Landscape Approaches to Climate Change in Forestry and Agriculture  Florence Bernard, Peter Minang, Meine van Noordwijk (A...
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Landscape Approaches to Climate Change in Forestry and Agriculture


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ASB Poster presented at Agriculture and Rural development Day in Cancún, Mexico

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Landscape Approaches to Climate Change in Forestry and Agriculture

  1. 1. Landscape Approaches to Climate Change in Forestry and Agriculture Florence Bernard, Peter Minang, Meine van Noordwijk (ASB Partnership, Nairobi, Kenya; the roles of agriculture and forestry in climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security andpoverty alleviation is a key condition for any initiative in developing countries. Key messages1. Compared to schemes currently under discussion for forest based emissions mitigation, whole landscape approaches to reducing emissions, using the full accounting scheme for Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU), will be challenging but at the same time more effective, efficient and equitable2. Trees outside forest, woody vegetation outside of institutionally defined forest and peatlands contain large amounts of carbon stocks that are excluded from current mitigation discussions within the UNFCCC3. The whole landscape approach could potentially enhance both adaptation and mitigation, especially for small holder farmers.4. Landscape approaches provide a platform for jointly Most tropical and sub-humid tropics lands are mosaics of interacting land uses that implementing both adaption and mitigation and hence benefiting are difficult to separate and are best considered as whole-landscapes. from dual finance to help meet multiple objectives REDD+ compared to a landscape approach through AFOLU Evolution of the scope of REDD since 2005 Case Study: Implications of the varied scope of REDD on RED: Reducing emissions from (gross) deforestation; only effectiveness in emissions reductions in Indonesia changes from forest to non-forest land cover types are Applying a range of RED (D) (++) rules to actual land use change data for 3 provinces in Indonesia yields results that depend on both the rules set and the definitions. Some included, and details depend very much on the operational combinations will see only 20% of the total net emissions while, for other combinations, definition of forest the gross emission counts exceed the net emissions of a whole landscape C accounting. REDD: RED and (forest) degradation, or the shifts to lower Emission estimates for three provinces with different RED(D)(++) rules and different forest carbon stock densities within the forest; details depend very definitions; (ton CO2-eq/(ha y)) REDD (gross much on the operational definition of forest . RED (gross emissions, from REDD+ (net REDD+: REDD and restocking within and towards forest (as emissions, only forest to lower emissions, from REALU (net from forest to C-stock forest or forest to any land emissions, all specified in the Bali Action Plan); in some versions REDD+ will Lampung non-forest) non-forest ) cover) changes) also include peatlands, regardless of their forest status; details definition A 2.55 3.14 3.14 still depend on the operational definition of forest . definition B 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.08 definition C 0.65 3.47 3.15 REDD++ = REALU: We propose a definition that includes Jambi REDD+ and all transitions in land cover that affect carbon definition A 1.60 4.95 4.95 storage, whether peatland or mineral soil, trees-outside-forest, definition B 4.95 4.95 4.95 6.58 definition C 6.17 6.57 6.56 agroforests, plantations or natural forest. It does not depend E.Kalimantan on the operational definition of forest . definition A 7.71 11.83 11.83 definition B 6.67 11.83 11.83 11.79 Land use is a significant (20-30%) contributor of global definition C 6.78 11.96 11.96 Forests definitions: A. Only undisturbed forest; B. Natural forest (undisturbed and logged-over forests); C. emissions. REDD as just a partial accounting of land use is Natural forest and agroforest (mixed tree-based systems) challenged by cross-scale issues such as additionality, leakage, and permanence. The way forward Trees on farms 1. Promoting high carbon stock land uses and reducing emissions from all land uses in a comprehensive manner Intermediate land uses such as Tree-based agricultural systems remains the best way to achieve global climate goals and can mitigate climate change, enhance resilience to climate sustainable development in developing countries. variability and improve food security and livelihoods. 2. Whole landscape approaches and accounting (AFOLU) is needed as a way of minimizing leakage and definition / eligibility questions that may hamper the implementation of REDD+, CDM and other mitigation options. 3. Targeting intermediate land uses such as agroforestry that address both climate change, food security and biodiversity is needed. 4. Cross-sectoral approaches are needed to enable landscape approaches