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Name Enrollment No.
Patel Jimi 131100106029
Patel Viraj 131100106040
Patel Yash 131100106042
Shah Ashit 131100106051
DROUG...
 CONTENT
• DEFINITION
• TYPES OF DROUGHT
• CAUSES OF DROUGHT
• DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING
• AUGMENTATION OF WATER
• MEA...
 DROUGHT
• Drought Is Generally Defined As A Prolonged Period Of Time
During Which Precipitation Is Less Than 75 Percent ...
 TYPES OF DROUGHT
• These Has A Basically Four Types, Likes..
1. Meteorological Drought
2. Agricultural Drought
3. Hydrol...
i. METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT
• “It deacribes A situation where there is A reduction in rainfall below a specific
amount for s...
ii. HYDROLOGICAL DROUGHT
• Hydrological drought is associated with reduction of water.
• There are two type :-
 Surface w...
iii. AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT
• Agricultural drought are droughts that affect crop production or the ecology of
the rang.
• Ag...
iv. SOCIOECONOMIC DROUGHT
• When the supply of some Good & Services such as water and
Electricity are Weather dependent th...
 CAUSES OF DROUGHT
o Precipitation deficiency
o Dry season
o Mountains
• Mountains can prevent wind from blowing moisture to needy regions.
Rainy area
Area affected by Drought
Mount...
oErosion & Human Activities
• Human activities can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as..
• Over farming
• Excess...
oClimatic Changes
• Drought occur because water vapor is not brought by air current to the right
areas at the right time.
...
o Global warmings
• It will result in increased world rainfall along with drought in some areas,
flooding & erosion will i...
 DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING
• To provide contingency plans to manage drought and emergency conditions.
• To continue to...
o DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING ALLOW FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF :
• Mitigation
• Relief
• Rehabilitation
oDROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR
IMPLEMENTATION:
Overall drought policy, setting out plans objectives of minimizing the ...
• Drought monitoring by total rainfall levels and total usage levels
• Land use by carefully planned crop rotation
• Outdo...
• CONTINGENCY PLANNING DONE BY GOVT.
 POLICY ISSUES, NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT LEVEL
 RURAL DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUC...
 AUGMENTATION OF WATER
It includes methods for providing an entirely new supply of fresh water and
techniques for increa...
AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLIES INCREASED BY
CONSERVATION OF AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLIES.
• Agricultural water requirements can be r...
• Evaporation loss in ground water is less. Use of ground water storage reservoir in
conjunction with surface storage rese...
 MEASURES FOR WATER CONSERVATION
oGOALS OF WATER CONSERVATION EFFORTS INCLUDE:
• SUSTAINABILITY - ENSURE AVAILABILITY FOR...
oBENEFITS OF WATER CONSERVATION:
• SAVE WATER SAVE MONEY.
• REDUCTION IN EXCESS WATER USE REDUCE WASTE WATER GENERATION,
R...
oWATER CONSERVATION MEASURES BY:
• DOMESTIC CONSERVATION
• INDUSTRIAL CONSERVATION
• AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
DOMESTIC CONSERVATION
• Repair all leaks quickly
• Turn off water when not in use
• Use conserving appliance which use low...
INDUSTRIAL CONSERVATION
• Use cooling system which use less water.
• Reuse of cooling water for irrigation or other purpos...
AGRICULTURAL (IRRIGATION) CONSERVATION
• Improved irrigation methods such as sprinklers or drip irrigation.
• Water requi...
• Use of ground water storage reservoir in conjunction with modern surface storage reservoirs to
reduce evaporation loss, ...
o For conservation of water the following structures can be constructed:
• Earthen bund • Gully plugging
• Check
dam
• Khet Talawadi
 WATER HARVESTING
• Collection of rain water called water harvesting.
• Rainwater harvesting is accumulation and storing ...
BENEFITS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING
• Increase water availability
• Checks declining water table
• Environmental friendly
• I...
o RAINWATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUE
1. Rainwater Collection (Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting)
2. Runoff Collection (Surface Run...
 ROOF TOP RAIN WATER HARVESTING
• Rainwater captured from roof catchments and stored in sub surface ground water reservoi...
o COMPONENTS OF ROOF TOP RAINWATER HARVESTING
1) A Collection Area
2) A Conveyance System
3) Storage Facility
4) A Deliver...
