Strategies for Reaching Students at Risk of Failing
Strategies for Reaching Students at Risk of Failing“When students believe success is possible, they will try. If theydon’t believe they can succeed, it doesn’t matter how easy thematerial or how smart the students, they will fail.” - LouAnne Johnson, Teaching Outside the Box
Agenda ► Interventions ► Best Practice ► ArticleReviews and Dialogue v. Discussion ► Student Incentives
Interventions (10:00 – 11:00 am)“You never really understand a person until you considerthings from his point of view…until you climb inside of hisskin and walk around in it.” - Atticus Finch (Harper Lee), To Kill a Mockingbird
Do Your Failing Students Fit Any of These Descriptions? Are very disorganized, frequently Cannot monitor their own behavior. lose papers, don’t have signature, Laugh when they are disciplined. etc. Decide whether or not they will Bring many reasons why something work in your class, based on is missing or the paper is not done, whether or not they like you. etc. Tell stories in the casual register Don’t do homework. structure. Are physically aggressive. Don’t know or use middle-class Like to entertain. courtesies. Only see part of what is on the Dislike authority. page. Talk back and are extremely Only do part of the assignment. participatory. Can’t seem to get started (no procedural self-talk). - Ruby Payne, A Framework for Understanding Poverty
Hidden Rules Among Classes Read and Respond –What seems to be the disconnect and how can we re-connect?Poverty Middle Class► Money: To be used, spent. ► Money: To be managed.► Food: Did you have enough? – Quantity. ► Food: Did you like it? – Quality.► Clothing: Valued for individual style and ► Clothing: Valued for its quality and expression of personality. acceptance into norm or middle class.► Time: Present is most important. ► Time: Future most important.► Education: Valued and revered as abstract ► Education: Crucial for climbing success but not as reality. ladder and making money.► Destiny: Believes in fate. ► Destiny: Believes in choice.► World view: Sees in terms of local setting. ► World view: Sees in terms of national setting.► Love: Love and acceptance conditional, ► Love: Love and acceptance conditional and based upon whether individual is liked. based largely upon achievement.► Driving forces: Survival, relationships, ► Driving forces: Work, achievement. entertainment.► Humor: About people and sex. ► Humor: About situations. - Ruby Payne, A Framework for Understanding Poverty
Possible Explanations of Behaviors and Suggested InterventionsBehavior Related to Poverty Intervention► CANNOT FOLLOW DIRECTIONS: ► Write steps on the board. Have Little procedural memory used in them write at the top of the paper poverty. Sequence not used or valued. the steps needed to finish the task. Have them practice procedural self- talk.► EXTREMELY DISORGANIZED: ► Teach a simple, color-coded method Lack of planning, scheduling, or of organization in the classroom. prioritizing skills, not taught in poverty. Use the five-finger method for Also, probably doesn’t have a place at memory at the end of the period. home to put things so they can be Have each student give a plan for found. organization. ► Write on the board all the parts of► COMPLETE ONLY PART OF A TASK: the task. Require each student to No procedural self-talk. Doesn’t “see” check off each part when finished. the whole task. Show models of student excellence on same task. - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
I Understand…but Not All Failing Students are Living in Poverty“There are No Shortcuts. Be Nice. Work Hard.” - Rafe Esquith, Teach Like Your Hair’s on Fire
Relationships and Team Building 1) Calls on everyone in room equitably. 2) Provides individual help. Teacher Expectations & 3) Gives “wait” time. Student Achievement 4) Asks questions to give students clues (TESA) identified 15 about answer. behaviors that teachers 5) Asks questions that require more use with good students. thought. 6) Tells students whether their answers are right or wrong. The research study found 7) Gives specific praise. that when teachers used 8) Gives reasons for praise. these interactions with 9) Listens. low-achieving students, 10) Accepts feelings of student. their achievement made 11) Gets within arm’s reach of each student everyday. significant gains. 12) Is courteous to students. 13) Shows personal interest and gives - T. L. Good, Two Decades of Research on compliments. Teacher Expectations 14) Touches students (appropriately). 15) Desists (does not call attention to every negative student behavior).
