Qed528 tg12 g5 pbl presentation


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Qed528 tg12 g5 pbl presentation

  1. 1. QED528 – PBL SCENARIO 3 TG 12 - GROUP 5 Ho Jia Wei Aaron Melissa Manuela Rama Shan Muhd Ashik B Mohd Daud Yeo Kee Sheng Yin Xiaohui
  2. 2. OUTLINE 1. Identifying the Problems 2. Applying and Solving the Problems • Learning Theories and Approaches • • • • • • Piaget and Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theories Downes and Siemen’s Connectivism Theory Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Bloom’s Taxonomy Bruner’s Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract Approach Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning • Skit • Summary 3. References
  3. 3. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS 1. Did not check students’ cognitive development • Assumed they were at a higher cognitive level of development • Started off with higher-order thinking questions • Had unrealistic expectations
  4. 4. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS 2. Lack understanding of students’ learning processes • Ineffective teaching pedagogies • Did not engage students’ prior knowledge • Use of pictures were insufficient to illustrate tsunamis • Did not alter her activities when students could not comprehend what she was teaching • Overwhelmed them with more information • Did not provide proper scaffolding, i.e. questioning techniques
  5. 5. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS We aim to help Ms. Rita… • Check students’ level of cognitive development • Understand students’ learning processes • Improve her teaching pedagogies …through the different learning theories.
  6. 6. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 1. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory • Concrete Operational Stage • Engaging in logical thought to solve concrete problems • Formal Operational Stage • Ability to solve abstract problems: Engage in hypothetical, analogical and deductive reasoning • Development is gradual and task-dependent • Application • Scenario 3: Students might be in either stage
  7. 7. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 2. Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory • Social and Cultural Variables • Language, shared beliefs, interactions with social circles • Zone of Proximal Development • Difference between a student’s current level development and potential level of development • Solving problems with support and scaffolding of • Application • Cannot assume that students knowledge about tsunamis have general/prior
  8. 8. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 3. Downes and Siemen’s Connectivism Theory • What is Connectivism? • Knowledge is networked and distributed • Connecting specialized information sets; Forming new neural, conceptual and external networks • Reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or database) • Needs to be connected to the right people in the right context
  9. 9. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 3. Downes and Siemen’s Connectivism Theory • Why Connectivism? • Behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism do not attempt to address organizational knowledge and transference • Connections that enable us to learn are more important than our current state of knowing
  10. 10. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 4. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Instructional event Internal process/purpose (i) Gain Attention Reception (ii) Inform Objectives Expectancy (iii) Recall Prior Knowledge Retrieval (iv) Present Stimulus Selective perception (v) Providing Learning Guidance Semantic encoding (vi) Elicit Performance Responding (vii) Provide Feedback Reinforcement (viii) Assess Performance Retrieval (ix) Enhance Retention and Transfer Generalization
  11. 11. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 4. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Ms. Rita believed she had planned her lesson properly. Use of videos and pictures to trigger thinking Use of questions to scaffold learning Use of higher-order thinking question
  12. 12. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 4. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Application Phases in which breakdown occurred Evidences Solutions (i) Gaining attention Assumed students’ prior knowledge and asked higher-order thinking question at the start of the lesson. Use K-W-L strategy to get students to construct meaning while watching video about tsunami.
  13. 13. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 4. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Application Phases in which breakdown occurred Evidences Solutions (ii) Recall of prior knowledge • Ms. Rita did not recap relevant prior knowledge • Ms. Rita dismissed any student’s limited/ undeveloped preconceptions Build upon the students prior knowledge of tsunami and have them share with each other and probe the students with basic knowledge questions
  14. 14. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 4. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Application Phases in which breakdown occurred Evidences Solutions (ii) Providing Feedback • Incompetence at elicit responses from students • Give discouraging and unconstructive feedback. Ms Rita should get students to think on what made them give the answers – right or wrong.
  15. 15. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 5. Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive skills • A classification system of learning objectives for students. • Many teachers may rely on this taxonomy to identify targeted skills of students at a variety of cognitive levels.
