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How diverse are the stories we watch?

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How diverse are the stories we watch?

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TV, cinema and media in general are incredibly homogeneous.
You can't be what you can't see...
And we know that diverse teams are more performant and more creative.
So which initiatives exist to portray the world as it really is?

TV, cinema and media in general are incredibly homogeneous.
You can't be what you can't see...
And we know that diverse teams are more performant and more creative.
So which initiatives exist to portray the world as it really is?


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How diverse are the stories we watch?

  1. 1. Because it’s 2016
  2. 2. My father’s dream was to be a professional pilot
  3. 3. Yet, it never occurred to me to be one until I saw this picture First full female crew flying on Ethiopian airlines
  4. 4. Brunei crew landing in Saudi Arabia where women are not allowed to drive Or this one
  5. 5. You can’t be what you can’t see
  6. 6. We live in a diverse world • In terms of gender, race, religion, sexual orientation…
  7. 7. Humanae project
  8. 8. If the World were 100 people • 50 would be female 50 would be male • 26 would be children 74 adults, 8 of whom would be 65 and older • 60 Asians 15 Africans 14 people from the Americas 11 Europeans • 49 in rural and 51 in urban • 33 Christians 22 Muslims 14 Hindus 7 Buddhists 12 people who practice other religions 12 people who would not be aligned with a religion • 83 would be able to read and write; 17 would not • 7 would have a college degree • 22 would own or share a computer
  9. 9. African countries are actually the most diverse
  10. 10. And UK is one of the most diverse countries in Europe
  11. 11. London is among the 10 most diverse cities in the world
  12. 12. And yet this diversity is not to be found in the media
  13. 13. Who makes TV? Who is allowed on TV? “Diversity in the modern world is more than just skin colour. It’s gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, social background, and – most important of all, as far as I’m concerned – diversity of thought.”
  14. 14. Spike Lee: it is easier to become a black president of the US than a black studio head
  15. 15. 14 Table 18 Television & Digital Distributor Inclusion Index be celebrated for increasing the overall inclusion scores at these companies. However, true inclusion not only involves films about a specific racial/ethnic group. Inclusion also requires integrating characters from multiple underrepresented backgrounds across an entire slate of films. Note: The networks included per company are as follows: 21st Century Fox (Fox, FX, FXX); CBS (CBS, Showtime); NBC Universal (NBC, USA, Bravo, Syfy, E!); The CW; The Walt Disney Company (ABC, Freeform, Disney, Disney Jr.); Time Warner (HBO, Cinemax, TBS, TNT, Adult Swim); Viacom (BET, Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite, Teen Nick, TV Land, Spike, VH-1), Amazon, Hulu, and Net- flix. Across these channels and platforms, 305 prime time and digital shows were evaluated. COMPANIES ON SCREEN PORTRAYAL BEHIND THE CAMERA 21st Century Fox % OF FEMALE CHARACTER INCLUSION % OF UR CHARACTER INCLUSION % OF FEMALE CREATORS % OF FEMALE WRITERS % OF FEMALE DIRECTORS NORM NBC Universal The Walt Disney Company 36% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 26% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 7% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 25% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 39% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 14% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 29% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 19% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 70% 13% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 25% 13% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 20% 33% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 25% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 6% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 17% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 13% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 15%Time Warner Viacom Amazon Hulu Netflix 37% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 27% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 32% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 39% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 17% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 31% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 32% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 18% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 38% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 18% BARELY INCLUSIVE (1) 5% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 10% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 26% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 21% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 70% 65% 50% 25% 65% CBS / Showtime 38% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 25% PARTIALLY INCLUSIVE (2) 22% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 26% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 15% NOT INCLUSIVE (0) 20% The CW 28% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 47% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 30% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 40% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 40% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 50% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 47% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 35% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 34% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 40% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 40% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 28% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 44% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 28% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4) 43% LARGELY INCLUSIVE (3) 45% FULLY INCLUSIVE (4)
  16. 16. “On TV, men speak, women listen.”
  17. 17. All male panels
  18. 18. Every Single Word blog • The premise is simple: to illustrate the paucity of screen time and speaking roles for people of color in film, Marron picks a film, and then splices all of those scenes together in a YouTube supercut.
