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Hemodynamics of Maintaining Transportation of All Nutrients in Blood Flowing: Drinking (Boiled) Warm Water and Complete Nutrition Fluids for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Clinic

Backgrounds: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed more than 1.5 million and infected more than 65.8 million people in the whole world as of July 12, 2020. The scientific research data show that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is etiologic agent of COVID-19. The virus invasion can damage alveolus capillaries. The wounds may cause the hemorrhage, coagulation, clots, and (or) thrombosis. The thrombi can block blood circulation completely or partially. Methods and Results: Based on our estimation with hemodynamics, the blood flow rate decreases about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height of the blood vessels decreases 10%. The complete or partial obstructions also slow down transportations of O2, CO2 (conveying in red blood cells or plasma) and all nutrients in blood flows as well as increase risks of turbulence that can produce more thrombi, called “a vicious cycle” in hemodynamics. Therefore, fatal risks of ischemia or hemorrhage strokes as well as anemia increase. The viscosity of water is only 1/4–1/3 of that of human blood; drinking (boiled) warm water can decrease the viscosity as well as dissolve the blood clots to increase the blood flow and transportations of all nutrients without side effects. In addition, when people are (seriously) infected by COVID-19, they usually have fever, pulmonary hemorrhage or edema, and do not have much appetite to eat. Therefore, based on hemodynamics, we suggest drinking (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids, for easy digestion, energy supplementation, and primary and secondary preventions of blood clots (or thrombi) in clinic. Conclusions: The complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and increase strength of immune system. Drinking warm (boiled) water can directly compensate the loss of water and the heat, keep the blood volume and reduce the blood viscosity without side effects to prevent or cure blood clots or thrombosis caused by COVID-19. Therefore, it is very important to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids to maintain transportations of all nutrients in blood flowing for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.

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Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 11
INTRODUCTION
T
he coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
has killed more than 1.5 million and infected more
than 65.8 million people in the whole world as of July
12, 2020.[1]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is etiologic
agent of COVID-19; the viruses invade the respiratory
systems, lead to injuring the airway epithelium, alveoli
(including pneumocytes), and pulmonary blood vessels.
The injuries can cause pulmonary hemorrhages, edema,
blood coagulation, clots, hemostasis, microthrombosis and
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Hemodynamics of Maintaining Transportation of All
Nutrients in Blood Flowing: Drinking (Boiled) Warm Water
and Complete Nutrition Fluids for Primary and Secondary
Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Clinic
Kang Cheng1
, Vivien Cheng2
, Changhua Zou2
1
Department of Basic Medicine, Medical School, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao, P.R. China, 2
Biomedical
and Biochemical Infophysics, Science Research Institute, Edison NJ 08817, USA
ABSTRACT
Backgrounds: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed more than 1.5 million and infected more than
65.8 million people in the whole world as of July 12, 2020. The scientific research data show that severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 is etiologic agent of COVID-19. The virus invasion can damage alveolus capillaries. The wounds may
cause the hemorrhage, coagulation, clots, and (or) thrombosis. The thrombi can block blood circulation completely or partially.
Methods and Results: Based on our estimation with hemodynamics, the blood flow rate decreases about 40% or 34% when
the diameter or height of the blood vessels decreases 10%. The complete or partial obstructions also slow down transportations
of O2
, CO2
(conveying in red blood cells or plasma) and all nutrients in blood flows as well as increase risks of turbulence that
can produce more thrombi, called “a vicious cycle” in hemodynamics. Therefore, fatal risks of ischemia or hemorrhage strokes
as well as anemia increase. The viscosity of water is only 1/4–1/3 of that of human blood; drinking (boiled) warm water can
decrease the viscosity as well as dissolve the blood clots to increase the blood flow and transportations of all nutrients without
side effects. In addition, when people are (seriously) infected by COVID-19, they usually have fever, pulmonary hemorrhage
or edema, and do not have much appetite to eat. Therefore, based on hemodynamics, we suggest drinking (boiled) warm water
and complete nutrition fluids, for easy digestion, energy supplementation, and primary and secondary preventions of blood clots
(or thrombi) in clinic. Conclusions: The complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for
daily lives and increase strength of immune system. Drinking warm (boiled) water can directly compensate the loss of water and
the heat, keep the blood volume and reduce the blood viscosity without side effects to prevent or cure blood clots or thrombosis
caused by COVID-19. Therefore, it is very important to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids to maintain
transportations of all nutrients in blood flowing for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.
