Women have fought to get equal rights, even in sports. Yet even today many are still discriminated against because of their gender. There are many stereotypes that women cannot play sports, yet they still do. Even today women still aren't treated the same way men are. A study was conducted by margaret Carlisle Duncan, Michael Messner, Linda Williams and Kerry Jensen to see how men and women were portrayed in sports. They noticed that commentators referred to men’s sports events as “the final four” and “the NCAA National Championship Game”. However on the other hand Women’s sports events were often referred to as “Women’s Final Four” and “NCAA Women’s national Championship game” we can see that instead of calling men’s sports event as “ Men’s Final four” its called “the final four”.
Througout the study it was noticed that there was a drastic difference between how men and women were referred to as in basketball and tennis. Women were called “girls” “ young ladies”. Men on the other hand were never called “boys” they were called “men”. This shows that the higher adult standards were given to the males and females were given the smaller role of a young girl. This clearly shows that women had very little power because usually adults have more power and by referring to males are Men it shows that they have more power. Commentators referred to women by their first names in tennis. However most men, except for men with color, were called out by their first AND last name, which indirectly states that men were given more respect then females. Also word that showed strength were used to describe men while women were described by words that portrayed weakness. For example words like frustrated, panicked, and vulnerable were used to describe females. And words such as big, strong, and brilliant were used for males.
There was even a difference between how male and female actions were describe. It was noticed that males “crash through” the defense, while females would be “moving against” the defense. When a female missed a shot it was because of lack of stamina or confidence. However when a male missed a shot it was because the opponent was really strong and talented.
In co-ed sports teams there were many “gender rules”. Many people think that women are weaker than men and therefore they were given these rules. For example in basketball women get 2 points per basket when men get only one. Even though this may look like its an advantage for females, many don’t see it that way. Many girls are more talented then boys in sports. And by setting rules such as these they are discouraged, they don’t get the chance to show how they actually play compared to men. And hardly anyone complaints about the differences between how men and women are treated in sports. For example Massachusetts youth soccer league put up a warning on the online registration that read: “note: if you are attempting to register a daughter, please be aware that Newton Youth Soccer is co-ed, but primarily boys” . If instead the note read: “Be aware that blacks are allowed, but the program is primarily white?” people would have taken the problem a lot more seriously.
Women can be just as good as men at sports. The only difference is that males have a stronger upper body strength. However with enough training and practice women can be just as talented at sports. Team players should be selected based on talent and ability not gender. There are many women in the world that are just as good as men at sports and in some cases even better. Michaela Hutchison was the first girl in US to win state high school wrestling title over boys. Germaine De Randamie was a kick boxer who knocked out Tom Wales who was a male boxer. Pamela Reed was a female who ran 300 mines without sleep. Dean Karnazes was a male who attempted to do it twice and failed. Billie Jean King was a girl who wanted to become a baseball player but instead became a tennis player. Bobby Rigs, former 3 times world champion, challenged her to a match thinking he could easily beat her. However she won 3 matches in a row with scores 6-4, 6-3, and 6-3. Katie Brownell played baseball and she struck out 18 batters, all of them boys. These are only a few of the many females who have shown that they have just as much talent as males do, so there should be no inequality between males and females.
The female triad is a syndrome which includes disordered eating habits, amenorrhea and osteoporosisWomen have a lot of energy and determination to excel especially when it comes to their weight goalsWomen tend to care a lot about how they look especially athletes they care a lot about their body and are very serious about weight gain to maintain a healthy and fit figureTo reach these weight goals women look upon eating disorders the first part of the female triad which eventually leads to the other parts which are amenorrhea and osteoperosisThe female triad also relates to social and cultural pressures on females in society – explain
Eating disorders usually occur when the individual is afraid of gaining weight and restrains their body from gaining any extra weight that any way of avoiding this becomes acceptable like starvation or forcefully throwing up after a mealExamples of eating disorders is: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge eating, and restraining oneself from eating certain foods particularly carbohydrates and fatsThere are psychological factors that lead to eating disorders and they include serious emotions, attitudes, and behaviors surrounding weight and food issues. Eating disorders are serious emotional and physical problems that can have life-threatening consequences and can also lead to death
Amenorrhea is the medical term for the absence of regular menstrual periods Amenorrhea usually occurs when a women is underweight, her body fat is too low, when there is poor nutritional practice or over exerciseTo make up for the calories burned while doing exercise, athletes need to consume enough calories as the amount of energy consumed must equal the amount of energy expended The female body should never descend to below 12 percent body fat if it does drop below 12 percent then it is not beneficial to good health causing illnesses, lack of physical ability and injuries with slow recoveryIt often has serious effects on bone density and calcium absorption and after a drop there are possibilities bone density levels do not go back to previous levels Female athletes can easily risk a facture or get osteoporosis which brings me to the last part of the female triad osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is the third and final component of the female triadIt is a bone disease which often occurs in poor menopausal women which is caused by poor bone densityBones break easily but heal slowly as there is a deficiency of calciumOther symptoms include: inability to concentrate, bloating chest pain and light headedness For a female athlete with osteoporosis, it would be extremely difficult to participate as there is a greater chance of broken bonesIt is required teenage female athletes consume 1,300 milligrams of calcium daily
Women in sport
Fatima Sultani, Sasen Efrem, Dimple Patel, Fahmeda Ahmed
The role of Women in sport is heavily affected by the sexist views of men .
