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PERSONALITY DISORDERS
PRESENTED BY
RICHARD OPOKU ASARE
SAHS - UDS, TAMALE
asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 1
INTRODUCTION
The term personality refers to enduring qualities of an
individual that are shown in his ways of behaving in ...
INTRODUCTION
For instance, when you say of someone ‘She is a kind
woman but loses his temper easily’, you are describing
h...
INTRODUCTION
Personality disorders are chronic psychological
disorders that begin in childhood, or by early
adulthood at t...
INTRODUCTION
Personality disorder, also known as “character
disorder”, is the possession of one or more
personality traits...
INTRODUCTION
Personality disorder is not the same as mental
illness, so to speak. The symptoms of mental
illness are not c...
INTRODUCTION
These patients, as Nambi (2005) described, are
odd but not mad. It is worth mentioning that
personality disor...
DEFINITION – DSM-IV
A personality disorder is an “enduring pattern of
inner experience and behavior that deviates
markedly...
DEFINITION – Cont’d
A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in
which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of...
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
a) It is not a mental illness.
b) It is a maladaptive/rigid/pervasive/chronic beh...
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
e) It causes significant impairment in social or
occupational functioning.
f) It ...
HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS
DIAGNOSED?
In order to be diagnosed with a
personality disorder, an individual
must exhibit ...
HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS
DIAGNOSED?
a) These patterns of behavior must be chronic and
pervasive, affecting many diffe...
HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS
DIAGNOSED?
c) The pattern of behaviors must be stable across
time and have an onset that can...
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
•
Substance Abuse
•
Anxiety Disorders
•
Depression
•
Dissociative Disorders
•
Social Phobia
•
Post ...
CAUSES
GENES. Certain personality traits may be
passed on to us by our parents through
inherited genes. These traits are ...
CAUSES – Cont’d
Personality disorders are thought to be caused
by a combination of these genetic and
environmental influe...
RISK FACTORS
Although the precise cause of personality
disorders is not known, certain factors seem
to increase the risk o...
RISK FACTORS – Cont’d
2) Low level of education and lower social and
economic status
3) Verbal, physical or sexual abuse d...
SYMPTOMS OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
Symptoms of personality disorders are grouped
according to the types of the disorder. Ty...
TYPES OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
CLUSTER A (odd, eccentric thinking or
behavior)
1.Paranoid personality disorder
2.Schizoid ...
TYPES OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS – Cont’d
CLUSTER B (dramatic, flamboyant, erratic,
overly emotional or unpredictable thinki...
TYPES OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS – Cont’d
CLUSTER C (anxious, fearful thinking or
behavior)
1. Avoidant/Anxious personality ...
TYPES OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS – Cont’d
Others that are reserved for disorders that fall short
of specific criteria but st...
Paranoid personality disorder
•
Pervasive distrust (mistrust) and suspicion of
others and their motives.
•
Unjustified bel...
Paranoid personality disorder
•
Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening
situations as personal insults or attacks...
Schizoid personality disorder
•
Lack of interest in social or personal relationships,
preferring to be alone
•
Limited ran...
Schizotypal personality disorder
•
Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or
behavior.
•
Odd perceptual experiences, su...
Schizotypal personality disorder
•
Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to
others
•
“Magical thinking” — beli...
Antisocial personality disorder
•
Disregard for others’ needs or feelings.
•
Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases,
co...
Antisocial personality disorder
•
Aggressive, often violent behavior
•
Disregard for the safety of self or others
•
Impuls...
Borderline personality disorder
•
Impulsive and risky behavior, such as having
unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating
•
Unst...
Borderline personality
disorder
•
Intense fear of being alone or abandoned
•
Ongoing feelings of emptiness
•
Frequent, int...
Histrionic personality disorder
•
Constantly seeking attention
•
Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually
provocative t...
Histrionic personality disorder
•
Shallow, rapidly changing emotions
•
Excessive concern with physical appearance
•
Thinks...
Narcissistic personality disorder
•
Belief that s/he is special and more important
than others.
•
Fantasies about power, s...