Key words: Blood, Clinic, Clots, Coagulation, Coronavirus disease 2019, Hemodynamics, Hemorrhage, Ischemia, Nutrition,
Prevention, Thrombosis, Transportation, Viscosity, Water
Address for correspondence:
Kang Cheng, Department of Basic Medicine, Medical School, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao, P.R. China.
https://doi.org/10.33309/2639-8354.030203 www.asclepiusopen.com
© 2020 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic
12 Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020
inflammation, as well as macrothrombosis. Viral infection
in areas of ongoing active injury contributes to persistent
and temporally heterogeneous lung damage[2-6]
that is very
dangerous to human lives.
Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe
form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain
unsolved problems of intensive care medicine.ALI/ARDS are
characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of
the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of
arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial, and epithelial
injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the
interstitium and broncheoalveolar space.[5,7]
In our previous studies, we proposed models of complete
nutrition therapy to prevent or cure strokes caused by sickle
cell anemia, ischemia, or hemorrhage,[8]
constipation and
diarrhea,[9]
and obesity.[10]
In general, to normally ingest O2
,
H2
O, and sunlight are the most basic to maintaining our daily
lives; the ingestions are critical respectively every minutes,
hours, and days.
In our recent studies of preventing COVID-19 with mask-
wearing, based on information theory as well as Newton’s
and Fick’s laws, we proposed biomedical infophysical
models of filtering ghost airflows of COVID-19 viruses and
related infecting death rates and information at a human
society level. Our models indicate that the infection is very
dangerous in enclosed or confined spatial environments
because the smaller the space, the higher the virus density; it
is more dangerous in the environments with air conditioning
systems or fans because the higher the wind level, the faster
the virus velocity; the higher density or faster velocity of
the viruses (droplets or airborne) will force people to inhale
more viruses within the same time period. Therefore, we
strongly suggested people to wear face masks for primary
and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.[11,12]
In this article, we mostly focus on theoretic analysis of human
bloodcirculationsystematatissuelevelusinghemodynamics[13,14]
and complete nutrition therapy (without side effects) for primary
and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.
METHODS
Our theoretical analysis is based on published data[1-7,15,16]
as well as theories of hemodynamics,[13,14]
nutrition and
physiology,[17-19]
infection, and virus.[20]
ANALYSING RESULTS
A lung has two circulation systems: The hemodynamic for
the blood flow and the aerodynamic for the air flow.[13,14]
We
mostlyfocusonthehemodynamicsysteminthisinvestigation.
COVID-19 invasion leads to immune cells, such as
macrophages or neutrophils, injuring alveolus walls, as well
as killing the viruses[5,6]
[Figure 1]. After containment of an
injury, the tissue repair phase starts with removal of toxins
and waste products. Clotting (coagulation) reduces blood
loss from damaged blood vessels and forms a network of
fibrin proteins that trap blood cells and bind the edges of the
wound together. A scab forms when the clot dries, reducing
the risk of infection. Sometimes a mixture of dead leukocytes
and fluid called pus accumulates in the wounds.[17]
The wounded walls may produce pulmonary hemorrhages,
edema, blood clots, scabs, and (or) thrombi. The scabs,
edema, or clots can decrease the exchange of O2
and CO2
by
decreasing the effective interface area between the alveolus
wall and air or increasing the thickness of the diffusion of O2
and CO2
. A normal blood flow [Figure 2a] can be partially
[Figure 2b] or completely [Figure 2c] blocked by thrombi.