  19. 19. 2015 Where We Are On TV DIVERSITY OF REGULAR CHARACTERS ON PRIMETIME SCRIPTED TELEVISION Straight 96% (846 characters) LGBT 4% (35 characters) GLAAD’s annual Where We Are on to change based on programming METHODOLOGY LGBTQ representation in US TV
  20. 20. LGBTQ representation in US TV
  21. 21. 5 GLAAD found that 16% (145) of regular characters on broadcast programming will be Black, the highest percentage since GLAAD began compiling comprehensive racial data 11 years ago. However, Black women remain significantly underrepresented with only 59 of those characters being female. This year, 43% of regular characters on primetime broadcast programming are women, which is an increase of three percentage points from last year but still greatly underrepresents women in the population. For the first time in two years, the percentage of regular characters depicted as living with a disability on broadcast programming has dropped, down to 0.9% from 1.4% reported last year. Between broadcast and cable, there is only one recurring character who is depicted as HIV- positive. trans characters were counted on cable (2%). Streaming series boast the highest percentage of trans characters at 7% (4) with two notably being series leads. Of the seven trans characters counted, only one was a transgender man. in the number of bisexual men appearing on cable programs. Unfortunately, many of these characters still fall into dangerous stereotypes about bisexual people. is moving in the right direction with 33% (287) of 881 regular characters counted on broadcast programming being people of color, which is a six-point increase from last year.
  22. 22. Things are changing but there is still a long way to go London mayor Rome mayor Paris mayor POTUS
  23. 23. #MoreWomen
  24. 24. #MoreWomen
  25. 25. #MoreWomen
  26. 26. #MoreWomen
  27. 27. #MoreWomen
  28. 28. #MoreWomen
  29. 29. #MoreWomen
  30. 30. #MoreWomen
  31. 31. Why does it happen?
  32. 32. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  33. 33. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  34. 34. Implicit association test
  35. 35. About 75% of people who have taken the IAT online complete the test faster when… • White faces are sorted alongside pleasant words • Male words are sorted alongside career terms • Women are sorted with liberal arts studies, not science and tech.
  36. 36. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  37. 37. Unconsciously, we tend to hire people who look like us, think like us and come from backgrounds similar to ours. It is more comfortable. Less messy. And less creative.
  38. 38. And victors tell the stories they know. Stories about them. From their point of view. And suppose viewers are not interested in anything else...
  39. 39. In the US
  40. 40. The ones telling the stories are framing the narrative
  41. 41. White heterosexual males tell stories about white heterosexual males In the US
  42. 42. Ever since The 3% Conference came into in September, 2012, countless reporters, and ad folks have reached out to ask whe statistic comes from. While the figure itself is widespread, its origin is not. The number comes from by Kasey Windels, then a graduate student at the University of Texas at Austin Representation and Regulatory Focus: The Case for Cohorts among Female C subsequent conference paper, “An Exploration into the Representation of Fem Today’s Advertising Agencies,” Ms. Windels painstakingly checked the gender in the 1984, 1994 and 2004 Advertising Annuals of Communications Arts. She Creative Directors were female. ART DIRECTORS CREATIVE DIRECTORS 3.6% 9.6% COPYWRITERS 11.6% PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN IN THESE ROLES Same in the advertising industry Source: 3% Conference
  43. 43. What is the impact?
  44. 44. Stories are incomplete
  45. 45. Stereotypes are pervasive
  46. 46. Stories are biased
  47. 47. Stories can even be offensive…
  48. 48. Reducing girls self confidence
  49. 49. Political impact: sexist media coverage results in a drastic decrease of voter confidence in women candidates. The Women’s Media Center’s Media Guide to Gender Neutral Coverage of Women Candidates + Politicians By Rachel Joy Larris and Rosalie Maggio
  50. 50. What’s the risk? For the audience? • Feeling misrepresented or invisible • Excluded • Feeds hatred, misunderstandings, stereotypes For the broadcasters? • Offend audience • Losing audience • Losing money • Disconnection from the public • Being outsmarted by more innovative channels • Losing talent
  51. 51. What’s your role as broadcasters? To mirror society or the ones who own the media?
  52. 52. What’s your role as broadcasters? To portray a simplistic image or to explain the world as it is in all its complexity?
  53. 53. And why should people watch your shows if you don’t talk about them?
  54. 54. Black films matter
  55. 55. Shonda Rhimes: You should get to turn on the TV and see your tribe.
  56. 56. Shonda Rhimes: I am normalizing TV not diversifying it • “I am making TV look like the world looks." • it's about making TV something we can all look to for strong role models. • “The goal is that everyone should get to turn on the TV and see someone who looks like them and loves like them,” • “And just as important, everyone should turn on the TV and see someone who doesn’t look like them and love like them. Because, perhaps then, they will learn from them. Perhaps then, they will not isolate them.” • I really hate the word “diversity”. It suggests something…other. As if it is something…special. Or rare.