Narcissistic personality disorder
•
Expectation of constant praise and admiration.
•
Arrogance.
•
Unreasonable expectation...
Avoidant personality disorder
•
Too sensitive to criticism or rejection
•
Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive
•
A...
Avoidant personality disorder
•
Extreme shyness in social situations and
personal relationships
•
Fear of disapproval, emb...
Dependent personality disorder
•
Excessive dependence on others and feels the
need to be taken care of.
•
Submissive or cl...
Dependent personality disorder
•
Difficulty starting or doing projects on his/her
own due to lack of self-confidence.
•
Di...
Obsessive-compulsive personality
disorder
•
Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules
•
Extreme perfectionism, res...
Obsessive-compulsive personality
disorder
•
Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of
excessive commitment to...
Passive-aggressive personality
disorder

These people procrastinate, do not perform
tasks adequately, and make excuses fo...
Passive-aggressive personality
disorder

Friends become angry and frustrated with
these people and often feel manipulated...
Passive-aggressive personality
disorder

Complains of being misunderstood or
unappreciated by others.

Envy towards thos...
Depressive personality disorder

These people are chronically unhappy, anhedonic,
and generally pessimistic.

Their live...
TREATMENT OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
Psychotherapy
Medications, e.g.,
antidepressants, antipsychotics,
mood stabilisers
C...
PSYCHOTHERAPY
Talk therapy
Insight therapy
Group therapy
Counseling therapy
asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 49
Medical treatment
•
Antidepressants. Antidepressants may be useful if
you have a depressed mood, anger, impulsivity,
irrit...
Coping skills for family members
If you have a loved one with antisocial
personality disorder, it’s critical that you also...
Medical treatment
•
Antipsychotic medications. These may be
helpful if symptoms include losing touch with
reality (psychos...
NURSING MANAGEMENT OF
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
KINDLY READ THE NURSING INTERVENTIONS
FOR THE VARIOUS PERSONALITY DISORDERS
FR...
ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH,
PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER
In the nineteenth century, the antisocial
perso...
ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH,
PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d
Antisocial personality disorder is a ...
ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH,
PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d
It is described by the DSM-IV-TR (200...
ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH,
PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d
Adults with an antisocial personality...
ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH,
PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d
New evidence points to the possibilit...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder may take the following
forms:
Intelligent/Creati...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– cont’d
They may pursue careers as shyster lawyers,
crooked politicians/business...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
Passive Psychopath: These individuals are very
inadequate who fail to a...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
They are withdrawn and have no purpose in life and
easily get themselves...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
They may be referred to as emotional masochists because
they would not r...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
Secondary psychopaths, who may feel
slight emotions of worry or guilt. ...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
Aggressive Psychopaths: These individuals are
easily prone to violent a...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
They act out their frustrations with the least
provocation and as a resu...
Types of Antisocial personality disorder
– Cont’d
They are always found in the courts for acts of
violent, deception and/...
Symptom criteria required for a diagnosis of
antisocial personality disorder
Being at least 18 years old
Having had symp...
Symptom criteria required for a diagnosis of
antisocial personality disorder – cont’d
Being irritable and aggressive, rep...
END OF LECTURE
THANK YOU
asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 70
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Personality disorders

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The term personality refers to enduring qualities of an individual that are shown in his ways of behaving in a wide variety of circumstances. It is the sum total of a person’s intellectual, emotional and volitional traits; and it is revealed by his appearance, behavior, habits and relationships with other people, which differentiate him as unique individual.