What is sexism? sex·ism [sek-siz-uhm] noun Prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex11- "sexism". Oxford Dictionaries Pro. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries Pro. April 2010. Oxford University Press. 4 December 2011 <http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/sexism>.
During the 1800’s the role of women waspurely reproductive. They were heavilydiscouraged to participate in physicalactivity. Bloomers allowed them to participate in bike riding, without showing much skin, but they were ridiculed immensely. 1800’s (1849)
During the 1920’s women, such asNellie McClung fought to beconsidered “persons” and for theright to vote. Fanny Rosenfeld is one of Canada’s best athletes, placing second in the Amsterdam Olympics for the 800 yard race 1920’s (1928)
Marilyn Bell is the first person to swim across Lake Ontario after 20hrs and 57 minutes. She is one of the few women to receive 1950’s (1954) national attention.1952 Beauty Parade magazinestereotyping woman drivers.
Equal Pay Act of 1963 allowed American womento get the same amount of pay for the same jobas a man. Abby Hoffman became a world-class middle-distance runner and brought home 2 gold metals for Olympic 880- yard event. 1960’s (1963)“Title IX:"No person in the United States shall, onthe basis of gender, be excluded from participationin… education program or activity receiving Federalfinancial assistance”
Roberta Gibb battled tremendous sexism whilerunning the Boston Marathon in 1966. She wasuntrained but still finished in 3:20. It was not until the Summer Games of 1980 1980’s (1984) that women were allowed to participate in marathons.
Womens best times have improved by an annual average of more than2 minutes and 47 seconds compared with just 66 seconds for men. 1990’s (1999)
Badminton World Federation’sVision: To be the worlds best racquet sport in terms of administration, TV and spectator appeal and as a sport for people of all ages, skill level and cultural backgrounds. http://www.bwfbadminton.org/page.aspx?id=14873 The website (above) is used to show how many female members are part of this organisation Man make up most of this sport governing body( there are only two females in this corporation) Badminton receives low TV ratings
Women are still “allowed to wear shorts of long pants for religious reasons [but] must be worn under a skirt” (article) BWF(Badminton World Foundation) is accused of using skin and leg to sell the sport badminton to gain more TV ratings This picture is used to show what they council wants the uniform to be and what they are banning.
How Females are portrayed compared to men A study was conducted by Margaret Carlisle Duncan, Michael Messner, Linda Williams and Kerry Jensen Commentators referred to men’s sports events as “the final four” and “the NCAA National Championship Game”. women’s sports events were referred to as “women’s final four” and “NCAA women’s national Championship game”
Women were called “girls” “ young ladies” Men however were never called “boys” they were called “men” commentators referred to women by their first names in tennis, however most men, with the exception of men with color, were called out by their first and last name. For women words like “frustrated, panicked and vulnerable” were used. However for men words such as “big, strong, brilliant” were used
males “crash through" the defense, while woman would be "moving against" the defense When a female missed a shot it would be because of lack of stamina or confidence. However when a male missed a shot it was because the opponent was talented
Coed teams in basketball women get 2 points per basket when men get only one. hardly anyone complaints about the differences between how men and women are treated in sports. For example Massachusetts youth soccer league put up a warning on the online registration that read “Note: If you are attempting to register a daughter, please be aware that Newton Youth Soccer is co-ed, but primarily boys”
Michaela Hutchison was the first girl in us to win state high school wrestling title over boys. Germaine de Randamie was a kick boxer who knocked out tom Wales Pamela Reed was a female who ran 300 miles without sleep. Dean Karnazes was a male who attempted to do it twice but failed. Billie Jean King wanted to become a baseball player but instead became a tennis player. Who won against Bobby Rigs, former world champion. Katie Brownell played baseball. She struck out 18 batters, all of them boys.
How does this affect women? The sexist views of men affect the quality and success of females in sport Support and interest of others is needed in order for them to succeed and as a result not many talents are produced because of the lack of interest in women sport Women are discouraged by the views of men
The Female Triad A syndrome which includes disordered eating habits, osteoporosis and amenorrhea Women have a drive to excel(weight goals) To reach the weight goals, women look upon eating disorders which eventually lead to other parts of the triad Also related to the social and cultural pressures on females in society
Disordered Eating Eating disorders occur when the individual is afraid of gaining weight that any way of avoiding weight gain becomes acceptable There are different kinds of eating disorders Examples: Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and restrictions of different foods, particularly carbohydrates and fats Psychological factors also lead to eating disorders
Amenorrhea Absence of regular menstrual periods Occurs when woman is underweight, body fat is too low, not enough nutrients being consumed or over exercise Female body should never be below 12 percent body fat Often serious effects on bone density and calcium absorption Easily risk fractures and osteoporosis
Osteoporosis- It is a bone disease which often occurring in poor menopausal women- Women with this disease can break bones easily but healing process is slow- Lack of calcium- Symptoms include: Fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain, etc.- Athletes have a higher chance of breaking bones