Figure 1: Invading and injuring an alveolus in a lower
respiratory tract by COVID-19 viruses, and transportations
across a capillary and an alveolus. Alveolus RBC: Red
blood cells; arrows denote moving directions.[17]
We consider
interstitial tissues between the blood vessels and alveoli as
meridian channels.[21]
The draw is not to the scale
Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic
Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 13
The completely blocked blood vessels do not provide
any transportation of the nutrition. The partially blocked
blood vessels decrease the blood flow rates by narrowing
the blood vessels, increasing the viscosity, or forcing the red
blood cells (RBC) to have to flow in a side way or become
severe deformed.[13]
The both complete and partial obstructions can lead to
decreasing transportations of O2
, CO2
(conveying in RBC or
plasma), H2
O, and all nutrients in blood as well as increasing
risks of turbulence that can produce more thrombi[13]
and
called “a vicious cycle” in hemodynamics.[22]
Therefore,
fatal risks of ischemia or hemorrhage strokes as well as
anemia[17,18]
increase.
To further understand what happened “a vicious cycle” in
blood flowing in hemodynamics, we introduce two models
to quantitate the human blood flow rate Q (volume/time)[13]
mathematically and physically.
The human blood flow rate Q (volume/time) can be modeled
with Poiseuille’s law (flow equation):[13,19]
	
n
a
Q
u
∝
 (1)
And
	
1
u
T
∝
 (2)
Where u and T, respectively, denote viscosity and temperature
of the blood; a and n, respectively, denote size and integer;
for pulmonary capillaries: a = Height and n = 4; for other
blood vessels: a = Diameter and n = 5. The flow speed of the
RBC is usually faster than that of the blood.[13]
Based on our estimation with hemodynamics, the blood flow
rate decreases about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height
decreases 10%; and the blood flow rate decreases about 10%
when the blood viscosity increases 10%.
The viscosity of water is only 1/4–1/3 of that of human
blood.[13]
Therefore, modeling equations 1 and 2 elucidate
drinking more warm water can decrease the viscosity as well
as dissolve the blood clots (or thrombi)[23,24]
to increase the
blood flow and transportations of all nutrients.
When people are (seriously) infected by COVID-19, they
usuallyhavefever,cough,pulmonaryhemorrhage,oredema,[5,6]
and do not have much appetite to eat. Therefore, we suggested
to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids,
for easy digestion, energy supplementation, and blood clots
prevention,[25]
to prevent or cure COVID-19 in our previous
studies.[11,12]
We think the complete nutrition fluids can provide
all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and
increase strength of immune system; drinking warm water
can directly compensate the loss of water and heat, reduce the
blood viscosity, and maintain the normal flows of the blood
and red cells, that is, maintain the normal transportations of O2
,
CO2
(conveying in RBC or plasma), H2
O, and all nutrients, to
prevent or cure COVID-19 [Figure 3].
By our observation, beef, pork, and chicken oils become waxy
consistency(non-fluids:Highviscosities)orquasisolidwhentheir
temperatures, respectively, reach about 25°C, 20°C, and 15°C;[10]
but most consume plant cooking oils are still oil liquids (fluids:
Low viscosities) when they reach about 4°C in refrigerators. Our
body temperatures can be as low as 24°C in some parts, such
as feet.[26]
The thrombi can be formed in the veins, transported
to the arteries, and they become emboli to block the arteries.[27,28]
Therefore, we suggest to use vegetable oil or chicken soups with
low viscosities and (or) low risks of blood clotting or thrombosis
for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.