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Personality disorders

  1. 1. PERSONALITY DISORDERS PRESENTED BY RICHARD OPOKU ASARE SAHS - UDS, TAMALE asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The term personality refers to enduring qualities of an individual that are shown in his ways of behaving in a wide variety of circumstances. It can be defined as the sum total of a person’s intellectual, emotional and volitional traits; and it is revealed by his appearance, behavior, habits and relationships with other people, which differentiate him as unique individual. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION For instance, when you say of someone ‘She is a kind woman but loses his temper easily’, you are describing her personality. Thus, personality means a person’s qualities and character as seen by others. Every personality is unique. It develops as a reflection of the life experiences which shape the feelings and behaviour of the individual from the moment he is born. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Personality disorders are chronic psychological disorders that begin in childhood, or by early adulthood at the latest. They are pervasive, negatively affecting people’s work, family, and social lives, and causing a great deal of distress, discomfort, either for the affected people themselves, or for those who are around them. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Personality disorder, also known as “character disorder”, is the possession of one or more personality traits that deviates from the normal that they interfere with the individual’s well- being or adjustment to society and require psychiatric attention. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Personality disorder is not the same as mental illness, so to speak. The symptoms of mental illness are not continuous, but mostly episodic. The symptoms of personality disorders are continuous and start from adolescence or even before. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION These patients, as Nambi (2005) described, are odd but not mad. It is worth mentioning that personality disorder increases one’s vulnerability to mental illness and worsens the course and treatment response, especially in conditions like substance abuse, anxiety and depression. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 7
  8. 8. DEFINITION – DSM-IV A personality disorder is an “enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.” asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 8
  9. 9. DEFINITION – Cont’d A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and to people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social encounters, work and school asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 9
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS a) It is not a mental illness. b) It is a maladaptive/rigid/pervasive/chronic behavior. c) It is the possession of abnormal personality traits. d) It is a long lasting, most of the time life-long problem. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 10
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS e) It causes significant impairment in social or occupational functioning. f) It produces distress to the individual and others. g) His/her behaviour deviates from cultural standards. h) The behaviour is consistent over time. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 11
  12. 12. HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS DIAGNOSED? In order to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, an individual must exhibit symptoms that meet the diagnostic criteria established in the DSM-IV. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 12
  13. 13. HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS DIAGNOSED? a) These patterns of behavior must be chronic and pervasive, affecting many different aspects of the individual’s life, including social functioning, work, school and close relationships. b) The individual must exhibit symptoms that affect two or more of the following areas: thoughts, emotions, interpersonal functioning and impulse control. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 13
  14. 14. HOW ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS DIAGNOSED? c) The pattern of behaviors must be stable across time and have an onset that can be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood. d) These behaviors cannot be explained by any other mental disorders, substance abuse or medical conditions. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 14
  15. 15. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS • Substance Abuse • Anxiety Disorders • Depression • Dissociative Disorders • Social Phobia • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Schizophrenia asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 15
  16. 16. CAUSES GENES. Certain personality traits may be passed on to us by our parents through inherited genes. These traits are sometimes called temperament. ENVIRONMENT. This involves the surroundings one grew up in, events that occurred, and relationships with family members and others.asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 16
  17. 17. CAUSES – Cont’d Personality disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of these genetic and environmental influences. Your genes may make you vulnerable to developing a personality disorder, and a life situation may trigger the actual development. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 17
  18. 18. RISK FACTORS Although the precise cause of personality disorders is not known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering personality disorders, including: 1) Family history of personality disorders or other mental illness. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 18
  19. 19. RISK FACTORS – Cont’d 2) Low level of education and lower social and economic status 3) Verbal, physical or sexual abuse during childhood 4) Neglect or an unstable or chaotic family life during childhood 5) Being diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder 6) Variations in brain chemistry and structureasareor@yahoo.com ©2014 19
  20. 20. SYMPTOMS OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS Symptoms of personality disorders are grouped according to the types of the disorder. Types of personality disorders are grouped into three (3) clusters, based on similar characteristics and symptoms. However, many people with one personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 20
