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Ppt16 c [recovered]


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Ppt16 c [recovered]

  1. 1. The average lifetime total heartbeats is based on an average of 72 beats per minute during an average lifespan of 75 years. 72 beats per minute x 60 = 4,320 beats per hour. 4,320 beats per hour x 24 = 103,680 beats per day. 103,680 beats per day x 365 = 37,843,200 beats per year. 37,843,200 beats per year x 75 = 2,838,240,000 beats in an average lifetime. 10 C
  2. 2. The Human Heart Heart-o-Facts pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist. responsible for supplying the body with oxygenated blood. the heart beats, it exerts a pressure on the veins and arteries called blood pressure. made of a special kind of muscle called myocardium enclosed in a double-layered, membranous sac called a pericardium The heart lies in the chest cavity between the lungs
  3. 3. Common Types Of Heart Diesease • Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, producing blockages in the vessels which nourish the heart itself. Atherosclerosis occurs when the arteries become clogged and narrowed, restricting blood flow. • Abnormal Heart Rhythm (Arrhythmia) An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia). Heart rates can also be irregular. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute • Heart Valve Disease Heart valve disease occurs when the heart valves do not work the way they should. • Congenital Heart Disease Congenital heart disease is a type of defect or malformation in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occurs before birth. • Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened; this causes a decreased ejection fraction (the amount of blood pumped out with each heart beat) • Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome is an inherited disease that affects the connective tissue.
  4. 4. •Severe coronary artery disease •Alcoholism •Thyroid disease •Diabetes •Viral infections of the heart •Heart valve abnormalities •Drugs that are toxic (or cause damage) to the heart •Taking certain drugs, such as cocaine •Emotional stress or pain Stages showing •Exposure to extreme cold how the artery is filled with excess atheroclerosis resulting in blood clot.
  5. 5. What effects does heart disease have on the body? • becomes physically inactive and suffers from constant fatigue • failure in the functioning of various organs such as liver, kidney as well as the intestines etc • blood pressure fluctuates and one suffers from either high blood pressure or low blood pressure • Oxygen supply may not be there to the brain • blood vessels get blocked causing damage to various organs of the body • capacitate a person or even cause death • can cause depression in a person • angina pectoris (chest pain) • sudden cold, sweating, weakness and nausea
  6. 6. Risk Factors Uncontrollable Controllable •Sex •Hereditary •High blood pressure •High blood cholesterol •Race •Smoking •Age •Physical activity •Obesity •Diabetes •Stress and anger We can see that by growing older the chances of a potential heart increases.
  7. 7. How can we test for heart disease?
  8. 8. •Blood tests: used to evaluate kidney and thyroid function as well as to check cholesterol levels and the presence of anemia. •Chest X-ray: shows the size of your heart and whether there is fluid build up around the heart and lungs. •Echocardiogram: shows a graphic outline of the heart’s movement •Ejection fraction (EF): determines how well your heart pumps with each beat.
  9. 9. • Many people are able to manage coronary artery disease with lifestyle changes and medications. • Other people with severe coronary artery disease may need angioplasty or surgery.
  10. 10. Treatment (continued) 1) Stenting • a stent is introduced into a blood vessel on a balloon catheter and advanced into the blocked area of the artery • the balloon is then inflated and causes the stent to expand until it fits the inner wall of the vessel, conforming to contours as needed • the balloon is then deflated and drawn back •The stent stays in place permanently, holding the vessel open and improving the flow of blood.
  11. 11. Treatment (continued) 2) Angioplasty • a balloon catheter is passed through the guiding catheter to the area near the narrowing. A guide wire inside the balloon catheter is then advanced through the artery until the tip is beyond the narrowing. • the angioplasty catheter is moved over the guide wire until the balloon is within the narrowed segment. • balloon is inflated, compressing the plaque against the artery wall • once plaque has been compressed and the artery has been sufficiently opened, the balloon catheter will be deflated and removed.
  12. 12. Treatment (continued) 3) Bypass surgery • healthy blood vessel is removed from leg, arm or chest • blood vessel is used to create new blood flow path in your heart • the “bypass graft” enables blood to reach your heart by flowing around (bypassing) the blocked portion of the diseased artery. The increased blood flow reduces angina and the risk of heart attack.
  13. 13. Medications for heart disease • Intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin has been shown to improve blood flow to the heart muscle by relaxing (dilating) the coronary arteries and increasing blood flow. • Heparin is a "blood thinner," or anticoagulant, which may be given after a heart attack. Heparin does not remove an existing clot, but it reduces the tendency of blood to clot in the coronary arteries • Beta-blockers are medications that decrease the heart rate and blood pressure. This reduces the heart's workload and thus the amount of oxygen it needs. • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may prevent repeat heart attacks and other problems when started early during a heart attack.