  57. 57. “You Are Not Alone” Shonda Rhimes at The Human Rights Campaign Gala in Los Angeles, 2015 • The images you see on television matter. They tell you about the world. They tell you who you are. What the world is like. They shape you. We all know this. There have been studies. – So if you never see a Cyrus Beene on TV, ever? An older, bad ass, take no prisoners, Republican, conservative, Rumsfeld-ian gay man who loved his husband James so deeply and tried desperately not to kill him… – If you never see James dragging Cyrus into the 21st century… – If you never see young Connor Walsh on How To Get Away Murder getting to have the same kind of slutty dating life we’ve seen straight characters have on TV season after season after season… – If you never see Erica Hahn exuberantly give what’s become known as the Leaves on Trees monologue telling Callie that she’s realized she is a lesbian… – If you never see openly bisexual Callie Torres stare her father down and holler (my favorite line ever) “You can’t pray away the gay!!!” at him… – If you never see a transgender character on TV have family, understanding, a Dr. Bailey to love and support her… • If you never see any of those people on TV…What do you learn about your importance in the fabric of society? What do straight people learn? What does that tell young people? Where does that leave them? Where does that leave any of us?
  58. 58. The first network drama with a black woman as its leadin nearly four decades The Shonda effect Viola Davis , the first black woman to win the Emmy for Best Lead Actress in a Drama
  59. 59. To represent the diversity, you need to BE the diversity
  60. 60. Sciences Po opened to different socio-economic backgrounds • Special access without exam. • Initially rejected and considered as positive discrimination by the elite. • Now, more than 10 years later, students are proud of it and parts of the DNA of the school.
  61. 61. Yet, ‘‘ ‘Diversity’ is like, ‘Ugh, I have to do diversity.’ Selma director Ava DuVernay
  62. 62. Diversity feels like medicine • “There’s a feeling of obligation, rather than excitement. • There’s an emotional disconnect with that word.” • Risk of tokenism: minority talks about minority but not general issues • ‘‘Diversity has become a code word for ‘all those other folks”: still the norm and the rest • Diversity is diverse: inherent and acquired. • Pressure to be “ambassadors” • Doubting the sincerity of the institution: you have to do it but you don’t REALLY mean it • Fatigue and even cynicism
  63. 63. But diversity brings money
  64. 64. Mc Kinsey: Diversity matters
  65. 65. Diverse teams have a more diverse set of skills • And thus a higher financial performance.
  66. 66. A group of ordinary people who are diverse can defeat a group of like-minded experts
  67. 67. Diverse teams help you understand better diverse audiences • A team with a member who shares a client’s ethnicity is 152% likelier than another team to understand that client.
  68. 68. Women control 73% of consumer purchasing and $20 trillion of the world’s annual consumer spending • And yet… • 91% of women reported they didn’t think that advertisers understood them.
  69. 69. “The advertising “The advertising “business is a $33B industry. Misunderstanding female consumers, from a business perspective, is sheer lunacy. Kat Gordon Founder, The 3% Conference
  70. 70. Even movies about women make more money…
  71. 71. Ninety-seven of the 133 movies represented in this selection are about men. Only 36 are about women — the people who are, as it is now proven, the bigger box office draw. That's not just poor representation, it's also bad business…
  72. 72. And diversity brings creativity and innovation
  73. 73. “Diversity doesn’t lower the bar. Diversity raises the fucking bar.”
  74. 74. The 3% Movement Manifesto Diversity = Creativity = Profitability • That’s our drumbeat. 1, 2, 3. • The more varied the people who come up with ideas, the more varied the ideas will be. And since women control the majority of consumer spending and social sharing, it only makes sense to involve them in the creative process. • Yet, until we came along, only 3% of Creative Directors were women.
  76. 76. Findings of the study
  77. 77. What to do?
  78. 78. What to do?
  79. 79. • We commonly misinterpret displays of confidence as a sign of competence. • Manifestations of hubris — often masked as charisma or charm — are commonly mistaken for leadership potential. • That is why we are fooled into believing that men are better leaders than women. • Yet arrogance and overconfidence are inversely related to leadership talent — the ability to build and maintain high-performing teams, and to inspire followers to set aside their selfish agendas in order to work for the common interest of the group.
  80. 80. We need a greater diversity in leadership styles as well • Boards of directors typically believe that transforming a company from good to great requires an extreme personality, an egocentric chief to lead the corporate charge. • The essential ingredient for taking a company to greatness is having a “Level 5” leader, an executive in whom extreme personal humility blends paradoxically with intense professional will.
  81. 81. Whether in sports, politics or business, the best leaders are usually humble Without diverse leadership, women are 20% less likely than straight white men to win endorsement for their ideas; people of color are 24% less likely; and LGBTs are 21% less likely.
  82. 82. Questions for you • Is diversity a workshop in your organization or part of the hiring managers' bottom lines? • Do you really have a culture where employees feel that they can speak up and their voices are heard? • Do you partner with organizations to help you source different talent? • Which kind of leaders do you have?