  21. 21. TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS CLUSTER A (odd, eccentric thinking or behavior) 1.Paranoid personality disorder 2.Schizoid personality disorder 3.Schizotypal personality disorder NB: It’s not necessary to exhibit all the signs and symptoms listed for a disorder to be diagnosed. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 21
  22. 22. TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS – Cont’d CLUSTER B (dramatic, flamboyant, erratic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking) 1.Antisocial/Psychopath/Sociopath/Dissocial personality disorder 2.Borderline personality disorder 3.Histrionic personality disorder 4.Narcissistic personality disorder asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 22
  23. 23. TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS – Cont’d CLUSTER C (anxious, fearful thinking or behavior) 1. Avoidant/Anxious personality disorder 2.Dependent personality disorder 3.Obsessive-compulsive/Anankastic personality disorder asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 23
  24. 24. TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS – Cont’d Others that are reserved for disorders that fall short of specific criteria but still demonstrate behavior that is consistent with personality disorders in general include: 1)Passive-aggressive personality disorder 2)Depressive personality disorder asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 24
  25. 25. Paranoid personality disorder • Pervasive distrust (mistrust) and suspicion of others and their motives. • Unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive him/her. • Unjustified suspicion of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others. • Hesitant or unwillingness to confide in others due to unreasonable fear that others will use the information against him/her. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 25
  26. 26. Paranoid personality disorder • Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal insults or attacks. • Angry or hostile reaction to perceived slights or insults. • Tendency to hold grudges/unforgiving of insults. • Unjustified, recurrent suspicion that spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful. • Argumentative; stubborn asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 26
  27. 27. Schizoid personality disorder • Lack of interest in social or personal relationships, preferring to be alone • Limited range of emotional expression • Inability to take pleasure in most activities • Inability to pick up normal social cues • Appearance of being cold or indifferent to others • Little or no interest in having sex with another person • Has no close friends or confidents, except close relatives asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 27
  28. 28. Schizotypal personality disorder • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or behavior. • Odd perceptual experiences, such as hearing a voice whisper his/her name, i.e., has ideas of reference. • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses. • Social anxiety and a lack of or discomfort with close relationships.asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 28
  29. 29. Schizotypal personality disorder • Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to others • “Magical thinking” — believing s/he can influence people and events with his/her thoughts. • Belief that certain casual incidents or events have hidden messages meant specifically for him/her/. • Paranoid thinking. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 29
  30. 30. Antisocial personality disorder • Disregard for others’ needs or feelings. • Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, conning others. • Recurring problems with the law. • Repeated violation of the rights of others. • Fails to plan ahead asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 30
  31. 31. Antisocial personality disorder • Aggressive, often violent behavior • Disregard for the safety of self or others • Impulsive behavior • Consistently irresponsible • Lack of remorse for behavior • Appear intelligent or charming asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 31
  32. 32. Borderline personality disorder • Impulsive and risky behavior, such as having unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating • Unstable or fragile self-image • Unstable and intense relationships • Up and down moods, often as a reaction to interpersonal stress • Suicidal behavior or threats of self-injury asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 32
  33. 33. Borderline personality disorder • Intense fear of being alone or abandoned • Ongoing feelings of emptiness • Frequent, intense displays of anger • Stress-related paranoia that comes and goes • Difficulty controlling anger • Assumes little responsibility for problems asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 33
  34. 34. Histrionic personality disorder • Constantly seeking attention • Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative to gain attention • Speaks dramatically with strong opinions, but few facts or details to back them up • Easily influenced by others or circumstances asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 34
  35. 35. Histrionic personality disorder • Shallow, rapidly changing emotions • Excessive concern with physical appearance • Thinks relationships with others are closer than they really are • Use repression to ignore unpleasant feelings, i.e., unconscious forgetting of events. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 35
  36. 36. Narcissistic personality disorder • Belief that s/he is special and more important than others. • Fantasies about power, success and attractiveness. • Failure to recognize others’ needs and feelings. • Exaggeration of achievements or talents. • Expects to be given preferential treatment over asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 36
  37. 37. Narcissistic personality disorder • Expectation of constant praise and admiration. • Arrogance. • Unreasonable expectations of favors and advantages, often taking advantage of others. • Envy of others or belief that others envy him/her. • Only concern with selfish pursuits. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 37