  14. 14. Some common disadvantages of heart diseases curing drugs • Nausea • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Stomach pain • Loss of appetite • Unusual tiredness or weakness • Slow heartbeat • Palpitations • Irregular heartbeat • Drowsiness • Confusion • Fainting • Changes in your vision including seeing a halo or light around objects • decreased sexual ability • dry mouth • frequent urination
  15. 15. Preventing Heart Disease Rule #1 Look before your eat • Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables every day. (5 servings - they are naturally low in fat and high in vitamins and minerals and anti oxidants). Eat colored vegetables and fruits • Eat a variety of grain products • Choose nonfat or low-fat products. • Use less fat meats- chicken, fish and lean cuts  Switch to fat-free milk—toned/skimmed milk
  16. 16. Dietary Guidelines • Limit your intake of foods high in calories and low in nutrition, including foods like soft drinks, candy, junk food • Limit foods high in saturated fat, trans- fat and cholesterol • Eat less than 6 gms of salt a day • Have no more than1-2 alcoholic drink a day if you are a regular drinker
  17. 17. Limit / Avoid • Foods rich in Cholesterol and Saturated fats – Egg Yolk – Fatty meat & organ meat( Liver) – Butter chicken / Batter fried fish ! – Milk fat – Desi Ghee, Butter, Cheese, Malai, Rabri, Khurchan, Doda, Ice Cream, full cream milk, – Hidden Fat like Bakery biscuits, Patties (!), Cakes, Pastries,
  18. 18. Cooking Oils: The mystery of PUFA / MUFA • Saturated Fats : Increase Cholesterol – Avoid – Coconut oil, Palm oil, Vanaspati ghee • Monounsaturated Fats (MUFA): Heart healthy – Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Canola oil, Mustard oil • Polyunsaturated Fats (PUFA): Heart healthy – Sunflower oil, Soybean oil • Omega-3-Fatty acids Fish oil : Heart Healthy Rotate the oils or Mixture of oils
  19. 19. Preventing Heart Disease Rule #2 Exercise • Maintain a level of physical activity that keeps you fit and matches the calories you eat • Serves several functions in preventing and treating those at high risk • Reduces incidence of obesity • Increases HDL • Lowers LDL and total cholesterol • Helps control diabetes and hypertension
  20. 20. Exercise, Exercise, Exercise • Mortality is halved in retired men who walk more than two miles every day • Regular exercise can halve the risk of heart disease, particularly in men who walk briskly • Someone who is inactive has as great a risk of having heart disease as someone who smokes, has high blood pressure or has high cholesterol • Exercise significantly reduces the chances of diabetes and stroke • With regular exercise, blood pressure in those with hypertension is reduced by as much as 20mms Hg
  21. 21. Exercise and Heart Disease Moderate to intense physical activity for 30-45 minutes on most days of the week is recommended
  22. 22. Walking for a healthy heart • Complicated exercise machines or sweating it out in the gym not essential JUST WALK!
  23. 23. Rule # 3 Stop Smoking NOW! • The risk of heart attack starts decreasing within 24 hours of quitting smoking, within 1 year of quitting, CHD risk decreases significantly, within 2 years it reaches the level of a nonsmoker • Smell and taste improve within days • Within three months of quitting, the smokers' cough disappears in most people
  24. 24. Rule # 3 Stop Smoking NOW!
  25. 25. Benefits much beyond Heart Disease Tobacco Cardiovascular Cancers Diet Diabetes Physical Activity Chronic Respiratory Diseases Osteoporosis Oral Health Alcohol Mental Health
  26. 26. Rule # 4 Know your Number! And that’s not your Mobile Number! Desirable numbers • Total cholesterol < 200; • LDL < 100 • HDL > 40 • triglycerides < 200 • Get the levels tested routinely and keep them under control • The only thing worse than finding out that you have one of these conditions is…….NOT finding out that you have it!!
  27. 27. Benefits of reducing cholesterol 10% reduction of blood cholesterol produces 20-30% decline in CHD deaths All Adults >20 yrs must get tested- if normal test again after 5 years, if elevated, work towards normalizing the levels with lifestyle modification and drugs as needed
  28. 28. Controlling Blood Pressure • Adults should have their blood pressure checked at least once every two years, as there are no symptoms to tell if you have high blood pressure • Optimal levels : 120 /80 mm Hg • If high – Modify your lifestyle – Diet, Weight, Exercise, Salt restriction – Adhere to the prescribed medication without fail, to decrease chances of getting heart disease – Do not stop your medicines without consulting your doctor, even if the blood pressure becomes normal
  29. 29. Controlling Blood Sugar • All adults should have their blood sugar checked regularly, as there are no early symptoms of diabetes • Normal blood sugar: • Fasting < 100; post meals <140 • If high – Modify your lifestyle – Diet, Weight, Exercise – Adhere to the prescribed medication without fail, to decrease chances of getting heart disease – Do not stop your medicines without consulting your doctor, even if the blood sugar becomes normal
  30. 30. If you or someone in your family already diagnosed with heart disease • Don’t get disheartened – science has made significant progress • Just monitor risk factors much more aggressively – Eat healthy – Walk regularly – Watch your weight – Quit smoking immediately – Keep your weight under control – In addition to improving your heart – health these measures are sure to enhance your appearance !! • Adhere to you medicines & listen to your doctor
  31. 31. Factors Economical and Health With the advancement the fast food industry the amount of consumption is also growing rapidly. These fast food commonly has a high of cholesterol in it. If we consume a lot of fast food it will form blockage in the artery and form blood clot. This gives rise to many other heart related problem. But the fast food firms wont realize it because all they care is about earning fat bundle of money. Once this problem arises the victim has to endless money for unlimited test, operations and medicines. Lifestyle Now days a man’s has become so fast that he has to substitute his daily routine to his job earning work. In this hurry he often forget to exercise. Due to this the ―not so dangerous‖ fat becomes the biggest enemy of him. So I think that today’s lifestyle is very responsible for the rising cases of heart disease.
  32. 32. • Get regular medical checkups. • Control your blood pressure. • Check your cholesterol. • Don’t smoke. • Exercise regularly. • Maintain a healthy weight. • Eat a heart-healthy diet. • Manage stress.