Based on theory of human physiology,[18]
H2
O plays a very
important role in maintaining human bodies’ homeostasis
with bicarbonate buffer system; therefore, we think this is
Figure 2: Blood flows in arteries: (a) normal; (b) partially
blocked by thrombi; (c) completely blocked by thrombi.[13,14,17]
The draw is not to the scale.
c
b
a
Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic
14 Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020
one of reasons why or how drinking more warm (boiled)
water is very helpful for primary and secondary preventions
of almost all of the respiratory diseases.[10,29,30]
We also believe, for primary and secondary preventions of
COVID-19 in clinic, drinking more warm water is a similar
solution to altitude sickness during hypoxia;[11,12]
sipping
distilled liquors, 60–70% by volume, 1 cc or ml/an hour (for
adults only) is helpful too, according to our previous initial
clinical trials of treating flu infection.[29,30]
DISCUSSION
We also believe that it is very helpful to clear the viruses that
are on or in our bodies or upper respiratory tracts but have
not enter our lower respiratory tracts or lungs by frequently
cleaning (washing or gargling) our nostrils, tongue, throats,
and mouths, for example, blowing our nose, sneezing, and
spiting; washing hands, faces, eyes, and ears; and taking
warm showers and deep breaths for primary and secondary
preventions of respiratory infection diseases.[11,12]
We believe our analysis results in this study are also
applicable or helpful for primary and secondary preventions
of other respiratory diseases in clinic.
CONCLUSIONS
In this article, we mostly focus on theoretic analysis of
human blood circulation system at a tissue level using
hemodynamics and complete nutrition therapy (without side
effects) for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-
19 in clinic. We introduce two hemodynamics models to
quantitate the human blood flow rate Q (volume/time) and to
understand the principle that the relationships among blood
flowing, blood viscosity, temperature of the blood, and blood
vessels mathematically and physically.
Our calculated data show that the blood flow rate decreases
about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height decreases
10%; and the blood flow rate decreases 10% when the blood
viscosity increases 10%.
Our analyzing results show that drinking more warm (boiled)
water can decrease the viscosity, dissolve the blood clots
(or thrombi), increase the blood flow and transportations of
all nutrients, as well as can directly compensate the loss of
water and the heat, and keep the blood volume, to prevent
or cure blood clots or thrombosis caused by COVID-19.
The complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to
maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and increase
Figure 3: Human bodies like human societies are open systems: They exchange information, energy, and matters with their
environments.
Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic
Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 15
strength of immune system. Therefore, it is very important
to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids to
maintain transportations of all nutrients in blood flowing for
primary and secondary preventions COVID-19 in clinic as
well as for easy digestion.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Clinical Research in Hematology to invite us for
publishing this original research article. Submitted: 12/14,
2020.
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2.	 Ferner RE, Levi M, Sofat R, Aronson JK. Thrombosis in
COVID-19: Clinical Outcomes, Biochemical and Pathological
Changes, and Treatments. Oxford: The Centre for Evidence-
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3.	 Lax SF, Skok K, Zechner P, Kessler HH, Kaufmann N,
Koelblinger C, et al. Pulmonary arterial thrombosis in COVID-
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7.	 Grommes J, Soehnlein O. Contribution of neutrophils to acute
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8.	 Cheng K. Prevention of strokes caused by sickle cell anemia,
ischemiaor hemorrhage. ARC J Hematol 2019;4:26-30.
9.	 Cheng K, Zou C. Biochemical and biophysical models of
constipation and diarrhea caused by incorrect dose or uneven
intake of edible oils (fats). WebmedCentral Gastroenterol
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cardiovascular diseases caused by obesity. SM J Nutr Metab
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11.	 Cheng K, Cheng V, Zou C. Urgent prevention of corona virus
disease 2019 (COVID-19): Chinese eating and mask-wearing
cultures. J Public Health Int 2020;2:8-14.
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shutdowns (lockdowns). J Public Health Int 2020;2:26-39.
13.	 Fung YC. Biodynamics Circulation. New York: Springer; 1984.
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Tissues. New York: Springer; 1996.
15.	 Arthurs GJ, Sudhakar M, Carbon dioxide transport. Contin
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San Rafael, CA: Morgan and Claypool Life Sciences; 2011.