 SURFACE RUNOFF HARVESTING
• Surface runoff harvesting is traditional technique.
• Small dams, ponds, tanks are used.
• U...
SMALL DAMS
• Small dams/check dams constructed in natural channel to impound the runoff water up to certain
depth.
• Impou...
PONDS AND RESERVOIRS
• Impounding type and dug-cut type ponds constructed.
• Impounding :- a retaining wall or dam is cons...
STORAGE TANK
• Surface or above ground tank
• Subsurface or underground tank
 Storage tanks require
• Solid secure cover
...
 RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER
• Pits • Trenches
• Dug well & Hand Pump • Recharge Well
 RUNOFF ENHANCEMENT
Can Be Done By Increase Precipitation.
Seeding Generally Done To Increase Precipitation.
Precipita...
METHODS FOR RUNOFF ENHANCEMENT
• Cloud Seeding
• Enhancement By Paved Surfaces.
• Surface Of Drainage Basin Effect On Run...
• Runoff Affected By Geology Of Drainage Basin. Pervious Soil Yield Less Runoff.
• Drainage Basin Has Larger No Of Natural...
 REFERENCE
• GOOGLE IMAGE
Drought management and water harvesting
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Drought management and water harvesting

  1. 1. Name Enrollment No. Patel Jimi 131100106029 Patel Viraj 131100106040 Patel Yash 131100106042 Shah Ashit 131100106051 DROUGHT MANAGEMENT AND WATER HARVESTING Guided by :- Prof. Manali Shah Prof. Uttejana Chaudhari
  2. 2.  CONTENT • DEFINITION • TYPES OF DROUGHT • CAUSES OF DROUGHT • DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING • AUGMENTATION OF WATER • MEASURES FOR WATER CONSERVATION • WATER HARVESTING
  3. 3.  DROUGHT • Drought Is Generally Defined As A Prolonged Period Of Time During Which Precipitation Is Less Than 75 Percent Of Average For A Given Year, Or Poor Distribution Of Precipitation In A Single Year Or Less Than Average Precipitation In Successive Years.
  4. 4.  TYPES OF DROUGHT • These Has A Basically Four Types, Likes.. 1. Meteorological Drought 2. Agricultural Drought 3. Hydrological Drought 4. Socioeconomic Drought
  5. 5. i. METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT • “It deacribes A situation where there is A reduction in rainfall below a specific amount for specific period (days, months, year).” • On an average India receives 118 cm annual rainfall which is considered to be highest anywhere in the world for the country of comparable size. • But the uncertain, unreliable & erratic nature of rainfall by south-west monsoon create a Drought condition in different parts of country.
  6. 6. ii. HYDROLOGICAL DROUGHT • Hydrological drought is associated with reduction of water. • There are two type :-  Surface water Drought o It is concerned with drying up of surface water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs etc etc…  Ground water Drought o It is associated with the fall in the ground water table.
  7. 7. iii. AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT • Agricultural drought are droughts that affect crop production or the ecology of the rang. • Agricultural drought links various characteristics of Meterological drought, Hydrological drought to agricultural impacts. • Focus on … Precipitation shortage Difference between actual & potential Evaporation Soil water deficits Reduce Ground water/reservoirs levels
  8. 8. iv. SOCIOECONOMIC DROUGHT • When the supply of some Good & Services such as water and Electricity are Weather dependent then Drought may cause shortages in supply of these economic goods.
  9. 9.  CAUSES OF DROUGHT o Precipitation deficiency
  10. 10. o Dry season
  11. 11. o Mountains • Mountains can prevent wind from blowing moisture to needy regions. Rainy area Area affected by Drought Mountain
  12. 12. oErosion & Human Activities • Human activities can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as.. • Over farming • Excessive irrigation • Deforestation • Erosion adversely imopacts.. • The ability of the land to capture & hold the water.
