Landscape Aproaches: The place of Agroforestry, afforestation and reforestation in REDD+
Landscape Approaches: The Placeof Agroforestry, afforestation and Agroforestry reforestation in REDD+ Peter A Minang, Meine van Noordwijk and Valentina Robiglio ASB Partnership at World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Forest Day 5, Durban South Africa 04 December 2011 The Starting Point!!!! • Agroforestry, reforestation and afforestation constitute very relevant strategies for alleviating pressures on f forests t and significantly contributing to REDD+ co-benefits in a landscape approach to p pp REDD+.
Mosaic Landscapes in Indonesia and Kenya: The dominant Reality h d l Landscape Approaches• For Analyzing and • For Planning and Understanding Implementing REDD+ REDD+ • Jurisdictional • Drivers off Implementation deforestation beyond (Province- DRC; District- the forests Vietnam; Around protected Areas Areas, • Interactions at Community Forests- various scales- Kisagau, Kenya) Individuals, d dua s, “communities”, sub- • Bundled ecosystem national, national, services e.g. watersheds- global trade etc CARE Ulugurus in Tanzania
Discussion Point No. 1 No • Agroforestry Agroforestry, Afforestation and Reforestation can be part of REDD+ depending on the definition of forest in a given country Forest Definition Vs Agroforests Parameters: • Natural Forest TO logging Minimum tree crown TO into fastwood plantations = NO Deforestation cover between 10 and 30% • Most tree crop production d i Minimum tree height and agroforestry systems do between 2 and 5 m meet the minimum Minimum land area requirements of forest; between 0.05 and 1.0 hectare • Swiddening and shifting T Temporarily unstocked il t k d cultivation not a d i l i i driver of f areas (without time limit to deforestation, as long as the ‘temporarily’) remain fallow phase can be expected ‘forest’ as long as a forester forest to reach minimum tree thinks they will, can or height and crown cover; should return to tree cover conditions.
10% 20%6700 km2 = 2.8% of land area 36,000 km2 = 14.9% of land area 30% Implications of forest definition 1- A/R Uganda Zomer et al. 2008 69,300 km2 = 28.6% of land area
Discussion Point No. 2 No • Agroforestry can support programs to t control t l deforestation as a sustainable intensification strategyCan IC Intensification spare forests? ifi i f ? • Higher Yield = more food on same land area • Therefore sparing more land for forest conservation • Therefore potentially resolve i ll l Agriculture – REDD Rudel et al., 2009 al conflict?????
Reflections I: what does intensification mean? i ifi i ?• Increasing yield per hectare( possibly with increase costs in labour and capital inputs;• Increasing cropping intensity (i.e. two or more crops) per unit of land or other inputs (e.g. water); )• Change land use from low-value crops or commodities to high value market priced commodities (Pretty et al 2011) al. In the 1990’s loss of natural cover increased the amount of ‘low C‐ stock’/low economic value land; tree (crop) value land; tree (crop) planting was 28% of the loss of natural forest areaAfter 2000 planting of tree (crop)s equals 90% of concurrent loss of of concurrent loss ofnatural forest; the amount of low C‐stock/low economic value land decreases
Change in cereal production due to change in areaand yield Sub- Saharan Africa AsiaFood Security Benefits?
Carbon and Profitability- Column 3 C l Discussion Point No. 3 No• Increased production of timber and fuelwood on-farm and in rotational wood-lots can potentially reduce emissions from forest degradation especially in instances of restricted access to forests or limited supply in “open access” pp y p forests.
Trees, Trees timber and wood trends‘The proportion of trees on farms and in forests varies considerabl among countries, but aries considerably co ntries b t two trends seem almost universal in the tropics: -- the number of trees in forests is declining, and -- the number on farms is increasing’ FAO. 2005. FAO 2005 State of the World’s Forests World s Planted Forests from afforestation growing at 5 m ha Per year (FRA 2010) A growing on-farm domestic timber sector in Cameroon (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Kenya????)… 3.0 30 Millions m3 2.0 M 1.0 0.0 2000 2005 2010 Official production SSL informal production f l d Robiglio, V. et al. 2011. Once SSL production is included the Submitted to Small Scale overall value of national timber Forestry . production doubles! 18
Timber increasingly sourced from gyagricultural / non-forest units fallows, perennial crops and f ll i l d annual crops 19Discussion Point No. 4 No • Planting trees is not enough. An enabling legal and policy environment that guarantees tree rights and ownership, investments in and a market infrastructure for agroforestry and tree-based systems is necessary.
Intensification, multifunctionality andinvestments needed (1)i d d • Find mechanisms to• Intensification not reward agroforestry, d f t magic bullet- afforestation and Potentially counter reforestation for REDD environmental services• Multiple policy • Carbon sequestration instruments • Water quality Needed • Biodiversity•L d Landscape l level l conservation ti planning (Cross- • Adaptation (what sectoral) units units- how to measure?)Intensification, multifunctionality, policiesand investments needed ( ) d d d (2)• Rights and ownership of trees, carbon and land need to be addressed• Adequate market infrastructure needed for q timber, non-timber tree products y• Increase economic incentives for ecosystems services– Payments/ Rewards• Address technical aspects (pests, diseases, invasiveness, seeds and credit)• Address potentially dangerous trade-of challenges