  16. 16. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 5. Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive skills Application Level Possible questions Remembering •What did you observe in the videos/pictures? •What is tsunami? Understanding •Identify some critical features of tsunami. Applying & Analyzing •How does a tsunami form? Evaluating •Compare and contrast tsunami and typhoon. Creating •How do the data support the occurrence in certain part of the world?
  17. 17. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 6. Bruner’s Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract Approach • Concrete Stage: • Exposed to a real-world context: • Videos on tsunami-formation or when tsunamis hit shores. • Physical manipulatives: • Mimic the occurrence of tsunamis using wave tanks. • Pictorial Stage: • Movements of a hand: • Representing various forces which can be caused by tectonic movements, volcanic activity or meteorite impacts. • Differences in tsunami size and strength. • Abstract Stage: • Not applicable • No symbols that represent geographical terms.
  18. 18. APPLYING AND SOLVING THE PROBLEMS 7. Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning • Integration of information across the senses to achieve a mental construction of the information • Information presented must be collaborative in nature • Application • Present content audio-visually with spoken words on picture slides to reduce cognitive overload of the visual stream • Presentation must be concurrent rather than sequential • Information must not be redundant but critical in defining concepts and match students’ abilities
  19. 19. Please sit back, relax and watch our skit!
  20. 20. SUMMARY Effective Teaching and Learning Engage student’s prior knowledge Cognitive Development (Piaget’s stage theory) Connectivism Understand student’s learning process Constructivism Use of teaching pedagogies Gagne’s 9 Events of instructions Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) Multi-modality approach Bruner’s CPA Bloom’s Taxonomy
  21. 21. REFERENCES Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing. New York: Longman. Arlin, P. K. (1977). Piagetian operations in problem solving. Developmental Psychology, 13, 297-298 Arlin, P. K. (1980). The Arlin test of formal reasoning. New York: Slosson Publishing Berk, L. E. & Garving, R. A. (1984). Development of private speech among low-income Appalachian children. Developmental Psychology, 20, 271-286 Bloom, B.S. and Krathwohl, D. R. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. NY, NY: Longmans, Green. Bloom, B. S., (Ed.). 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York: Longman. Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 293–332. Costa, A. L. (Ed.). (2000). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  22. 22. REFERENCES Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Joseph Boyle & David Scanlon. Methods and Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild Disabilities: A case-based approach. Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1998). Levels of expertise and instructional design. Human Factors, 40, 1–17. Keating, D. (1979). Adolescent thinking. In J. Adelson (ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 211-246), New York: Wiley Manfra, L. & Winsler, A. (2006). Preschool children’s awareness of private speech. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 30, 537-549. Marzano, R. J. (2000). Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual-processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 312–320.
  23. 23. REFERENCES Mayer, R. E., & Anderson, R. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 444–452. Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 389–401. Miller, P. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology. (4th Ed.) New York: Oxford University Press Niaz, M. (1991). Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A Neo-Piagetian analysis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(1), 19-40 Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1963). The child’s conception of space. London: Routledge and Paul. Quek, C. L., Wong, A. F. L., & Tay M. Y. (2008). Engaging and managing learners: Practitioners’ perspectives. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
  24. 24. REFERENCES Robert J. Marzano & Debra J. Pickering. (2006). Dimensions of Learning Teacher’s Manual (2nd Ed). Hawker Brownlow Education. Russell, D, and M Hunter (1976). Planning for Effective Instruction Lesson Design Los Angeles, Calif., Seeds Elementary School. Santrock, J. (1992). Children. Dubuque, IA: Brown/Benchmark Simens, G. (2010). "Connectivism", TEDxED Talks 2010. New York. Simens, G. (2008). "What is Connectivism?". Connectivism and Connective Knowledge MOOC. Canada: University of Manitoba. Simens, G. (2005). "Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age". Retrieved from http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm. Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A PractitionerResearcher Approach (An Asian Edition 2nd Ed.) Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd Witzel, B. S., Mercer, C. D., & Miller, M. D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(2), 121–131. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Vygotsky, L. (1993). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky, Vol. 2 (J. Knox & C. Stevens, trans.). New York: Plenum.