17.	 OpenStax College. Anatomy and Physiology. Houston, Texas:
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18.	 Young K. Human Physiology, Creative Commons Attribution-
Share Alike 3.0 Unported License; 2013. Available from:
https://www.wikibooks.org.
19.	 Feher J. Quantitative Human Physiology: An Introduction. 2nd
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20.	 Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL,
Loscalzo J, et al. Harrison’s Infectious Diseases. New York:
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21.	 Cheng K, Zou C. Information models of acupuncture analgesia
and meridian channels. Information 2010;1:153-68.
22.	 Matacic C. Blood Vessel Attack Could Trigger Coronavirus’
Fatal ‘Second Phase’. Washington, DC: American Association
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23.	 Leonard J. 11 Natural Blood Thinners for Heart Health Blood-
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24.	 Sherman S. Could Your Food and Drink Choices Help Dissolve
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25.	 Beusekom MV. Autopsies of COVID-19 Patients Reveal
Clotting Concerns. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Infectious
Disease Research and Policy News; 2020.
26.	 Renero-C FJ. The thermoregulation of healthy individuals,
overweight-obese, and diabetic from the plantar skin
thermogram: A clue to predict the diabetic foot. Diabet Foot
Ankle 2017;8:1361298.
27.	 Freeman AL, Pendleton RC, Rondina MT. Prevention of
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Ther 2010;8:1711-21.
28.	 Cascio V, Hon M, Haramati LB, Gour A, Spiegler P,
Bhalla S, et al. Imaging of suspected pulmonary embolism
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2018;91:20170956.
29.	 Cheng, K. Distilled Liquors (60%-70% by Volume) Could
Cure Sore Throats Caused by Influenza; 2009. Available from:
https://www.upublisher.info. [Last accessed on 2009 May 19].
30.	 Cheng K. Biomedical Infophysics. Scotts Valley, USA:
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2012.
How to cite this article: Cheng K, Cheng V, Zou C.
Hemodynamics of Maintaining Transportation of All
Nutrients in Blood Flowing: Drinking (Boiled) Warm
Water and Complete Nutrition Fluids for Primary and
Secondary Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in
Clinic. Clin Res Hematol 2020;3(2):11-15.

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  • 1. Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 11 INTRODUCTION T he coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed more than 1.5 million and infected more than 65.8 million people in the whole world as of July 12, 2020.[1] Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is etiologic agent of COVID-19; the viruses invade the respiratory systems, lead to injuring the airway epithelium, alveoli (including pneumocytes), and pulmonary blood vessels. The injuries can cause pulmonary hemorrhages, edema, blood coagulation, clots, hemostasis, microthrombosis and RESEARCH ARTICLE Hemodynamics of Maintaining Transportation of All Nutrients in Blood Flowing: Drinking (Boiled) Warm Water and Complete Nutrition Fluids for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Clinic Kang Cheng1 , Vivien Cheng2 , Changhua Zou2 1 Department of Basic Medicine, Medical School, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao, P.R. China, 2 Biomedical and Biochemical Infophysics, Science Research Institute, Edison NJ 08817, USA ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed more than 1.5 million and infected more than 65.8 million people in the whole world as of July 12, 2020. The scientific research data show that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is etiologic agent of COVID-19. The virus invasion can damage alveolus capillaries. The wounds may cause the hemorrhage, coagulation, clots, and (or) thrombosis. The thrombi can block blood circulation completely or partially. Methods and Results: Based on our estimation with hemodynamics, the blood flow rate decreases about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height of the blood vessels decreases 10%. The complete or partial obstructions also slow down transportations of O2 , CO2 (conveying in red blood cells or plasma) and all nutrients in blood flows as well as increase risks of turbulence that can produce more thrombi, called “a vicious cycle” in hemodynamics. Therefore, fatal risks of ischemia or hemorrhage strokes as well as anemia increase. The viscosity of water is only 1/4–1/3 of that of human blood; drinking (boiled) warm water can decrease the viscosity as well as dissolve the