  13. 13. oClimatic Changes • Drought occur because water vapor is not brought by air current to the right areas at the right time. • Instead of blowing air from south to north, they blow east to west . when that happen, the water vapor does not leave the Indian ocean and many people suffer from the resulting drought.
  14. 14. o Global warmings • It will result in increased world rainfall along with drought in some areas, flooding & erosion will increase in others
  15. 15.  DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING • To provide contingency plans to manage drought and emergency conditions. • To continue to deliver a cost effective, adequate, safe and reliable supply of water. • The provision of credit or cash/food for work • Maintaining water supply for animals and humans • Maintaining cereal availability • Human and livestock health service provision • Support for private sector • Provide fodder for drought affected stock • Flexible taxation systems for affected people
  16. 16. o DROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING ALLOW FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF : • Mitigation • Relief • Rehabilitation
  17. 17. oDROUGHT CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR IMPLEMENTATION: Overall drought policy, setting out plans objectives of minimizing the impact of drought Set plans for specific mitigation, relief and rehabilitation measures Construction of dams and additional reservoirs for supply of water. Cloud seeding- artificial rain Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption.
  18. 18. • Drought monitoring by total rainfall levels and total usage levels • Land use by carefully planned crop rotation • Outdoor water use restriction • Rainwater harvesting • Recycled water • Relief works • Disease prevention and control
  19. 19. • CONTINGENCY PLANNING DONE BY GOVT.  POLICY ISSUES, NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT LEVEL  RURAL DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE  INPUT SUPPLY, MARKETING AND FARM ADVISORY SERVICES • NON- GOVT. NGO’S RURAL INSTITUTIONS PRIVATE SECTORS
  20. 20.  AUGMENTATION OF WATER It includes methods for providing an entirely new supply of fresh water and techniques for increasing utility of available supplies of water. New supply of water include weather modification. Weather modification done to increase precipitation and decrease evapotranspiration. Cloud seeding done to increase precipitation.
  21. 21. AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLIES INCREASED BY CONSERVATION OF AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLIES. • Agricultural water requirements can be reduced by reducing conveyance losses, and discouraging wasteful irrigation techniques. • Technique should be developed to reduce water consumption in home and industry. • Evaporation losses from small reservoirs can be reduced by providing roofs. • Reclamation and reuse of waste water can be encouraged.
  22. 22. • Evaporation loss in ground water is less. Use of ground water storage reservoir in conjunction with surface storage reservoirs. • Infiltration losses can be reduced by sealing the soil surface useful in arid regions. • Water harvesting done by collecting from roof top, pavements, constructing small storage.
  23. 23.  MEASURES FOR WATER CONSERVATION oGOALS OF WATER CONSERVATION EFFORTS INCLUDE: • SUSTAINABILITY - ENSURE AVAILABILITY FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS • ENERGY CONSERVATION - WORLD 15% ENERGY PRODUCTION DEPENDENT ON WATER MANAGEMENT. • HABITAT CONSERVATION - PRESERVE FRESH WATER HABITAT, MIGRATING WATERFOWL.
  24. 24. oBENEFITS OF WATER CONSERVATION: • SAVE WATER SAVE MONEY. • REDUCTION IN EXCESS WATER USE REDUCE WASTE WATER GENERATION, REDUCE OVERFLOWING OF GUTTER. • ECOSYSTEM AND HABITAT PROTECTION. • HELPS IN IMPROVING QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER.
  25. 25. oWATER CONSERVATION MEASURES BY: • DOMESTIC CONSERVATION • INDUSTRIAL CONSERVATION • AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
  26. 26. DOMESTIC CONSERVATION • Repair all leaks quickly • Turn off water when not in use • Use conserving appliance which use low volume water for domestic use • Local bodies should install water meter and encourage water pricing. • Only flush the toilet when needed
  27. 27. INDUSTRIAL CONSERVATION • Use cooling system which use less water. • Reuse of cooling water for irrigation or other purposes. • Install in plant treatment measures for treating the waste water or effluent.
  28. 28. AGRICULTURAL (IRRIGATION) CONSERVATION • Improved irrigation methods such as sprinklers or drip irrigation. • Water required for agricultural considerably reduced by reducing conveyance loss. • Infiltration losses reduced by sealing soil surface • Use of lined canals which reduce seepage and evaporation.