  38. 38. Avoidant personality disorder • Too sensitive to criticism or rejection • Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive • Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact • Social inhibition, timidity and isolation, especially avoiding new activities or meeting strangers • Has sense of inferiority complex asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 38
  39. 39. Avoidant personality disorder • Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships • Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule • Unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing. • Differ from schizoid personality disorder because s/he does desire friendship. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 39
  40. 40. Dependent personality disorder • Excessive dependence on others and feels the need to be taken care of. • Submissive or clingy behavior toward others. • Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for him/herself if left alone. • Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 40
  41. 41. Dependent personality disorder • Difficulty starting or doing projects on his/her own due to lack of self-confidence. • Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval. • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available. • Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 41
  42. 42. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder • Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules • Extreme perfectionism, resulting in dysfunction and distress when perfection is not achieved, such as feeling unable to finish a project because s/he doesn’t meet his/her own strict standards. • Desire to be in control of people, tasks and situations and inability to delegate tasks. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 42
  43. 43. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder • Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of excessive commitment to work or a project. • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects, i.e., difficulty throwing away of unnecessary items. • Rigid and stubborn. • Inflexible about morality, ethics or values. • Tight, miserly control over budgeting and spending money. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 43
  44. 44. Passive-aggressive personality disorder  These people procrastinate, do not perform tasks adequately, and make excuses for their behaviour.  They manipulate themselves into dependent positions and force others to become responsible for them. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 44
  45. 45. Passive-aggressive personality disorder  Friends become angry and frustrated with these people and often feel manipulated.  They deny unacceptable feelings by adopting the opposite attitude.  Unreasonably criticizes and scares authority. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 45
  46. 46. Passive-aggressive personality disorder  Complains of being misunderstood or unappreciated by others.  Envy towards those who are ahead of him.  They are pessimistic and generally lack self- confidence. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 46
  47. 47. Depressive personality disorder  These people are chronically unhappy, anhedonic, and generally pessimistic.  Their lives are usually described as lonely and sad.  They tend to feel hopeless and inadequate with frequent self-doubting.  Their personality traits are consistent with depressive symptoms. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 47
  48. 48. TREATMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS Psychotherapy Medications, e.g., antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilisers Coping skills for family members Hospitalization – in severe cases. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 48
  49. 49. PSYCHOTHERAPY Talk therapy Insight therapy Group therapy Counseling therapy asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 49
  50. 50. Medical treatment • Antidepressants. Antidepressants may be useful if you have a depressed mood, anger, impulsivity, irritability or hopelessness, which may be associated with personality disorders. • Mood stabilizers. As their name suggests, mood stabilizers can help even out mood swings or reduce irritability, impulsivity and aggression. • Antipsychotics. To treat any perceptual disturbances; reduce aggressiveness. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 50
  51. 51. Coping skills for family members If you have a loved one with antisocial personality disorder, it’s critical that you also get help for yourself. Mental health professionals with experience managing this condition can teach you skills to learn how to set boundaries and help protect yourself from the aggression, violence and anger common to antisocial personality disorder. They can also recommend strategies for coping. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 51
  52. 52. Medical treatment • Antipsychotic medications. These may be helpful if symptoms include losing touch with reality (psychosis) or in some cases if the person has anxiety or anger problems. • Anti-anxiety medications. These may help if the individual has anxiety, agitation or insomnia. But in some cases, they can increase impulsive behavior, so they’re avoided in some personality disorders. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 52
  53. 53. NURSING MANAGEMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS KINDLY READ THE NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR THE VARIOUS PERSONALITY DISORDERS FROM THE BOOKS FURTHER READING: Asare, R. O. (2010). Lessons in basic psychiatry and mental health nursing (Vol. 1). Kumasi: Frans Graphics. McMahon, E., & Weistein, E. (Eds.). (1995). Professional care guide: Psychiatric disorders. Pennsylvania: Springhouse Corporation. Nambi, S. (2005). Psychiatry for nurses. Bangalore: Jaypee Brothers. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 53
  54. 54. ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH, PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER In the nineteenth century, the antisocial personality was called moral insanity, and for most of the 20th century it was called psychopathy or sociopathy. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 54