A successful relationship occurs when emotional deposits are made, emotional withdrawals are avoided, and students are respected.DEPOSITS WITHDRAWALS Seek first to understand Seek first to be understood Keeping promises Breaking promises Kindness, courtesies Unkindness, discourtesies Clarifying expectations Violating expectations Loyalty to the absent Disloyalty, duplicity Apologies Pride, conceit, arrogance Open to feedback Rejecting feedback - Stephen Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People
Intervention Strategies :30 Speech ► Each of you will receive a piece of paper with an intervention strategy on it. Please take two minutes to read and consider the strategy. If you would like to write a reflection on the back, please do. Be prepared to share your thoughts. ► To find your partner; find a matching intervention. - Carolyn McKanders, CMU Center for Excellence
Teaching Outside of the Box: *How to Grab Our Students by Their Brains“Students don’t care what you know, they simply want to know that you care.” - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
Menu Assignments“Nothing more conclusively marks the well-educated person than the capacity to run one’sown brain, have clear self-insight, and followthrough on projects.” - Zemelman, Daniels, and Hyde, Best Practice
Student ConferencesMethod 1: Method 2:► What do I need to do? ► What does your► What do you need to current grade tell you? do? ► What do you like about► What do we need to class? do? ► What don’t you like about class? ► How would you improve class?
Significant Sheets► Great relationship You _____________________________ building exercise. Are significant because _______________► Everybody likes to hear ________________________________ nice things about ________________________________ them. ________________________________► Ifa student refuses, ________________________________ they must write four ________________________________ compliments to that ________________________________ student as an exit slip. ________________________________ - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
ELIMINATE THIS WORD! Stop thinking you can’t do things and start thinking you can. It’s important to eliminate negatives from your vocabulary, especially the word “can’t.” When you begin to think positively, you’ll find yourself attempting and succeeding at more things. Remember, by eliminating the negatives you’ll let the positives come through. - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
C- is Not Acceptable► Inthis classroom, you will do it over until it is right. - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
Not -7, but 7 Great Moments ► Expectation is to do the best your first time through. ► Focuses on where the student succeeded instead of where they failed. - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
Call the Culprit► “Begin calling students directly to discuss their behavior. In most cases these phone calls were much more effective than calls to parents, because the students were entirely responsible for their behavior. Often when the student behavior improved, I did call the parents – to tell them how much I enjoyed having their child in my class.” - LouAnne Johnson, Teaching Outside the Box
BANNED: “I don’t know.” ► New Response: “I’m sorry Mr. Schoenborn. I don’t know right now, please come back to me.” *They get tired of saying this. - J. Victor McGuire, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Power of Choice: An Exercise in Honesty► Instructions: Finish the two sentences. Just fill in the first thing that comes to your mind. This exercise is not graded. You do not have to turn it in. You will not be required to share your answers with anybody unless you volunteer, so don’t worry about being personal. I have to ________________________________________ I can’t___________________________________________ When you have completed the two sentences, put down your pencil or pen to let the instructor know that you are ready for the next step. - LouAnne Johnson, Teaching Outside the Box
The Power of Choice: An Exercise in Honesty cont.► Cross out have and replace it with choose. out can’t and replace it with don’t► Cross want to.
The Power of Choice: An Exercise in Honesty finish► After we have finished this exercise, take a few minutes to think about what you wrote. What was your first response? Did you change your mind after the discussion? How do you feel now about your sentences? If you would like to discuss this exercise privately with your teacher or instructor, make a note below, include your name, and turn in this worksheet before the end of the class. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
Dignity -Bob DylanFat man lookin in a blade of steel I went down where the vultures feedThin man lookin at his last meal I wouldve got deeper, but there wasnt any need Sick man lookin for the doctors cureHollow man lookin in a cottonfield Heard the tongues of angels and the tongues of men Lookin at his hands for the lines that wereFor dignity Wasnt any difference to me And into every masterpiece of literature for dignityWise man lookin in a blade of grass Chilly wind sharp as a razor bladeYoung man lookin in the shadows that pass House on fire, debts unpaid Englishman stranded in the blackheart windPoor man lookin through painted glass Gonna stand at the window, gonna ask the maid Combin his hair back, his future looks thinFor dignity Have you seen dignity? Bites the bullet and he looks within For dignitySomebody got murdered on New Years Eve Drinkin man listens to the voice he hearsSomebody said dignity was the first to leave In a crowded room full of covered up mirrors Someone showed me a picture and I just laughedI went into the city, went into the town Lookin into the lost forgotten years Dignity never been photographedWent into the land of the midnight sun For dignity I went into the red, went into the black Into the valley of dry bone dreamsSearchin high, searchin low Met Prince Phillip at the home of the bluesSearchin everywhere I know Said hed give me information if his name wasnt used So many roads, so much at stakeAskin the cops wherever I go He wanted money up front, said he was abused So many dead ends, Im at the edge of the lakeHave you seen dignity? By dignity Sometimes I wonder what its gonna take To find dignityBlind man breakin out of a trance Footprints runnin cross the sliver sandPuts both his hands in the pockets of chance Steps goin down into tattoo landHopin to find one circumstance I met the sons of darkness and the sons of lightOf dignity In the bordertowns of despairI went to the wedding of Mary-lou Got no place to fade, got no coatShe said she dont want nobody see me talkin to you? Im on the rollin river in a jerkin boatSaid she could get killed if she told me what she knew Tryin to read a note somebody wroteAbout dignity About dignity High Standards. High Results. No Excuses.