blood clots to increase the blood flow and transportations of all nutrients without side effects. In addition, when people are (seriously) infected by COVID-19, they usually have fever, pulmonary hemorrhage or edema, and do not have much appetite to eat. Therefore, based on hemodynamics, we suggest drinking (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids, for easy digestion, energy supplementation, and primary and secondary preventions of blood clots (or thrombi) in clinic. Conclusions: The complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and increase strength of immune system. Drinking warm (boiled) water can directly compensate the loss of water and the heat, keep the blood volume and reduce the blood viscosity without side effects to prevent or cure blood clots or thrombosis caused by COVID-19. Therefore, it is very important to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids to maintain transportations of all nutrients in blood flowing for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic. Key words: Blood, Clinic, Clots, Coagulation, Coronavirus disease 2019, Hemodynamics, Hemorrhage, Ischemia, Nutrition, Prevention, Thrombosis, Transportation, Viscosity, Water Address for correspondence: Kang Cheng, Department of Basic Medicine, Medical School, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao, P.R. China. https://doi.org/10.33309/2639-8354.030203 www.asclepiusopen.com © 2020 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
  • 2. Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic 12 Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 inflammation, as well as macrothrombosis. Viral infection in areas of ongoing active injury contributes to persistent and temporally heterogeneous lung damage[2-6] that is very dangerous to human lives. Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine.ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial, and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space.[5,7] In our previous studies, we proposed models of complete nutrition therapy to prevent or cure strokes caused by sickle cell anemia, ischemia, or hemorrhage,[8] constipation and diarrhea,[9] and obesity.[10] In general, to normally ingest O2 , H2 O, and sunlight are the most basic to maintaining our daily lives; the ingestions are critical respectively every minutes, hours, and days. In our recent studies of preventing COVID-19 with mask- wearing, based on information theory as well as Newton’s and Fick’s laws, we proposed biomedical infophysical models of filtering ghost airflows of COVID-19 viruses and related infecting death rates and information at a human society level. Our models indicate that the infection is very dangerous in enclosed or confined spatial environments because the smaller the space, the higher the virus density; it is more dangerous in the environments with air conditioning systems or fans because the higher the wind level, the faster the virus velocity; the higher density or faster velocity of the viruses (droplets or airborne) will force people to inhale more viruses within the same time period. Therefore, we strongly suggested people to wear face masks for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic.[11,12] In this article, we mostly focus on theoretic analysis of human bloodcirculationsystematatissuelevelusinghemodynamics[13,14] and complete nutrition therapy (without side effects) for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic. METHODS Our theoretical analysis is based on published data[1-7,15,16] as well as theories of hemodynamics,[13,14] nutrition and physiology,[17-19] infection, and virus.[20] ANALYSING RESULTS A lung has two circulation systems: The hemodynamic for the blood flow and the aerodynamic for the air flow.[13,14] We mostlyfocusonthehemodynamicsysteminthisinvestigation. COVID-19 invasion leads to immune cells, such as macrophages or neutrophils, injuring alveolus walls, as well as killing the viruses[5,6] [Figure 1]. After containment of an injury, the tissue repair phase starts with removal of toxins and waste products. Clotting (coagulation) reduces blood loss from damaged blood vessels and forms a network of fibrin proteins that trap blood cells and bind the edges of the wound together. A scab forms when the clot dries, reducing the risk of infection. Sometimes a mixture of dead leukocytes and fluid called pus accumulates in the wounds.[17] The wounded walls may produce pulmonary hemorrhages, edema, blood clots, scabs, and (or) thrombi. The scabs, edema, or clots can decrease the exchange of O2 and CO2 by decreasing the effective interface area between the alveolus wall and air or increasing the thickness of the diffusion of O2 and CO2 . A normal blood flow [Figure 2a] can be partially [Figure 2b] or completely [Figure 2c] blocked by thrombi. Figure 1: Invading and injuring an alveolus in a lower respiratory tract by COVID-19 viruses, and transportations across a capillary and an alveolus. Alveolus RBC: Red blood cells; arrows denote moving directions.[17] We consider interstitial tissues between the blood vessels and alveoli as meridian channels.[21] The draw is not to the scale