  55. 55. ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH, PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d Antisocial personality disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which a person’s ways of thinking, perceiving situations and relating to others are abnormal and destructive. The disorder is characterised by maladaptive behaviour beginning in childhood. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 55
  56. 56. ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH, PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d It is described by the DSM-IV-TR (2000) as a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. This includes lying, stealing, truancy, vandalism, fighting, drug abuse, physical cruelty, academic failure, and early sexual activity. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 56
  57. 57. ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH, PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d Adults with an antisocial personality may not conform to social norms. They may fail to hold a job, to honour financial obligations, or to fulfill parental responsibilities. They may drive recklessly because they do not have any sense of guilt for the pain and suffering they inflict on others. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 57
  58. 58. ANTISOCIAL (AMORAL, DISSOCIAL, SOCIOPATH, PSYCHOPATH) PERSONALITY DISORDER – Cont’d New evidence points to the possibility that children often develop antisocial personality disorder as a result of environmental as well as genetic influence. The individual must be at least 18 years of age to be diagnosed with this disorder. The prevalence of this disorder is 3% in males and 1% from females, as stated in the DSM IV-TR.asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 58
  59. 59. Types of Antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder may take the following forms: Intelligent/Creative Psychopath: These individuals appear very creative and can be charming, lie with straight face, and talk their way out of trouble. They are irresistible, believe their own lies, extremely persuasive, talented, and also have the ability to manipulate well. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 59
  60. 60. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – cont’d They may pursue careers as shyster lawyers, crooked politicians/businessmen, or phoney evangelists or leaders of a congregation to sway their unsuspecting victims. They are also referred to as charismatic psychopaths. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 60
  61. 61. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d Passive Psychopath: These individuals are very inadequate who fail to adapt to the requirements of the society. They are cold, inept, passive and unresponsive. They hover around aimlessly in the community with no place to stay permanently. They may move from one place of residency to another without giving any serious attention to their behaviours. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 61
  62. 62. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d They are withdrawn and have no purpose in life and easily get themselves into petit stealing, usually landing them in the law courts. Depending on the assessment by the judge, they may be sent to the psychiatric hospital for further observations. They are, most at times, sacked from their occupations as a result of their careless and reckless behaviours. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 62
  63. 63. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d They may be referred to as emotional masochists because they would not respond to stress, punishment, or disapproval. Another strong trait is that they do not understand the meaning of words well, a condition called semantic aphasia. They have no life plan and are just breathing machines with no emotion, good or bad. They are also known as inadequate, immature, or primary sociopaths. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 63
  64. 64. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d Secondary psychopaths, who may feel slight emotions of worry or guilt. These are avid risk-takers, exposing themselves to more stress and danger than the average person, who play by their own rules. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 64
  65. 65. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d Aggressive Psychopaths: These individuals are easily prone to violent acts and demonstrate hostility to people. They may engage in criminal activities, yet fail to change their behaviour even after being punished for it. They may also violate the conditions of their release from lawful custody. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 65
  66. 66. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d They act out their frustrations with the least provocation and as a result do not have long lasting relationships. They have immensely strong sex drives, obsessing with sexual urges during their lives. They have also huge cravings, such as kleptomania or sadistic pedophilia, doing this almost solely for the “rush.” asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 66
  67. 67. Types of Antisocial personality disorder – Cont’d They are always found in the courts for acts of violent, deception and/or fraud. They are also referred to as the callous or distempered psychopaths. asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 67
  68. 68. Symptom criteria required for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder Being at least 18 years old Having had symptoms of conduct disorder before age 15, which may include such acts as stealing, vandalism, violence, cruelty to animals and bullying Repeatedly breaking the law Repeatedly conning or lying to others asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 68
  69. 69. Symptom criteria required for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder – cont’d Being irritable and aggressive, repeatedly engaging in physical fights or assaults Feeling no remorse — or justifying behavior — after harming others Having no regard for the safety of self or others Acting impulsively and not planning ahead Being irresponsible and repeatedly failing to honor work or financial obligations asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 69
  70. 70. END OF LECTURE THANK YOU asareor@yahoo.com ©2014 70

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