  83. 83. TV is a cradle of creativity
  84. 84. Kirsten Dunst believes a lot of the most interesting work now comes from television rather than film. • Dunst “People don’t go to the cinema unless it’s an event any more,” • “So the movie industry is in a weird place, for sure, and the creative people are blossoming on television.”
  85. 85. Ansari's not only writing and starring in the first show to star an Indian-American actor — Mindy Kaling became the first Indian woman to star in her own series in 2012
  86. 86. The power of webseries: African city
  87. 87. The diverse audience is developing market power against dominant cultures • The success of these shows was a surprise to many: – “Who knew that they would perform so well? – Who knew that white viewers would occasionally watch and enjoy programs with diverse casts? – Who knew that minority audiences seek out minority narratives?” • TV starts to look like the real world with innovation coming from digital platforms like Netflix or Amazon.
  88. 88. What can you do about it?
  89. 89. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  90. 90. Transparency is the first step to changing this situation
  91. 91. Projects that can inspire you
  92. 92. Sixty and Me is an online magazine and a global community of over 200,000 women over 60
  93. 93. Change mindsets and behaviours around disability
  94. 94. The Guardian Positive action program 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TenYears ofPositiveAction 2006 2007 2008
  95. 95. Sphinx Theatre Company Brave New Roles
  96. 96. Birds Eye View « She Writes »
  97. 97. Supporting diversity throughout the industry exhaustive, but if you’ve been inspired to take action as a result of reading this report, please take a look through these to see how you could take part, support and champion. Creative Equals: helping the industry take steps towards gender diversity in creative departments. Facebook managing bias training: designed to help us recognize our biases so we can reduce their negative effects in the workplace. IPA unconscious bias training: designed to support agencies as we endeavour to build a more diverse and more inclusive workplace. IPA Make the Leap: IPA initiative to make the leap towards achieving diversity and equality goals by 2020. Pride AM: a high profile group which represents the LGBT community in advertising. SheSays: the only global creative network for women – running free mentorship and events to women in the creative industry. Token Man: an initiative to give men a better understanding of the challenges women face in our industry. Who’s Your Momma: part of She Says, a mentoring network for women all across the industry.
  98. 98. HBO Seeks Diverse, Emerging Writers for HBO Access Writing Fellowship
  99. 99. We are the XX media collective
  100. 100. We do it together is a nonprofit Production Company created to finance and produce media uniquely dedicated to the empowerment of women.
  101. 101. Reese Witherspoon Pacific Standard production company
  102. 102. Global Girl Media launched in London: teaching young girls to be citizen journalists
  103. 103. Many viral videos from AJ+, Buzzfeed, Upworthy or Attn tackle stereotypes
  104. 104. Maslaha is tacking the representation of the muslim community
  105. 105. And launched the project I can be she
  106. 106. Or Muslim girls fence
  107. 107. Sister-hood is a digital magazine and a series of live events spotlighting the voices of women of Muslim heritage.
  108. 108. Muslim Girl media in the US: Muslim Women Talk Back
  109. 109. Speak up! Be vocal when you attend conferences that fall short on diversity, tweeting and posting your observations.
  110. 110. DuVernay, who made ‘‘Selma,’’ pointed out that of the 100 top-grossing films last year, only two were directed by women. • She urged constant vigilance and proactive searching within the industry: • ‘‘We have to ask our agents about that script by the woman screenwriter. We have to ask, ‘Hey, are there any women agents here that I could talk to?’ We have to ask our lawyers about women in the office. We have to ask, when we’re thinking about directors or D.P.s, ‘Will women interview?’ ’’
  111. 111. Broadcast inspiring female roles
  112. 112. Broadcast Miss Representation in your organization
  113. 113. Portray women social innovators
  114. 114. She Who Tells a Story: Women Photographers from Iran and the Arab World
  115. 115. Be mindful about how you conduct interviews PARALLELISM: WHEN EVERYTHING ISN’T EQUAL Another type of sexism in media coverage is Parallelism. If a reporter is wondering whether it’s offensive or inaccurate to say something about a group or person who may be subject to stereotyping, it’s often helpful to make a parallel with another per- son or group who is less subject to stereotyping. It changes the context just enough to see the fairness or unfairness. Some examples of the effect come in word choice. CHILD CARE SINGLENESS EYE COLOR HAIR CUT MAKE-UP LACK OF CHILDREN GUIDINGRULESFORGENDERNEUTRA The Women’s Media Center’s Media Guide to Gender Neutral Coverage of Women Candidates + Politicians By Rachel Joy Larris and Rosalie Maggio