  • 3. Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 13 The completely blocked blood vessels do not provide any transportation of the nutrition. The partially blocked blood vessels decrease the blood flow rates by narrowing the blood vessels, increasing the viscosity, or forcing the red blood cells (RBC) to have to flow in a side way or become severe deformed.[13] The both complete and partial obstructions can lead to decreasing transportations of O2 , CO2 (conveying in RBC or plasma), H2 O, and all nutrients in blood as well as increasing risks of turbulence that can produce more thrombi[13] and called “a vicious cycle” in hemodynamics.[22] Therefore, fatal risks of ischemia or hemorrhage strokes as well as anemia[17,18] increase. To further understand what happened “a vicious cycle” in blood flowing in hemodynamics, we introduce two models to quantitate the human blood flow rate Q (volume/time)[13] mathematically and physically. The human blood flow rate Q (volume/time) can be modeled with Poiseuille’s law (flow equation):[13,19] n a Q u ∝ (1) And 1 u T ∝ (2) Where u and T, respectively, denote viscosity and temperature of the blood; a and n, respectively, denote size and integer; for pulmonary capillaries: a = Height and n = 4; for other blood vessels: a = Diameter and n = 5. The flow speed of the RBC is usually faster than that of the blood.[13] Based on our estimation with hemodynamics, the blood flow rate decreases about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height decreases 10%; and the blood flow rate decreases about 10% when the blood viscosity increases 10%. The viscosity of water is only 1/4–1/3 of that of human blood.[13] Therefore, modeling equations 1 and 2 elucidate drinking more warm water can decrease the viscosity as well as dissolve the blood clots (or thrombi)[23,24] to increase the blood flow and transportations of all nutrients. When people are (seriously) infected by COVID-19, they usuallyhavefever,cough,pulmonaryhemorrhage,oredema,[5,6] and do not have much appetite to eat. Therefore, we suggested to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids, for easy digestion, energy supplementation, and blood clots prevention,[25] to prevent or cure COVID-19 in our previous studies.[11,12] We think the complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and increase strength of immune system; drinking warm water can directly compensate the loss of water and heat, reduce the blood viscosity, and maintain the normal flows of the blood and red cells, that is, maintain the normal transportations of O2 , CO2 (conveying in RBC or plasma), H2 O, and all nutrients, to prevent or cure COVID-19 [Figure 3]. By our observation, beef, pork, and chicken oils become waxy consistency(non-fluids:Highviscosities)orquasisolidwhentheir temperatures, respectively, reach about 25°C, 20°C, and 15°C;[10] but most consume plant cooking oils are still oil liquids (fluids: Low viscosities) when they reach about 4°C in refrigerators. Our body temperatures can be as low as 24°C in some parts, such as feet.[26] The thrombi can be formed in the veins, transported to the arteries, and they become emboli to block the arteries.[27,28] Therefore, we suggest to use vegetable oil or chicken soups with low viscosities and (or) low risks of blood clotting or thrombosis for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic. Based on theory of human physiology,[18] H2 O plays a very important role in maintaining human bodies’ homeostasis with bicarbonate buffer system; therefore, we think this is Figure 2: Blood flows in arteries: (a) normal; (b) partially blocked by thrombi; (c) completely blocked by thrombi.[13,14,17] The draw is not to the scale. c b a
