Resumen de-gramatica-inglesa


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Resumo de Gramática Inglesa

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Resumen de-gramatica-inglesa

  2. 2. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Contents: Present Tenses – Form and Use 3 Present Simple 3 Present Continuous 4 Present Perfect 5 Past Tenses – Form and Use 7 Past Simple 7 Past Continuous 7 Past Perfect 8 Future Time – Form and Use 9 Modals – Meaning / Use / Form 12 Passive Voice – Use and Form 14 Expressing Time and Place 15 Time prepositions and expressions 15 Place prepositions 16 Adjectives followed by prepositions – Form and Use 19 Verbs followed by prepositions – Form and Use 21 Prepositional verbs 21 Phrasal verbs 22 Making Comparisons – Form and Use 23 Formation 23 Use in sentences 24 Relative Clauses and Relative Pronouns – Form and Use 26 Bibliography 27 ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 2 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  3. 3. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Present Tenses – Form and Use PRESENT SIMPLE: ⇒ FORM: Present Simple is formed with the bare infinitive form of the verb: Example: I like You like We like They like We add –s in the third person singular – he / she / it. Verbs ending in o, s, ch, sh, x add –es: Examples: She likes She misses He goes She watches He wishes It relaxes Questions: Present Simple questions are formed with do and the bare infinitive form of the verb. Third person singular is formed with does and the bare infinitive form of the verb. Examples: Do you like…? Does he like…? Negatives: Present Simple negatives are formed with do not and the bare infinitive form of the verb. Third person singular is formed with does not and the bare infinitive form of the verb. Examples: I do not like… / I don’t like… She does not like…/ She doesn’t like… ⇒ USE / MEANING: We use the present simple to describe: Habitual actions: E.g.: He needs his computer every day. He never uses his calculator. Natural, scientific or permanent truth: E.g.: Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade. Personal facts: E.g.: We like working with computers. Frequency Adverbs are often used with present simple. They explain how often someone does an action, or something happens. always often; frequently usually; normally sometimes; occasionally rarely; hardly ever; seldom never – Note: The frequency adverb goes between the pronoun (I, she, he, etc.) or the person and the verb. Example: She always has classes at 8 o’clock in the morning. Frequency adverbs used with the verb be come after the verb. Example: Jim is usually late. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 3 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  4. 4. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 State verbs: some verbs are usually used in the present simple and not in the present continuous. Examples: hear see smell taste (often used with can) notice recognize believe feel (that) think (that) forget remember know mean suppose understand like love dislike hate want wish seem belong to contain matter PRESENT CONTINUOUS ⇒ FORM: Present Continuous is formed from the verb be +verb (bare infinitive) +-ing Example: I am relaxing. She is relaxing. We are relaxing. They are relaxing. Spelling: Verbs ending –e drop the –e when they add –ing. E.g.: like – liking. decide – deciding. Verbs with one syllable, ending in one vowel and one consonant, double the consonant when they add –ing. E.g.: sit – sitting. swim – swimming. Verbs ending –ie change –ie to –y. E.g.: lie – lying. tie – tying die – dying ⇒ USE / MEANING: We use the present continuous to describe Actions happening at the moment: E.g.: I am reading now. Note: with now and already and time phrases such as: at the/this moment; at the present moment; … Certain future: E.g.: They are arriving at 2 p.m.. Temporary habit: E.g.: She is studying computer languages this semester. Repeated annoying Actions: E.g.: My computer is always breaking down! Plans for a near future: E.g.: I can’t forget I’m having an important meeting with the director tomorrow. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 4 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  5. 5. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 PRESENT PERFECT Present Perfect Simple: ⇒ FORM: Have / Has + Past Participle (main verb): Example: I have decided to leave tomorrow. She hasn’t written to her mother yet. ⇒ USE / MEANING: Present perfect simple generally describes past events which are connected to the present: An event in the past but without a definite time. E.g.: Helen has bought a palmtop. We don’t know when this happened, and she still has got the palm top. There is no time expression. A state or repeated event lasting until the present, and still happening. There is a time expression, describing how long or how often something has happened. E.g.: I’ve lived here for ten years. I’ve often seen Jim with his laptop in the park. Explaining a present situation when an exact time is not mentioned: E.g.: What’s the matter? Why are you walking like that? I’ve hurt my foot. Experiences in the past when an exact time is not mentioned. E.g.: Have you visited any other countries? Yes, I’ve been to Italy and France. Completion: we often use the present perfect when we describe how many things are completed so far and an exact time is not mentioned. E.g.: Mary has read a hundred pages of her History book. Other common uses (with time expressions): ever / never: when we ask or talk about our experiences in life. E.g.: Have you ever eaten Japanese food? No, I’ve never eaten it. yet / already / so far We use yet in questions and negative sentences. It has a similar meaning to so far. We used so far in positive sentences. E.g.: Have you finished this book yet? No, I’m on page 56. How many pages have you read so far? I’ve read 56 pages. We use already to describe an action which happened before. E.g.: When are your classes going to start? They have already started. just is used to refer to a very recent event. E.g.: Cathy has just entered the room. Frequency adverbs: always / often. E.g.: He has always loved computer games. (a state) We have often visited Spain. (a repeated event) for / since : for describes a period of time. E.g.: Tom has worked here for three months. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 5 since describes when the period of time started E.g.: Tom has worked here since July 10th. Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  6. 6. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Present Perfect Continuous ⇒ FORM: Have / Has + been (Past Participle of be) + Present Participle (-ing): Example: I have been waiting here all morning. What have you been doing lately? ⇒ USE / MEANING: Present perfect continuous, like present perfect simple, generally describes past events which are connected to the present. The continuous form gives a number of different meanings: It can emphasize the length to time and action. E.g.: I have been waiting here all morning. (The person speaking isn’t happy with this situation!) It can emphasize that the action is recent. E.g.: You’re very dirty! What have you been doing? I’ve been fixing my bike. (This action is recent because we can see the result.) It can emphasize that the action is temporary. E.g.: I’ve been staying in a hotel for the past month. Common uses: Recent activities: E.g.: What have you been doing lately? I’ve been working a lot. James has been feeling ill for weeks. Continuing actions: E.g.: How long have you been studying English? He has been living in Barcelona for 3 years. Repeated actions E.g.: I have been phoning her for days, but she’s never at home. Time expressions with present perfect continuous E.g.: all day; all morning; … , for days; for ages; …; lately; recently Contrasts with present perfect simple: Present perfect simple often emphasizes that an action is finished, but present perfect continuous can emphasize that it is still going on: E.g.: I have written five letters. (Present Perfect Simple) The number stresses that the action is completed. I have been writing letters. (Present Perfect Continuous) This suggests that the writer has not finished. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 6 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  7. 7. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Past Tenses – Form and Use PAST SIMPLE: ⇒ FORM: Regular Verbs Past Simple regular verbs add –ed to the bare infinitive. Verbs ending in –e simply add –d. All persons have the same form. Example: I enjoyed the film. I entered in University. Irregular Verbs It is necessary to learn irregular forms. You have a list available in this anthology. Examples: eat – ate drink – drunk forget – forgot ⇒ USE / MEANING: We use the Past Simple to describe: Definite events in the past; a definite time expression can be used with these events. Examples: I enjoyed the film we saw last night. James bought a new computer two weeks ago. Habitual actions in the past. Example: Every day we got up early and went to the beach. PAST CONTINUOUS: ⇒ FORM: Present Continuous is formed from the verb be (past) +verb (bare infinitive) +-ing Examples: I was sitting by the door. You were laughing. He was sleeping. She was playing computer games. We were discussing an important topic. ⇒ USE / MEANING: Past continuous describes a continuing situation. This is often contrasted with a sudden event. Continuing situation They were doing a research work While he was waiting for the beginning of the class, Examples: Sudden event when the lights went out. he met a new classmate. Past continuous is used to describe a number of continuing situations, as background description. Example: The corridor was full of students. Some were talking, some were writing notes, and others were simply standing there. Everyone was waiting for the final grades to come out. It is also used to describe two continuing situations, which are happening at the same time. Example: While Jim was cooking, David was checking the news on the Internet. Time expressions: With Past Simple: two hours ago / in September / last week / at 6.00 / for 3 years With Past Continuous: While… / When… ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 7 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  8. 8. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 PAST PERFECT Past Perfect Simple: ⇒ FORM: Had + Past Participle (main verb): Examples: I had decided to leave tomorrow. She had left. They hadn’t eaten. ⇒ USE / MEANING: Past perfect simple is used when we need to make clear that one event in the past happened before another event in the past. Examples: Sue left at 7.00. We arrived at her house at 8.30. – When we arrived at Sue’s house, she had left. Note: it is not necessary to use past perfect simple just because an event happened a long time ago. We use past simple: E.g.: The Chinese built the great Wall over two thousand years ago. Common uses: With realise: E.g.: When I got home I realised I had lost my wallet. With verbs of thinking: E.g.: think, know, be sure, remember, suspect, understand, etc. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 8 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  9. 9. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Future Time – Form and Use We can refer to future time in English by using will / shall, be going to or by using present tenses. These forms don’t have all the same meaning, so it’s necessary to choose the most suitable one. Read the explanations that follow attentively: Will and Shall ⇒ FORM: Will future is formed with the infinitive without to. Shall is used in formal situations with I and we. Negative of will = won’t / Negative of shall = shan’t ⇒ USE / MEANING: Will describes a prediction or what we think will happen in the future. There is usually a time expression. We can use perhaps when we are uncertain, probably when we are almost certain, or definitely when we are certain: Examples: Perhaps it’ll rain tomorrow. In the next century, most people will probably work from home, using only the Internet. On the 10th June I will definitely not have classes. If they test the computer, they will find the malfunction. That’ll be John at the door. (This means that I suppose it is John.) Will is also used to express an immediate decision: Examples: I’ll take this bag. (Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future.) Be going to ⇒ FORM: Be going to future is formed with the verb be + going + the infinitive. ⇒ USE / MEANING: there are two very similar meanings: 1. Plans or intentions – It is a plan, so it may not happen: I’m going to do lots of work this evening. 2. Present cause – It is a prediction based on something we can see or know about. Look out! Those CDs are going to fall on the floor! Present Continuous with future meaning ⇒ FORM: Be +verb +-ing ⇒ USE / MEANING: We can use the present continuous to refer to the future when we talk about events which are arranged for the future. It is often used when we talk about social arrangements. Example: I can’t forget I’m having an important meeting with the director tomorrow. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 9 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  10. 10. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Future Continuous ⇒ FORM: will or shall +be + verb +-ing Example: This time tomorrow I’ll be eating lunch on the plane. (Note: shall is used in formal situations with I and we; it is considered to be restricted in British English and declining in use.) ⇒ USE / MEANING: Future continuous describes a temporary situation or activity in the future. We often use it when we compare what we are doing now with what we will be doing in the future. We usually use a time expression (e.g.: in five yeas’ time; tomorrow…) We also use the future continuous to describe something which will definitely happen because an arrangement has already been made. Example: We’ll be holding a meeting soon, so we can decide then. (This means that the meeting will happen anyway.) Future Perfect ⇒ FORM: will or shall +have + past participle (of the main verb) Example: By the time we get to the cinema, the film will have begun. ⇒ USE / MEANING: Future perfect describes a situation which has not happened yet. At a time in the future it will happen. Example: By the time we get to the cinema, the film will have begun. (This means that when we arrive at the cinema we can say, ‘The film has begun.’ We often use by or by the time.) It can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker: Example: You won’t have heard the explanation, of course. (This means that I assume you have not heard what has been explained.) Other ways of referring to the Future ⇒ Using the Present Simple: when we talk about events which are fixed and cannot be altered (they aren’t simply the wishes of the speaker); and when describing timetables. Examples: Jim’s presentation is at 11 a.m.. (Timetable; calendar reference) Our head teacher retires next year. (Fixed, unchangeable event). ⇒ Future time clauses: in a future time clause, we can refer to the future with the form of the present simple after a time word (e.g.: when, until / till, as soon as…); we can also use the present perfect, when we emphasize that an action is complete. Examples: When I see her again, I’ll tell her your news. (Present Simple) Please, wait here until Mrs. Seymour comes back. (Present Simple) As soon as we’re ready, we’ll phone you. (Present Simple) Let’s run home before it rains. (Present Simple) Hand in your paper as soon as you have finished. (Present Perfect) ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 10 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  11. 11. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 ⇒ Is / are to be: this form is used to describe formal arrangements: Example: All students are to meet in the school hall at 4 p.m.. ⇒ Be about to, be on the point of, be due to: Be about to and be on the point of refer to the next moment The President is on the point of resigning. Examples: The class is about to start. Be due to refers to scheduled times. Example: Students are due to deliver their research work on 24th November. Other future references: ⇒ Hope: this can be followed by either the present or future tenses. Examples: I hope it doesn’t rain tomorrow. I hope the exam won’t be difficult. ⇒ Other verbs followed by WILL: Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference. These include: think, believe, expect, doubt Examples: I expect the train will be late. I doubt whether the students will be on time. ⇒ Just / just about to: these expression can be used to express something on the point of happening: Example: Hurry up! The test is just starting! / The test is just about to start! ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 11 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  12. 12. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 MODALS – MEANING / USE / FORM Modal auxiliaries do not change their form – they do not have the third person present simple –s and do not form tenses. Modal auxiliaries are always followed by a verb infinitive (without “to”). The meaning of modal auxiliaries depends on the context they are used. Read the explanations that follow attentively: MEANING / FUNCTION MODAL AUXILIARY USE: EXAMPLES Ability can / can’t / cannot (Present) Sofia can speak French and English fluently. Can you lift a 19’’ monitor alone, Alice? Of course I can! could / couldn’t (Past) Jane could already swim very well when she was 9. Paul couldn’t play the guitar when he was 6. be able to (used instead of “can” to Will you be able to teach Joan how to play that game? (Future) form other tenses) Jim had never been able to dance so well before! (Past Perfect) Possibility or could Could I leave earlier? (Polite) - No, you can’t. May I leave earlier? (Very Polite) – Yes, you may. You won’t be allowed to go camping in summer if you fail. (Future) may / might (Present) Joan might go to Sweden next year. (It is possible) I may/might have some news for you next week. (Perhaps I will; it is uncertain) could (uncertainty, specially when refusing permission) Can I leave earlier, please? (Neutral) “You can’t go out tonight. End of discussion!”, his father pointed. allowed / not allowed to (used instead of “can” to form other tenses) (asking for, giving and can / can’t may Permission He could be stuck in the traffic… (Perhaps he is.) uncertainty used with be) (Present) might have/ may have/ could have + past participle (Past) must / can’t (Present) President Bush can’t win the next election. (It’s impossible.) He must be at an important meeting. (I’m sure he is.) She can’t be in Greece! I saw her today! (I’m sure she isn’t.) must have / can’t have + past participle (Past) Impossibility or Maria might/ may/ could have taken the bus. (It’s possible, perhaps she did.) Charles can’t have bought a new car. He is completely broken! (I’m sure he didn’t.) must / have to 1. When explaining that something is necessary: I must finish this information sheet before 8 p.m.. = I have to finish this information sheet before 8 p.m.. certainty Obligation 2. When describing official rules or any rule from an external authority: If the traffic lights are red, you have to stop. 3. Emphasis to show that an action is very important: You must be here by 8.00, or the bus will leave without you. mustn’t (describes something that is You mustn’t smoke in a gas station. forbidden) don’t have to (describes an You don’t have to turn on the central heating. It’s automatic. unnecessary action) had to / didn’t have to (used to express the past) ISEP-Preparatory Course | English When I was in kindergarten we had to wear uniform. Joseph didn’t have to do any homework yesterday. 12 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  13. 13. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 should / shouldn’t (Present) Advice: (I think) you should talk to your teacher about it. Opinion: I think the police shouldn’t be soft with criminals. Expectation: They should arrive at 10 a.m.. ought to / ought not to (Present) The same use as should / shouldn’t (more formal): The police ought not to be soft with criminals. had better (non-modal) (Present) Advice and In my opinion you’d better stay at home and rest. You look tired. We’d better not forget to turn off the computer! opinion Used in the past, they often describe a criticism: should have / shouldn’t have + past participle (Past) You should have worked harder! = ought to have / ought not to have You shouldn’t have eaten so much yesterday! + past participle (more formal) Asking, accepting can / will / would Can you help Joan? Sorry, I can’t/ Of course I can. (neutral) Will you wait a few minutes? (formal) and refusing Would you wait a moment, please? (formal) Asking for can / could / would Can you tell me the time we’re having exam? (neutral) Could you tell me…? (more polite) information Would you mind telling me…? (most polite) shall Shall I carry this suitcase for you? would Offering: Would you like a soft drink? Asking preferences: Do you prefer westerns or sci-fi films? would rather (+ verb infinitive) I’d rather watch a western today. would prefer (+ gerund / noun) Making an offer to I’d prefer watching a western. I’d prefer tea, please. will / will not = won’t I’ll be back in a few minutes. do something Offers and preferences Promises I won’t do anything silly, don’t worry! Requests can / could / would Can you turn on the lights, please? (neutral) Could you turn on the lights, please? (more polite) Would you mind helping me? (most polite) Suggestions shall / could Shall we go to the cinema tonight? We could go to the cinema. Other expressions used with this meaning: How about going to the theatre? Let’s go to the café. Why don’t we visit Joan next weekend? ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 13 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  14. 14. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Passive Voice – Use and Form USE: The passive structure is not a tense of the verb but a very common verb form; it has several uses and it is specially found in formal, scientific, technical and academic English. It can have a wide range of time references, either past, present, future or conditional. The most used passive tenses are present simple and continuous, past simple and continuous, present perfect simple, past perfect simple, will future, and future perfect. There are also present and past passive infinitives. The uses of the passive forms in English do not necessarily correspond to the uses in other languages. Some languages may use passive forms where English uses active forms and vice versa. Your written work will certainly be improved if you adopt this so-called “impersonal style” whenever appropriate, so pay attention to the following example and to the passive structure presented below. Example: “The advantages of computers as an aid in language learning can be demonstrated by a very simple experiment in the context of a school. Last year computers were used by a group of children in their English learning classes in a village’s primary school.” – the verbs in bold/italic are in the passive. FORM: Verb to be in the appropriate verb tense + Past Participle of the main verb in the sentence. Examples: Active: They play computer games everyday. (Present Simple) Passive: Computer games are played (by them) everyday. (Present Simple) Active: Last month people held a manifestation against the rise in taxes. (Past Simple) Passive: Last month a manifestation against the rise in taxes was held. (Past Simple) Active: Someone has brought that computer to be fixed. (Present Perfect) Passive: That computer has been brought to be fixed. (Present Perfect) Active: Someone is leaving a computer to be fixed next door. (Present Continuous) Passive: A computer is being left to be fixed next door. (Present Continuous) Verbs with two objects can be made passive in two ways (idiomatic passive) – it depends on the subject you want to emphasize. Examples: James was given a present. A present was given to James. Common verbs of this type: bring, give, lend, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, send, tell ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 14 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  15. 15. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Expressing Time and Place Time prepositions and expressions Years • in Parts of the day in 2005 in the morning Months in November in the afternoon Seasons in the autumn in the evening Centuries in the 21st • on Days • at Times at 4.00 Night Century at night • during • Calendar references Periods of time We say: We write: Dates • Day references on Thursday on my birthday at midday at midnight I didn’t feel nervous during the performance. the seventeenth of September 7th 7 September or September the seventeenth September September 7th are written DAY/MONTH/YEAR in British English: 07/09/2005 If TODAY is 29th October: tomorrow (30th October) the day after tomorrow (31st October) yesterday (28th October) the day before yesterday (27th October) this morning this afternoon tonight yesterday morning yesterday afternoon last night tomorrow morning • Periods of the day tomorrow afternoon tomorrow night • For For refers to a period of time: e.g.: I have lived here for two years. • Since Since refers to a point at the beginning of a period of time: e.g.: I have lived here since 2003. She has been waiting since 3.30. • Ago Ago refers to a point in the past: e.g.: We arrived four hours ago. She studied German for three years. I knew that ages ago! • Once Once refers to a state in the past: e.g.: Once Jim owned a motorbike. (He doesn’t own it anymore.) • One day One day can refer to PAST or FUTURE: e.g.: One day Kathy was walking in the garden when she met Brian. One day you will be successful computer science engineers! • Now Now refers to an exact moment, or a general state: e.g.: You have to finish… now! John used to study civil engineering but now he’s studying computer science. • Nowadays Nowadays is used when we generalize about the present: e.g.: Nowadays almost all types of jobs are dependent on computers. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 15 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  16. 16. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 • Then Then refers in the past to the following moment e.g.: We had a pizza in a nice restaurant, and then we went to the cinema. • Afterwards Afterwards can be used in the same as then is used: e.g.: We had a pizza in a nice restaurant, and afterwards we went to the cinema. • After When after is used there is an object (1) or a gerund (2): e.g.: (1) After dinner we went to the cinema. After that we went home. (2) After having dinner went to the cinema. After that we went home. • Later Later means at a later time: e.g.: Mr. Smith isn’t here at the moment. Can you come back later? • Until Until refers to the latest point in a period of time: e.g.: She waited for Alex until 6.00, and then she left. I’ll be here until the end of December. • By By means at a time before: e.g.: John studied the whole afternoon, so by 7.00 he was exhausted. (not exactly at 7.00, but not later than that time.) • At last We use at last when we are pleased that a long wait has ended: e.g.: At last Jane arrived! • In the end In the end describes the final result: e.g.: I studied a lot for maths but in the end I failed. • At the end At the end describes a point at the end of something: e.g.: At the end of the semester we’ll have exams. • On time On time means at the hour which was arranged: e.g.: The conference started exactly on time. • In time In Time means with enough time to do something: e.g.: We arrived in time to have a cup of coffee before the conference started. Place prepositions • in • inside • out • in and inside In generally describes things contained by something else. e.g.: There are some cups in that cupboard. We use inside to emphasize the idea of containing. e.g.: Luckily there was nobody inside the blazing house. Compare: Kate is in. (she's at home) Kate is out. (she's not at home) Kate is inside. (in the house, not outside in the garden) There are many expressions with in. This is a selection. a country a city street road mirror hole l crack hand armchair country hospital prison ISEP-Preparatory Course | English My parents are in Canada at the moment. My sister lives in Madrid. Jack lives in Garden Avenue. She was walking in the road, not on the pavement. Tony could see his face in the mirror. There was a hole in my shoe. Ellen had a bunch of flowers in one hand. She sat in an armchair. Paul and Mary live in the country, not in the city. Sally is ill, and is in hospital. Keith stole some money and ended up in prison . 16 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  17. 