  116. 116. WMC Guide to Gender Neutral Coverage of Women Candidates + Politicians 3 Steinem, Journalist and Co-Founder of the Women’s Media Center Reversibility means abandon- ing or evaluating terms or story frames of women candidates that wouldn’t be written about men. It means not citing sex with less seriousness or logical relation to content than you would cite race, class, ethnic- ity, or religion. At the simplest level, do you use “Mr. Smith” on first refer- ence, then “Smith” after that? Do you cite “Ms.,” “Mrs.,” or “Miss Smith” throughout? If you answered yes to both, you are granting Mr. Smith autonomy, but continuing to describe Ms. Smith by her marital status. If terms are almost singularly applied to women but not to men, you probably shouldn’t be using them. Sexism can also refer to the type of cover- age, often about personality, appearance, or family, that is given to women politicians but not male politicians. See the chart for some examples. Please refer to the Glossary of Terms listed from the Unspin- ning the Spin: The Women’s Media Center’s Guide to Fair & Accurate Language for more examples. Said to Women Said to Men Cunt NONE Girl / Woman Whore NONE Man Whore Bitch NONE Slut NONE Prostitute Player / Pimp Man-Eater / Aggressive Driven / Motivated High-Strung / Temperamental Powerful Too Emotional Sensitive / Caring Mean Girl / Bully Powerful / Decisive Ice Queen / Cold Hardworking / Commanding Nagging / Shrill Determined Opinionated / Uppity Knowledgeable / Passionate Hot / Sexy / MILF Handsome / Attractive Ugly / Mannish / Dyke / Lesbian NO ATTENTION GIVEN Varicose Veins / Cankles / Wrinkled Distinguished / Seasoned General Menstruation Jokes: Moody / PMSing Angry General Comments on Appearance: Plunging Neckline / Short Skirt / Oh, look, he’s wearing a red/blue High Heels / Hairstyle tie “and an American flag pin” CHART OF REVERSIBILITY FORGENDERNEUTRALITY
  117. 117. GRULESFORGENDERNEUTRALITY Write about a woman candidate’s clothing or physical appearance (hair, makeup, eyes) … UNLESS your outlet has published similar articles about male candidates. Use gendered terms such as “feisty,” “spirited,” “opinionated” … UNLESS your outlet would use them on a male candidate. Talk about a female candidate as a mother … UNLESS the candidate brings it up first. Write about clothing (for either sex) that is symbolically important. Ask a male candidate about his role as a father if he touts “fatherhood” as a job qualifier. Ask a male candidate about sexist language he uses. DON’Ts DO’sMEDIA PLEDGE OF GENDER NEUTRALITY SIGN THE PLEDGE! We invite members of the media to sign the Name It. Change It. Media Pledge of Gender Neu- trality. By signing it, you pledge to use gender-neutral language (i.e., not sexist) when writing and/or speaking about women candidates and politicians. We encourage news reporters, columnists, pundits, bloggers, radio and television hosts, and Twitter users to sign the pledge. Refraining from sexist language is as important as refraining from racist language, and improves the media culture for all women. MEDIAPLEDGEOFGENDER You can sign the pledge online at Text of Media Pledge of Gender Neutrality I promise to adhere to fair journalistic standards that
  118. 118. Do you want your audience to feel that they belong?
  119. 119. Find this presentation online: @asalvaire
  120. 120. More data! ANNEX
  121. 121. Cindy Gallop, founder and chief executive of MakeLoveNotPorn and IfWeRantheWorld and former chair of BBH New York • My message to the male leaders of the industry is this: would you like to do less work and make more money? The moment you have 50% or more women on your board, on your leadership team, in your creative team and at the head of your creative department, you’ll instantly make more money and do less work, because innovation, disruption and creativity are the result of diversity. • Women get shit done. Women don’t self promote. Women don’t want to take credit, which is why they don’t get it. When you hire women, and put them in leadership positions, they do all the work for you. • Women regularly say to me about positive discrimination, “I don’t want to be hired just because I am a woman.” I say to them get over that – all around you are mediocre men who just got hired because they are men. So get hired as a woman and then prove, in the role, how bloody brilliant you are as yourself. • Diversity doesn’t lower the bar. Diversity raises the fucking bar. Diversity will make our industry more creative and more lucrative.
  122. 122. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline • Venture-backed companies led by a woman actually produce 12% higher revenues and launch on a third less capital than their male counterparts, as show studies by the Kauffman Foundation and leading universities. They have a record of greater capital efficiency and a lower failure rate than companies only run by men. • According to DELL study, companies with more women board directors outperform those with the least by 66% ROI capital, 53% return on equity and 42% return on sales.