  • 4. Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic 14 Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 one of reasons why or how drinking more warm (boiled) water is very helpful for primary and secondary preventions of almost all of the respiratory diseases.[10,29,30] We also believe, for primary and secondary preventions of COVID-19 in clinic, drinking more warm water is a similar solution to altitude sickness during hypoxia;[11,12] sipping distilled liquors, 60–70% by volume, 1 cc or ml/an hour (for adults only) is helpful too, according to our previous initial clinical trials of treating flu infection.[29,30] DISCUSSION We also believe that it is very helpful to clear the viruses that are on or in our bodies or upper respiratory tracts but have not enter our lower respiratory tracts or lungs by frequently cleaning (washing or gargling) our nostrils, tongue, throats, and mouths, for example, blowing our nose, sneezing, and spiting; washing hands, faces, eyes, and ears; and taking warm showers and deep breaths for primary and secondary preventions of respiratory infection diseases.[11,12] We believe our analysis results in this study are also applicable or helpful for primary and secondary preventions of other respiratory diseases in clinic. CONCLUSIONS In this article, we mostly focus on theoretic analysis of human blood circulation system at a tissue level using hemodynamics and complete nutrition therapy (without side effects) for primary and secondary preventions of COVID- 19 in clinic. We introduce two hemodynamics models to quantitate the human blood flow rate Q (volume/time) and to understand the principle that the relationships among blood flowing, blood viscosity, temperature of the blood, and blood vessels mathematically and physically. Our calculated data show that the blood flow rate decreases about 40% or 34% when the diameter or height decreases 10%; and the blood flow rate decreases 10% when the blood viscosity increases 10%. Our analyzing results show that drinking more warm (boiled) water can decrease the viscosity, dissolve the blood clots (or thrombi), increase the blood flow and transportations of all nutrients, as well as can directly compensate the loss of water and the heat, and keep the blood volume, to prevent or cure blood clots or thrombosis caused by COVID-19. The complete nutrition fluids can provide all nutrients to maintain human bio-energy for daily lives and increase Figure 3: Human bodies like human societies are open systems: They exchange information, energy, and matters with their environments.
  • 5. Cheng, et al.: Hemodynamics of blood flowing for preventions of COVID-19 in clinic Clinical Research in Hematology  •  Vol 3  •  Issue 2  •  2020 15 strength of immune system. Therefore, it is very important to drink (boiled) warm water and complete nutrition fluids to maintain transportations of all nutrients in blood flowing for primary and secondary preventions COVID-19 in clinic as well as for easy digestion. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Clinical Research in Hematology to invite us for publishing this original research article. Submitted: 12/14, 2020. REFERENCES 1. WorldHealthOrganization.COVID-19WeeklyEpidemiological Update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. 2. Ferner RE, Levi M, Sofat R, Aronson JK. Thrombosis in COVID-19: Clinical Outcomes, Biochemical and Pathological Changes, and Treatments. Oxford: The Centre for Evidence- Based Medicine; 2020. 3. Lax SF, Skok K, Zechner P, Kessler HH, Kaufmann N, Koelblinger C, et al. 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Sherman S. Could Your Food and Drink Choices Help Dissolve Blood Clots? Canada: Canadian Pharmacy Online; 2019. 25. Beusekom MV. Autopsies of COVID-19 Patients Reveal Clotting Concerns. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy News; 2020. 26. Renero-C FJ. The thermoregulation of healthy individuals, overweight-obese, and diabetic from the plantar skin thermogram: A clue to predict the diabetic foot. Diabet Foot Ankle 2017;8:1361298. 27. Freeman AL, Pendleton RC, Rondina MT. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in obesity. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2010;8:1711-21. 28. Cascio V, Hon M, Haramati LB, Gour A, Spiegler P, Bhalla S, et al. Imaging of suspected pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in obese patients. Br J Radiol 2018;91:20170956. 29. Cheng, K. Distilled Liquors (60%-70% by Volume) Could Cure Sore Throats Caused by Influenza; 2009. Available from: https://www.upublisher.info. [Last accessed on 2009 May 19]. 30. Cheng K. Biomedical Infophysics. Scotts Valley, USA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2012. How to cite this article: Cheng K, Cheng V, Zou C. Hemodynamics of Maintaining Transportation of All Nutrients in Blood Flowing: Drinking (Boiled) Warm Water and Complete Nutrition Fluids for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Clinic. Clin Res Hematol 2020;3(2):11-15.