17. Grammar Summary • on Booklet GS1 • on On generally describes a thing on the surface of another thing. Don't leave your bag on the floor. Expressions with on. transport chair television wall injuries left/right side pavement • at • in • to There were few passengers on the plane l bus l train. She sat on a chair. What's on television l the radio this evening? Let's hang this picture on that wall. Tim cut his foot on a piece of glass. There's a cinema on the left. There are small houses on this side of the street. She was walking in the road, not on the pavement. • At and in are used to describe a person's position. • At describes position at a point or place. • In describes position in a place which has walls (like a building). lt is also used with cities and towns, etc. • The difference between at and in is clear in these examples: We met at the airport. (the place in general) We met in the airport building. (inside the building) I'll see you at the cinema. (the place in general) I'll see you in the cinema. (inside the building) • At and in are used with arrive. e.g.: We arrived in Prague. (the city) We arrived at Prague Airport. (the place • To is used with verbs of motion. e.g.: Last night we went to the cinema. • Expressions with • At There's a café at the end of the street. Do you sit at the front or at the back of the class? John isn't at school. He's at home. Mr King wasn't at work yesterday. at and to • To Could you take this letter to the post office? I sent a parcel to my sister. • above • over • above and over above means higher than. e.g.: You can see the top of the tower above the trees. over means higher than, but in the same position. e.g.: The alien spaceship hovered over the building. It also means across or covering. e.g.: There was a plastic sheet over the hole in the roof. There is a footbridge over the motorway. • below • under • below and under below means lower than. e.g.: From the mountain, I could see the lake below. under means lower than, but in the same position. e.g.: I keep my suitcase under my bed. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 17 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  18. 18. Grammar Summary • next to Booklet GS1 • next to and near Next to means exactly at the side of e.g.: Maria sits next to Paula. • near Near means close to. e.g.: Tom's house is near the sports centre. • by • • beside beside and by Beside means the same as next to e.g.: Maria sat beside Paula in the class. By means the same as near e.g.: There was a table by the window. He was standing by the door when his sister arrived. • opposite ISEP-Preparatory Course | English Opposite means exactly on the other side of a space: e.g.: There is a café opposite ISEP. 18 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  19. 19. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Adjectives + Prepositions – Form and Use Study these groups of ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONS. Sometimes other prepositions are possible. nice/ kind/ good/ generous/ mean/ stupid/ silly/ intelligent/ clever/ sensible/ (im)polite/ rude/ (un)reasonable OF someone (to do something): E.g.: Thank you. It was very nice / kind of you to help me dealing with this program. BUT: (to be) nice/ kind/ good/ generous/ mean/ stupid/ silly/ intelligent/ clever/ sensible/ (im)polite/ rude/ (un)reasonable TO someone: E.g.: My boss has always been very nice / kind to me. angry/ annoyed/ furious ABOUT something WITH someone FOR doing something E.g.: I’m really annoyed about my Internet server! It’s running too slowly. I’m furious with you, John, for not keeping up with the timetable! I hope you’ll hurry up; otherwise I’ll look for another web designer. delighted/ pleased/ satisfied/ disappointed WITH something E.g.: They are delighted with the incredible tasks their computer is able to accomplish. surprised/shocked/ amazed/ astonished AT/ BY something E.g.: My teacher was really surprised at my research work about the History of Computers. excited/ worried/ upset ABOUT something E.g.: Some people are worried about what might happen if technological development surpasses human control. afraid/ frightened/ terrified/ scared OF someone/something E.g.: People needn’t be frightened of technological improvements, but some are. proud/ ashamed/ jealous/ envious/ suspicious OF someone/something E.g.: I’m very proud of my son! He has just become an engineer in Computer Science. aware/ conscious OF something E.g.: Are you conscious of what a hacker can do? good/ bad/ excellent/ brilliant/ hopeless AT (doing) something E.g.: A good professional in computing must be brilliant at solving any kind of problems in that area. impressed BY/ WITH someone/something E.g.: I’m really impressed with/by the Internet world! famous/ responsible FOR something E.g.: A hacker was responsible for breaking the codes in our company system and for the loss of thousands of important files. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 19 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  20. 20. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 different FROM someone/ something E.g.: An HP-DeskJet 840C printer is very different from an HP Office Jet R45 printer. similar TO something E.g.: This monitor is very similar to the one I had before, but it offers a much sharper image. interested IN something E.g.: I’m interested in knowing more about the new Microsoft products. capable/ incapable OF something E.g.: JavaScript is capable of making pages jump, move, and respond to a site visitor’s input. full/ short OF something E.g.: He’s short of money, so he won’t be able to renew his software. tired OF something E.g.: I’m tired of waiting for you to work out the problem in that disk drive; I’ll look for another technician. keen ON something E.g.: Young people are keen on picking up all kind of music in Internet sites. crowded WITH (people…) E.g.: The conference room was crowded with experts in computing. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 20 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  21. 21. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Verbs + Prepositions – Form and Use Study this list of PREPOSITIONAL VERBS Verbs + Prepositions Examples: • To accuse of He was accused of cheating on the exam. • To advertise for That student wants to advertise for selling his old computer. • To aim at The new educational measures aim at improving the learning/teaching system. • To apologise for (+ing) James apologized for having been rude to his classmate. • To apply for At the end of their degree, students will apply for a job. • To approve of She didn’t approve of him working till midnight. • To blame for Sometimes students blame the system for their bad results. • To beg for The baby is begging for his parents’ attention. • To believe in Adults usually don’t believe in fairy tales. • To belong to That book belongs to Joana, not to Miguel. • To borrow from Miguel has borrowed this book from Joana. She lent it to him two weeks ago. • To care for It is very important to care for the environment. • To congratulate on The professor congratulated his students on their results. • To complain about / of He is always complaining about having long classes. • To concentrate on You should concentrate a little more on your work. • To consist of (be made of) Bolognaise sauce consists of minced beef, onion, tomatoes, garlic and seasoning. • To consist in (be based on) The beauty of Porto consists in the life by the Douro river and in the downtown. • To convince about He was trying to convince me about the importance of having another digital camera but I didn’t buy it. • To crash into / against John crashed into his neighbour’s garage last night. He made quite a damaged! • To depend on Every working machine depends on a power supply to keep on working. • To dream of / about James dreams of having a new and more powerful laptop. He dreamt about it last night. • To fight for There still are many people around the world that have to fight for their freedom. • To happen to Jane happened to have been present when the car crash occurred. • To hear about / of I heard about the launching of Garcia Marquez’s new book. I heard of it last on the news. • To hinder from He is hindering his iPod from his younger brother. • To insist on They insisted on offering me a new cellular phone. • To listen to He is listening to music, so he can’t hear the phone ringing. • To live on He will live on the memory people have of him.. • To look at I love looking at the stars. • To object to I don’t object to the adoption of a new book, but I prefer this one. • To pay for He is paying for the mistakes he made in the past. • To refer to You have to refer to Babbage’s work when writing about the History of computers. • To rely on Not always can you rely on technology. • To search for He is searching for information on network typologies. • To separate from Some people separate their private life completely from their professional activities. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 21 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  22. 22. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 • To speak to She doesn’t speak to Michael about politics. • To spend on She spent a lot of money on books. • To talk to I’m talking to you, please, listen to what I’m saying. • To think of / about John was thinking about his last summer holidays in Japan. He is thinking of travelling to India for the next holidays. • To wait for They have been waiting for their teacher since 2 p.m.. • To write to Paul is writing to his mother asking for a new mobile phone. Study this list of PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal Verbs Meaning: • To account for To justify • To ask for When you make a request • To back up To save; to make a copy of a file or computer program / To agree with what someone is saying • To be done for To be broken, damaged • To be up / over To end • To break off To interrupt • To bring about To lead to something, to cause something to happen • To bring in To introduce • To carry out To conclude, to accomplish something • To come across To meet or to find unexpectedly • To get over To recover from an illness or problem • To go on To continue • To go up To rise, to ascend • To lay off To fire someone • To make out To understand an idea after considering some evidences • To take on To accept something • To switch off To disconnect • To switch on To connect • To take to To dedicate to doing something • To turn on (a light or the heating) • To turn off (the radio, the TV, the computer / the lights) • To work out To plan, organize • To write out Write in full ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 22 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  23. 23. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Making Comparisons – Form and Use Formation The regular comparative and superlative forms of descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs) are shown below: 0. Words of one syllable add the ending –er (in the comparative) and –est (in the superlative). Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative Adjectives new old big newer older bigger newest oldest biggest Adverbs soon late sooner later soonest latest 1. Words with three or more syllables are preceded by more and most. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative Adjectives interesting convenient beautiful more interesting more convenient more beautiful most interesting most convenient most beautiful Adverbs easily carefully more easily more carefully most easily more carefully 2. Adjectives with two syllables may be like 1 or 2 above in that they will add the ending –er (in the comparative) and –est (in the superlative) if they end in –y or –ly, -ow, -le and –er. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative -y tiny speedy tinier speedier tiniest speediest -ly early friendly earlier friendlier earliest friendliest -ow shallow narrow shallower narrower shallowest narrowest -er clever cleverer cleverest 3. Most of the remaining two-syllable adjectives take more (in the comparative) and most (in the superlative) in front of them. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative careful careless boring awful complex more careful more careless more boring more awful more complex most careful most careless most boring most awful most complex ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 23 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  24. 24. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 4. Some common two-syllable adjectives can have either type of formation. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative common commoner/ more common commonest/ most common gentle gentler/ more gentle gentlest/ most gentle quiet quieter/ more quiet quietest/ most quiet 5. Two-syllable adverbs ending in –ly take more and most. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative careful careless boring awful complex more careful more careless more boring more awful more complex most careful most careless most boring most awful most complex 6. A small number of adjectives and adverbs have an irregular comparative and superlative form. Examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative Adjectives bad far good many worse further/ farther better more worst furthest/ farthest best most Adverbs badly far little much well worse further/ farther less more better worst furthest/ farthest least most best Use in sentences Comparisons may show equivalence, non-equivalence, the highest degree of something, and parallel increase. 0. Equivalence: the following words/constructions are used to show that things or people are similar in some way. as … as as many … as as much … as the same … as similar to the same are similar equal to is like similar/ ly equal/ ly compared to/ with each either all both … and alike Examples: 0. Here, the term ‘processor’ is equivalent to the central processing unit. 1. Laptops are as powerful as microcomputers. 2. Some companies have as many computers as employees. 3. Some companies are both disks and conventional filing systems for storing data. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 24 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  25. 25. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 1. Non-equivalence: the following words/constructions are used to compare or contrast things or people that are separate from each other. not as … as … -er than more … than fewer than less… than greater than not as many … as not as much … as not equal to unequal / ly unlike not the same as not all Examples: 0. Learning to use a computer is not as difficult as learning to program 0. A fax board costs less than a fax machine. 0. Unlike factory-sealed software, pirated versions may contain viruses 0. You can save money with a network because you will need fewer printers. 2. The highest degree: the following words/constructions are used to compare one member of a group with the whole group (superlative). the … -est the most … the least… Examples: 0. This is the most popular package on the market today. 1. BASIC is the least difficult programming language to learn. 2. The best programs are those adapted specifically to your own needs. 3. Parallel increase: the following words/constructions are used to show parallel increase (two comparatives). the … -er, the more… the more …, the …-er thet… -er, the less… Examples: 0. The more memory your computer has, the more data it can store. 0. The bigger your computer system, the less time you spend waiting. 0. The more training you give to your employees, the better they will perform. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 25 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  26. 26. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses 0. 0. 0. 0. A geek is a computer expert who is extremely intelligent and devoted to his profession. The computer (which / that) you bought has got a large hard disk capacity! Bill Gates, who is the main responsible for the development of Microsoft’s products, is one of the richest men in the world. Internet, which is an extraordinary source of information, is used by almost everyone around the world. Relative Pronouns: WHO (subject) WHOM (object; obligatory after a preposition) WHICH – refers only to things THAT – refers to things and people WHOSE (possession) – refers to both things and people Defining Relative Clause It is essential to the meaning of the sentence; it defines the subject. It is not between commas. E.g.: The girl who was sitting next to you in the English class is very nice. Contact Clause: The relative pronoun may be omitted if it is not the subject of the relative clause: E.g.: They didn’t have the computer program I wanted. When the preposition is entirely independent from the verb, it always precedes the relative: E.g.: The speaker asked a question to which I didn’t know the answer. The relative pronoun that can only be used in defining relative clauses instead of who, whom, which. A preposition can never be placed before the relative that: Defining relative clauses occur both in spoken and in written English. Non-Defining Relative Clause It gives additional information, which is not necessary to the grammatical sense of the sentence; It is enclosed by commas; The relative pronoun cannot be omitted; The relative pronoun that can never be used; The preposition governing the relative is usually placed just before the relative and not at the end: E.g.: He promised to support my position, for which I was profoundly grateful. Non-defining relative clauses are rarely used in spoken language, but are quite used in written English. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 26 Ana Barata | 2006-2007
  27. 27. Grammar Summary Booklet GS1 Bibliography: Eastwood, John. 1992. Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford University Press. Hewings, Martin. 1999. Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press. Vince, Michael. 2003. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan Heinemann. Vince, Michael. 1998. Intermediate Language Practice. Macmillan Heinemann. ISEP-Preparatory Course | English 27 Ana Barata | 2006-2007