  123. 123. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline • Companies With More Women Board Directors Experience Higher Financial Performance. • Investments run by female hedge fund managers do 3 times as well as those run by male managers over the past 5 years. • Venturecapital firms that invest in women-led companies outperform those that don’t, according to research from the Small Business Administration’s Office of Advocacy. • And venture-backedcompanies that include more women on their executive management teams are more likely to succeed than companies with men-only executivesuites, according to Women at the Wheel: Do Female Executives Drive Start-up Success, research conducted by Dow Jones.
  124. 124. DELOITTE • Average annual turnover rate among female managers was huge : 33%. • Why ? Male-dominated culture. Not a confortable place to work in. • Change: accountability of women recruited and retained, networking events and career-planning programs especially for women. Change in the requirements for travel. Flexible work arrangements, which wouldn’t hinder one’s professionaladvancement within the organization. Dramatic increase of the use of these program by men and women. • Deloitte number of female partners tripled, from 5 to 14% and saved USD 250 million in hiring and training costs. • So investing in women, rather than costing money is actually saving millions of dollars and stopped haemorrhaging talented people.
  125. 125. Sthree • Identity initially focused on empowering womenwithin the company and creating a supportive environment inwhich they can succeed. The programme has provided tools and information, developed a support network, highlighted successful role models and held forums to share ideas. We have also been engaging with our clients and candidates on gender diversity and supporting women in the community, for example, working withfemale students to raise career aspirations. • Our maternity buddy scheme has played an integral role in 83% of employees returning to work after maternity leave. For employees expecting a baby our buddy scheme provides support for the duration of the pregnancy, maternity leave and return to work. inclusion
  126. 126. American Express • “You can have as many diverse employees as possible, but if we don’t have a culture where employees feel that they can speak up and their voices are heard, you’re not going to really take advantage of that.” • The groups provide mentoring, “speed networking,” and other opportunities to connect with like-minded colleagues. • Helps with recruitment and retention of talent
  127. 127. Best practices • Diversity needs to be made a clear priority at companies. That happens when diversity moves out of workshops and becomes factored into the hiring managers' bottom lines. • Managers at Chevron, for example, are rated in their performance evaluations on their ability to reach diversity goals. • At Procter & Gamble, managers’ stock options are tied to diversity goal
  128. 128. Workshops to create awareness Teaching about all formsof discrimination and implementing lessons into workplacedecisions can mediate prejudice, both blatant and subtle. Judith Williams, the Global Diversity and Talent Programsmanager at Google, leads the unconscious bias workshopsdesigned to informemployees about the science of subconscious decision-making.
  129. 129. Sthree • “I think three things need to happen,” she says. “Firstly, there needs to be an HR policy in place - it has to be supported at a corporate level. Secondly, it needs to be top-down with senior level sponsors promoting the initiatives. And thirdly, tactically, you need a bottom up approach too, you need local champions.” the-bottom-line
  130. 130. Increasing attention of tech companies on diversity challenges • Industry giants Apple and Twitter have published diversity audits and pledged to do more to increase diversity in their workforce. • Janet Van Huysse, Twitter’s Vice President, Diversity and Inclusion put it simply: “As we look ahead, we see opportunity rather than a challenge.” • Companies currently looking to appoint Heads of Diversity include Airbnb, Asana and Dropbox. Those recognised by Diversity Inc. as making the most effort to increase diversity this year include Novartis, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Procter & Gamble. • This has become a mainstream issue, a competitive business imperative.
  131. 131. Source: Apple diversity website
  132. 132. Source: Apple diversity website
  133. 133. APPLE • we continue hiring talented people from groups that are currently underrepresented in our industry. • We’re supporting education with programs like the Thurgood Marshall College Fund to help students at historically black colleges and universities find opportunities in technology. • ConnectED is bringing our technology to some of the most economically disadvantaged schools and communities in the United States, so more people have the opportunity to pursue their dreams. • We’re also hosting hundreds of students at our annual developer conference, and we’re setting up new programs to help students learn to code. Source: Apple diversity website
  134. 134. Source: Apple diversity website
  135. 135. APPLE • Building a vibrant community to support women in tech. • We launched our Supplier Diversity Program in 1988 • We’re also working with a variety of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) organizations that offer scholarships to developers from different backgrounds. • We partner with groups like the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), which is the largest LGBT civil rights organization in the United States. Source: Apple diversity website
  136. 136. APPLE • To encourage women to be part of the tech industry, we’ve developed a strong partnership with the National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT). We’ve been working together for over a decade. We’re proud to be their first-ever Lifetime Partner, and we’re dedicated to supporting all aspects of their organization. • As part of our partnership, we’re helping NCWIT expand the only national talent development initiative for women in tech — Aspirations in Computing. Through this program, NCWIT and its partners give support, scholarships, and career opportunities to young women. Source: Apple diversity website
