady rise. According to a study done by the Freedonia Group, world demand for materials used in the manufacture of batteries will rise 3.9 percent per year to $22.8 billion in 2012. <br />
  3. 3. So…What are Batteries?<br /><ul><li>Batteries are devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy, consisting of a group of electric cells that are connected to act as a source of direct current.
  4. 4. Batteries are used in portable </li></ul> electronic applications such as <br /> garage door openers and electric <br /> lawn mowers<br />
  5. 5. Battery ClassificationsBatteries are divided into two categories:<br />Primary<br />Secondary<br />
  6. 6. Primary Batteries <br /><ul><li>Advantages
  7. 7. Convenience
  8. 8. lower initial cost
  9. 9. higher capacity
  10. 10. Disadvantages
  11. 11. Continuous replacement
  12. 12. Greater long term expense
  13. 13. Waste</li></ul>Primary cell batteries are designed to be used once and then discarded as their electrochemical reactions are not reversible.<br />
  14. 14. Secondary Batteries <br /><ul><li>Advantages
  15. 15. Can replace primary batteries in some devices
  16. 16. Lower long term expense
  17. 17. Ideal in high drain devices
  18. 18. Disadvantages
  19. 19. Greater initial cost
  20. 20. Shorter shelf life
  21. 21. High self-discharge</li></ul>Secondary cell batteries can have their chemical reactions readily reversed giving them the ability to be recharged.<br />
  22. 22. Ok… So What are Batteries Made Of?<br />Whether batteries are primary or secondary, they can contain a variety of chemical systems.<br />Some common chemistries are:<br />
  23. 23. Carbon-zinc<br />The common Eveready primary battery and standard nine-volt battery is made up of Carbon-zinc. Carbon-zinc is a generic term for primary dry batteries of the LeClanche or Zinc Chloride system. These batteries have an anode of zinc, a cathode of manganese dioxide, and a slightly acidic electrolyte.<br />Carbon-zinc cells are usually the lowest priced primary cells and have the lowest storage density of the common battery family. <br />
  24. 24. Alkaline-manganese dioxide primary batteries are basically the same as carbon-zincexcept their chemical makeup has been altered to make them more alkaline.<br />These batteries have advantages over standard carbon-zinc such as higher energy density, better cold temperature performance, slightly lower internal resistance, and longer shelf life.<br />Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide<br />
  25. 25. Nickel Cadmium cells or “NiCad” were used as one of the oldest styles of rechargeable batteries. They have the capability of withstanding deep discharges but have a sever drawback as well. The cadmium used in their anodes is highly toxic and also form cadmium crystals over time creating a “memory effect” reducing the charge the battery will hold over time. This is the main reason many battery manufacturers have discontinued production of this type of battery. <br />=<br />So instead…..<br />Nickel Cadmium <br />
  26. 26. Nickel-Metal Hydride<br />Nickel-Metal Hydride cells or “NiMH” have been a good substitution as they have essentially the same qualities as NiCad batteries except by using hydrides, they are not as toxic and do not form the crystals that cadmium does.<br />
  27. 27. Lithium + ________<br />Lithium is a fast developing material used today in all shapes and sizes for both primary and rechargeable chemistry combinations. Lithium itself can be used as an anode for primary batteries surpassing performance of carbon-zinc and alkaline systems while lithium-ion cells are the fastest growing and most promising battery rechargeable chemistry to date. <br />Lithium-ion cells are showing high promise because they are lighter than other energy-equivalent secondary cell batteries, do not develop a memory effect and have a lower self discharge rate. <br />
  28. 28. Future Research?<br />The search still goes on for the “Holy Grail” of batteries and studies are drawing power from just about every source that is imaginable. Studies in Nanotechnology is a major focus as nanowires can be made from various materials. Some developments are:<br /><ul><li>Micro Batteries
  29. 29. Paper Batteries
  30. 30. Nanowire solar cells </li></li></ul><li>So then the investment for the next generation of portable energy storage will remain stable and new technologies will continue to surface.<br />The END(And thanks for looking. )<br />
  31. 31. Image credits go to:<br />Energizer Corp.<br />Getty Images stock<br /><br /><br />