Best Practice ► English – Bud Kanyo 11:00 – 11:15 am ► Math – Scott Slancik 11:15 – 11:30 am ► Science – Jason McIntyre Lisa Poskey 12:30 – 12:45 am ► Soc. Studies – Josh Hicks Eric Beckman 12:45 – 1:00 pm
Innocent -Our Lady Peace Oh, and Tinas losing faith in what she knows Remember losing hopeOh, Johnny wishes he was famous hates her music hates all of her clothes Remember feeling lowSpends his time alone in the basement Thinks of surgery and a new nose Remember all the feelings and the dayWith Lennon and Cobain and every calorie is a war they stoppedA guitar and a stereo And while she wishes she was a dancerAnd while he wishes he could escape this We are, we are all innocent And that she’d never heard of cancerBut it all seems so contagious We are all innocent She wishes God would give her some answersNot to be yourself and faceless We are, we are... And make her feel beautifulin a song that has no soul We are, we are all innocent I remember feeling lowI remember feeling low We are all innocent I remember losing hopeI remember losing hope We are, we are... I remember all the feelings and the day theyAnd I remember all the feelings and the day stoppedthey stopped We are (one day), we are all innocent We are, we are all innocent We are all innocent (you’ll have to let itWe are, we are all innocent go) We are all innocentWe are all innocent We are, we are (you’ll have to let it go, We are, we are...We are, we are... no..) We are, we are all innocentWe are, we are all innocent We are all innocent We are (one day), we are all innocentWe are all innocent We are, we are... We are, we are (you’ll stand up on yourWe are, we are... own) One day, you’ll have to let it go We are, we are all innocent (you’ll stand You’ll have to let it go up on your own..) No... One day, you’ll stand up on your own We are, we are all innocent You’ll stand up on your own High Standards. High Results. No Excuses.
Article Reviews and Dialogue v. Discussion (1:00 – 2:00 pm) “It’s not the job of the teacher to save a child’s soul; it is the teacher’s job to provide an opportunity for the child to save his own soul.” - Rafe Esquith, Teach Like Your Hair’s on Fire
First Turn/Last Turn, Text Rendering, and Gallery Walk► Nine Powerful Practices – Ruby Payne► Turning On the Lights – Marc Prensky► Sustaining the Fire – Barbara Bartholomew► Reluctant Teachers, Reluctant Learners - Julie Landsman, Tiffany Moore, and Robert Simmons► The Wounded Student – Kristen Olson
“A-B” Each Teach► Ways of Talking: Dialogue v. Discussion► Usewith students during Student Conferences, Brainstorming, Debates, etc. - Carloyn McKanders, CMU Center for Excellence
Paraphrasing► Paraphrasing is one of the most valuable and least-used communication tools in meetings. Even people who naturally and skillfully paraphrase in one-on-one settings often neglect this vital behavior in group settings. Groups that develop consciousness about paraphrasing and give themselves permission to use this reflective tool become clearer and more cohesive about their work. - R. Garmston and B. Wellman, The Adaptive School
A Scaffold for Crafting Paraphrases - Laura Lipton and Bruce Wellman, Divergent Ideas, Compatible People► Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss the following using one of the three scaffolding techniques.► Discuss your feelings and experiences with trimesters thus far.
Think/Pair/Share ► For the next 60 seconds, I would like you to clear your mind…try to think of nothing…this is your moment of Zen. ► On a post-it note, please write comment about: ► How paraphrasing worked for you and how it may motivate students to succeed.