  137. 137. How To Build A Brilliantly Creative Team • Organizational creativity has to be maintained at three levels: the organizational culture, individual creativity, and team dynamics. Whether you are an introvert or an extrovert, being part of a team will increase your own creativity, but only if you have the right team members, and productive team dynamics are in place. Here is what you need to do to achieve both. • 1. Assure strong and productive team diversity. • I am not referring to the politically correct "team diversity," that assures inclusion of members based on their demographic backgrounds. I'm talking about task-related diversity. Make sure you include members with diverse experiences. Having a team of employees who worked together in the same business unit for 10 years is easy, but will not provide diversity of ideas. Including members who worked in different companies, or at least different business units will increase the breadth of perspectives and thus ideas. Assure that you include members with diverse domain knowledge. Include engineers, customer support personnel, finance people, marketing people, and everyone who might have knowledge to share that will affect idea quality. Balance specialists (know a lot about a very narrow field) with generalists (know little about a very broad field), and finally include extroverts with introverts. They bring different, yet equally valuable input. • 2. Keep only team members who respect each other. • Sounds onerous, doesn't it? Team creativity is based on having open debate, and free flow of ideas. For that to happen, trust must exist within team members. Where trust is lacking--so will creativity. One of the most basic building blocks for trust is mutual respect. The respect is for two things: the other person's professional competence in what they do, and sharing the same values. Lacking one of those will prevent the type of respect that will lead to trust and creativity. You can learn this by interviewing individual team members, or even conduct an anonymous survey, but you need to make sure that each team member respects all other team members on both dimensions. Let me be clear about something: this respect either exists or it doesn't. It cannot be forced. Telling team members that they must respect each other is meaningless. It is nothing more than a politically correct statement to make. As team members get to know each other, this respect may develop, or break down. You will need to continuously monitor whether team members respect each other, and if they don't--address it. It is better to remove a team member that others don't trust than to keep them in the team, and lose trust, open debate, and creativity. • 3. Time together • Having initial respect to one another does not immediately generate trust. Trust will develop over time. In my creativity in organizations research, I found that one team lacked respect initially, and gained that respect over 3 years of working together. They reported low trust and creativity initially, and high trust and creativity after 3 years. I encountered a Fortune 500 company that, in order to increase team diversity, would shuffle teams every 18 months. This way, they believed, members will bring different perspectives to different teams. While they did increase team diversity this way, they prevented teams from developing the level of trust needed for them to be creative. Let the team work together for a long time. Let them develop the needed trust. It will not happen overnight.
  138. 138. How To Build A Brilliantly Creative Team • 4. Promote out-of-work friendships. • What can shorten the time it takes to go from respect to trust is the positivity of relationships. Team members that go to movies together, hang out, drink beer together, will turn respect into trust faster. Specifically, out-of-work friendships will allow them to explore how much they share the same values. If they are not willing to spend time together, they either don't share values (which will prevent trust from ever developing), or it will take a long time to develop that trust. You should not force friendships. You can't. But you should do whatever you can to encourage it. • 5. Life altering events, or team-building. • Most companies consider team-building activities as boondoggles. A waste of time and money, that does not yield any performance improvement. They are wrong. Life- altering events bond people more than anything. They allow them to really get to know each other, and explore the values they may share (or find out they don't) very quickly. However, life-altering events (being in an accident, tornado, serving side-by-side in battle) are not something you can order. Team-building events, on the other hand, are. The more intense the team building events are, the more effective they are in learning to respect shared values and build trust. Do them on a regular basis, and make sure they are effective. You should explore bad feelings out of a team building event. Are those an indication of lack of respect? Lack of shared values? If so-- consider yourself lucky to discover those early, and make personnel changes in the team. • 6. Pre-existing acceptance. • Imagine a new member is introduced to your team. However, this member is not introduced by the team leader, but rather by one (or more) of the other team members, who says "I worked with her before, and she is really great. I'm so happy she joins us!" What do you think at that time? You don't know her, but somehow she got pre- qualified by someone you trust. This, obviously, will only work after you have already worked with the team member who made the introduction for a while, and you trust him. However, if someone you trust introduces someone new with a glowing recommendation--it will shorten the time to trust the new person. • 7. Prevent internal competition. • Competition for a promotion, pay raise, a bonus, or anything else among team members has catastrophic effect on team creativity. Team members will try to promote their own ideas, or even not share ideas within the team, and rather share them outside the team with the team leader, or upper management. Whomever controls the prize. Make sure there is no such competition within the team. This can be tricky when members come from different groups within the company, that are not within your control. In that case, you will need to speak with the managers of those other groups. No internal competition among team members should exist. • 8. Establish ground rules. • I was surprised to see how many times this simple tool of setting ground rules changed the dynamics. Include rules such as "nobody gets to monopolize the conversation," and "nobody gets to be quiet all the time." Establish what happens when someone is late to a meeting. Will you allow using computers and phones in the meeting (hint: do you want their full attention or not?) Make sure you keep a "parking lot" list of things so you do not forget any idea. Make sure that whomever the idea scribe is--he will be truthful to what was said. People don't like their words being twisted in any way. When you capture something--make sure you ask the idea originator if this is what she meant. If not--modify it. If you had an idea as a result--write hers first, and then yours, but don't replace hers with yours. •