  29. 29. • Use of ground water storage reservoir in conjunction with modern surface storage reservoirs to reduce evaporation loss, in arid regions. • Price agricultural water to encourage conservation. • Evaporation losses from small reservoirs can be reduced by providing roofs over them.
  30. 30. o For conservation of water the following structures can be constructed: • Earthen bund • Gully plugging
  31. 31. • Check dam • Khet Talawadi
  32. 32.  WATER HARVESTING • Collection of rain water called water harvesting. • Rainwater harvesting is accumulation and storing of rainwater for reuse, before it reaches aquifer. • Water collected from roofs of houses, schools, local institutions make important contribution. • Water collected from ground, called storm water harvesting.
  33. 33. BENEFITS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING • Increase water availability • Checks declining water table • Environmental friendly • Improves water quality of ground water • Surface water runoff conservation • Prevents soil erosion and flooding in urban area • Improving plant growth by using rainwater for irrigation
  34. 34. o RAINWATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUE 1. Rainwater Collection (Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting) 2. Runoff Collection (Surface Runoff Harvesting) 3. Recharge To Ground Water 4. Runoff Enhancement
  35. 35.  ROOF TOP RAIN WATER HARVESTING • Rainwater captured from roof catchments and stored in sub surface ground water reservoir. • Objective :- To make water available for future use. • Useful in dry land, hilly, urban and costal areas.
  36. 36. o COMPONENTS OF ROOF TOP RAINWATER HARVESTING 1) A Collection Area 2) A Conveyance System 3) Storage Facility 4) A Delivery System • Storage reservoir expensive part, careful design and construction required. • First rainwater should be flushed or diverted.
  37. 37.  SURFACE RUNOFF HARVESTING • Surface runoff harvesting is traditional technique. • Small dams, ponds, tanks are used. • Used for irrigation, domestic, livestock use.
  38. 38. SMALL DAMS • Small dams/check dams constructed in natural channel to impound the runoff water up to certain depth. • Impounded water slowly infiltrate into soil and recharge ground water.
  39. 39. PONDS AND RESERVOIRS • Impounding type and dug-cut type ponds constructed. • Impounding :- a retaining wall or dam is constructed to block the flow of water in a natural storm. • Dug-cut :- area is excavated to store the runoff. • Reservoirs requires water storage area, spillways and earth embankment.
  40. 40. STORAGE TANK • Surface or above ground tank • Subsurface or underground tank  Storage tanks require • Solid secure cover • Coarse inlet filter • Overflow pipe • Manhole, sump and drain to facilitate cleaning • Outlet system, tap or pump
  41. 41.  RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER • Pits • Trenches
  42. 42. • Dug well & Hand Pump • Recharge Well
  43. 43.  RUNOFF ENHANCEMENT Can Be Done By Increase Precipitation. Seeding Generally Done To Increase Precipitation. Precipitation Can Be Increased By 10% By Cloud Seeding. Lumb Demonstrated That Increase In Annual Runoff (∆R) Due To Small Increase In Precipitation (∆P) Is Given By ∆R= ∆P (0.29+1.2 R/P) where, R= Mean Runoff P= Mean Precipitation
  44. 44. METHODS FOR RUNOFF ENHANCEMENT • Cloud Seeding • Enhancement By Paved Surfaces. • Surface Of Drainage Basin Effect On Runoff. Bare Surface Give More Runoff. • Drainage Basin Located On Windward Side Of Mountain Produce More Runoff.
  45. 45. • Runoff Affected By Geology Of Drainage Basin. Pervious Soil Yield Less Runoff. • Drainage Basin Has Larger No Of Natural Depressions, Which Deposited By Other Material Then Runoff At Basin Increases. • More Human Activity, More Load On Soil, Reduce Infiltration, Hence Increase Runoff.
  46. 46.  REFERENCE • GOOGLE IMAGE
  • ShrutiThakur32

    May. 3, 2019
  • tankhiren

    Jan. 6, 2017
  • yash_090

    Mar. 27, 2016

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