School Climate Survey - Sue Hoeft“All of us are smarter than one of us.” - Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat
We Can Work It Out -The BeatlesTry to see it my way, Try to see it my way,Do I have to keep on talking till I cant go on? Only time will tell if I am right or I amWhile you see it your way, wrong.Run the risk of knowing that our love may While you see it your waysoon be gone. Theres a chance that we might fall apart before too long.We can work it out,We can work it out. We can work it out, We can work it out.Think of what youre saying.You can get it wrong and still you think that Life is very short, and theres no timeits all right. For fussing and fighting, my friend.Think of what Im saying, I have always thought that its a crime,We can work it out and get it straight, or say So I will ask you once again.good night. Try to see it my way,We can work it out, Only time will tell if I am right or I amWe can work it out. wrong. While you see it your wayLife is very short, and theres no time Theres a chance that we might fall apartFor fussing and fighting, my friend. before too long.I have always thought that its a crime,So I will ask you once again. We can work it out, We can work it out. High Standards. High Results. No Excuses.
Student Incentives (2:00 – 3:00 pm)“Be secure in yourself and don’t obsess about what might go wrong. Just try things first and then fix the weak spots later.” - Zemelman, Daniels, and Hyde, Best Practice
Academic Incentives: Oak Park-River Forest HS► Students who seek out tutorial help will accumulate points they can cash in for compact discs, fast-food gift certificates, movie passes or clothes from the Gap.► Its not a bribe in exchange for a students time, administrators at the Oak Park school say. Rather, its a way of enticing students to work on problem subjects or learning skills, an incentive that eventually should be supplanted by each students own drive to achieve. - Chicago Sun-Times
Reading Incentives: Marietta HS – Georgia► Grades 9-12► Points Incentives► 50 Starbucks card► 75 Barnes and Noble card► 100 i-Pod Shuffle and Honor’s Night Recognition► 250 Principal’s Prize for the top reader with at least 250 points - http://www.mariettareads.org/incentives-9-12.asp
Marietta Reads!► The reading progress of our students is measured by the accumulation of Marietta Points. Marietta Points may be earned in a number of ways, including completing writing activities and/ or passing an Accelerated Reader computerized test with an 85% comprehension rate. Marietta Points will yield a single semester grade recorded by the students English teacher.► The target for 9th, 10th, 11th , and 12th graders is 15 Marietta Points per semester. All students who have reached or exceeded their reading requirement will receive their incentives that day in English classes.► In addition, a Reading Reward party for students who have earned 50 or more Marietta Points will be given at the end of the school year. All points for incentives are cumulative throughout the school year. There is no limit to the number of points that can be earned.
Group Roles / Brainstorm SessionGroup Roles (~3-4 members) Brainstorming Rules► Team leader: keeps people on ► Rule 1: Postpone and withhold task, assigns tasks (including your judgment of ideas. self), and monitors time.► Scribe: makes sure all criteria ► Rule 2: Encourage wild and is met and writes ideas gathered exaggerated ideas. from group.► Project Monitor: creative ► Rule 3: Quantity counts at this consultant who monitors stage, not quality. structure, visual effectiveness, and ► Rule 4: Build on the ideas put plagiarism avoidance. forward by others.► Wild Card: assists where needed, runner, and assumes ► Rule 5: Every person and every the role of absent members. idea has equal worth.
Brainstorming Session 1 (5 minutes) ► Discuss Extrinsic motivation listing the pros and cons of their usage.
Brainstorming Session 2 (5 minutes)► Discuss how extrinsic incentives could be earned and types of incentives.
Bringing It All Together: Hopes and Fears (10 minutes)► Thoughts on extrinsic incentives as academic motivators.
Student School Climate Survey - Sue Hoeft“Curious, passionate kids are self-educators and self-motivators.” - Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat
Purple Cows ☺ Use music as a timer. ☺ Place student names in story problems. ☺ Incorporate “Fun Facts”. ☺ Motivational quotes on assignments. ☺ Create nicknames. ☺ Use cell phone texts to gather data outside of school. ☺ iTunes session to connect musical lyrics to text. ☺ Brainteasers to promote recognition of patterns. ☺ Introduce ethics into lessons. ☺ PowerPoints + art + music = personal connections to concepts.
Better Not Look Down -B. B. KingIve been around and Ive seen some things You better not look down, if you want to keep on flyingPeople moving faster than the speed of sound Put the hammer down, keep it full speed aheadFaster than the speeding bullet Better not look back, or you might just wind up cryingPeople living like Superman You can keep it moving, if you dont look downAll day and all nightAnd I wont say if its wrong or if its right I was walking down the street at sunrise one morning,Im pretty fast myself in London, EnglandBut I do have some advice to pass along And there was a very large Rolls Royce limousine,Right here in the words of this song pulling slowly along the street And in that Rolls Royce was the queen of England,You better not look down, if you want to keep on flying looking tiredPut the hammer down, keep it full speed ahead Just go back from a party, and the queen leaned out and,You better not look back, or you might just wind up crying she said: "Arent you B.B. King?“You can keep it moving, if you dont look down She said: "Oh B.B., sometimes its so hard to pull things together. Could you tell me what you think I ought to do?“An old girl friend of mine showed up the other day And I said:That girl have lived in love and for love,and over love, and under love all her life You better not look down, if you want to keep on flyingIf the arrows from cupids bow that had Put the hammer down, keep it full speed aheadpassed through her heart had been sticking Better not look back, or you might just wind up cryingOut of her body she would have looked like a porcupine, You can keep it moving, if you dont look downAnd she asked me "B.B.do you think Ive lived my life all wrong?“ You better not look down, if you want to keep on flyingAnd I said: "The only advice I have to pass Put the hammer down, keep it full speed aheadalong is concealed in the chorus of this song", girl Better not look back, or you might just wind up crying You can keep it moving, if you dont look down High Standards. High Results. No Excuses.
Exit Slip:What Students Want from Teachers“Be careful. Everything you say, every single day, may be recorded in your students’ hearts forever.” - LouAnne Johnson, Teaching Outside the Box
Searching for Level VI: Six Levels of Moral Development
Intrinsic Motivation: Challenge► People are best motivated ► Set personally when they are working meaningful goals. toward personally ► Make attainment of goals meaningful goals whose probable but attainment requires uncertain. activity at a continuously ► Give enroute optimal (intermediate) performance level of difficulty. - Malone and Lepper (1987) feedback. ► Relate goals to learners self esteem.
Intrinsic Motivation: Curiosity► Something in the ► Stimulate sensory physical environment curiosity by making attracts the learners abrupt changes that attention or there is an will be perceived by optimal level of the senses. discrepancy between ► Stimulate cognitive present knowledge or curiosity by making skills and what these a person wonder could be if the learner about something (i.e., engaged in some stimulate the activity. learners interest). - Malone and Lepper (1987)
Intrinsic Motivation: Control► People have a basic ► Make clear the cause- tendency to want to and-effect control what happens to relationships between them. what students are doing - Malone and Lepper (1987) and things that happen in real life. ► Enable the learners to believe that their work will lead to powerful effects. ► Allow learners to freely choose what they want to learn and how they will learn it.
Intrinsic Motivation: Fantasy► Learners use mental ► Make a game out of images of things and learning. situations that are not ► Help learners imagine actually present to themselves using the stimulate their learned information in behavior. real- life settings. - Malone and Lepper (1987) ► Make the fantasies intrinsic rather than extrinsic.
Intrinsic Motivation: Competition► Learners feel satisfaction ► Competition occurs by comparing their naturally as well as performance favorably to artificially. that of others. ► Competition is more - Malone and Lepper (1987) important for some people than for others. ► People who lose at competition often suffer more than the winners profit. ► Competition sometimes reduces the urge to be helpful to other learners.
Intrinsic Motivation: Cooperation► Learners feel satisfaction ► Cooperation occurs by helping others achieve naturally as well as their goals. artificially. - Malone and Lepper (1987) ► Cooperation is more important for some people than for others. ► Cooperation is a useful real-life skill. ► Cooperation requires and develops interpersonal skills.
Intrinsic Motivation: Recognition► Learners feel satisfaction ► Recognition requires that when others recognize and the process or product or appreciate their some other result of the accomplishments. learning activity be - Malone and Lepper (1987) visible. ► Recognition differs from competition in that it does not involve a comparison with the performance of someone else.
Imagine -John LennonImagine theres no heaven Imagine no possessionsIts easy if you try I wonder if you canNo hell below us No need for greed or hungerAbove us only sky A brotherhood of manImagine all the people Imagine all the peopleLiving for today... Sharing all the world...Imagine theres no countries You may say Im a dreamerIt isnt hard to do But Im not the only oneNothing to kill or die for I hope someday youll join usAnd no religion too And the world will live as oneImagine all the peopleLiving life in peace...You may say Im a dreamerBut Im not the only oneI hope someday youll join usAnd the world will be as one High Standards. High Results. No Excuses.