  139. 139. Diversity programmes are in essence a form of change programme: they seek to alter the composition of leadership teams or staff and to disrupt old habits and routines. However, research into change management has found that change programmes have a high failure rate of about 70 percent.21 Most efforts stall because those involved—management and employees—do not believe in them or make them a priority. Successful diversity programmes have clear objectives and are led from the top (not just the CEO, but the entire top team). They foster active involvement from the wider organization and require the infrastructure to actively manage against targets (not quotas) to hold individuals accountable for outcomes. Exhibit 10 sets out questions for leaders to ask when planning a change programme and suggestions to help organizations reach their diversity goals. Exhibit 10 Aspire Where do we want to go? Assess How ready are we to go there? Architect What do we need to do to get there? Act How do we man- age the journey? Advance How do we keep moving forward? 1 2 3 4 5 Key steps for successful diversity programmes SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive advantage, Wiley, 2011 Diversity ▪ Create a clear value proposition for having a diverse and inclusive culture ▪ Set a few clear targets (not quotas) that balance complexity with cohesiveness Define a clear value proposition Establish a fact base ▪ Understand the current situation in terms of statistics and mindsets and learn from external best practices. Understand root causes and underlying mindsets Create targeted initiatives ▪ Differentiate initiatives by diversity group, for example, gender initiatives do not always resonate with other minorities. Lead from the top Define the governance model ▪ Define the rollout strategy for all initiatives. Launch 1-2 highly visible flagship projects at the beginning of the effort. Monitor rigorously Build inclusion ▪ Continuously address potential mindset barriers through systematic change management. Link diversity to other change management efforts SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive advantage, Wiley, 2011 Which are the best practices in terms of diversity and inclusion?
  140. 140. 2. Techniques for overcoming bias Behavioural insights can be harnessed to increase diversity in three main ways: by training and educating people to reduce personal biases, by changing organisational processes to take bias out of decision making; and by incorporating behavioural principles in the design of programmes and communications to spur action. Educating and training people to reduce personal biases Key success factors for raising awareness and building capability include: ƒ Tailoring delivery to the audience. For example, one engineering company used a computer simulation to show how a systematic 1 percent bias against women in performance evaluation scores caused women to be underrepresented in top positions. ƒ Getting people to experience bias personally. At Google, for instance, staff are encouraged to take a test that measures biases. ƒ Reminding people about biases at key moments, such as before reviews. ƒ Helping people to focus on differences to reduce homogeneity bias and stereotyping. In one experiment, French students discriminated against potential employers who were Arabs, but stopped doing so if asked to describe differences between their photos.‡ ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive effect.‡ Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on key decisions. These techniques can take several forms: ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and Source: Diversity matters, Mac Kinsey 2015
  141. 141. ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive effect.‡ Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on key decisions. These techniques can take several forms: ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and use an algorithm rather than human judgement to make decisions based on the criteria. Daniel Kahneman has applied this technique to improve the assessment of candidates for the Israeli army.* Modified versions of the technique have been used by a variety of companies, including McKinsey. ƒ Debate. One effective way to identify bias in decision making is to institute a “pre-mortem” by asking people to imagine what could go wrong if a particular decision is taken.§ Another technique is to nominate an individual to act as devil’s advocate and challenge assumptions behind decisions, such as implicit stereotypes. A number of studies have shown that this approach leads to better decisions. ƒ Organisational. Companies can, for example, create a decision challenge team. Applying behavioural economics principles to diversity efforts McKinsey has identified seven ways to apply behavioural principles: use information about peers, use people’s natural reflexes, make sure information comes from a credible origin, provide strategic context, trigger an emotional response, make information salient, and appeal to an individual’s self-image. Many of these techniques can be used to enhance the effectiveness of diversity programmes; for instance: Source: Diversity matters, Mac Kinsey 2015
  142. 142. ƒ Peers: highlight the positive achievements of peers. This has been shown to be one of the most effective ways to influence people. For example, informing taxpayers that others pay their tax significantly increased tax contributions, whereas reminders of prosecution or how tax is used did not.¶ A company could use internal statistics from other departments or business units that are more advanced in achieving diversity, as well as external data on highly regarded competitors. Telling employees about their peers’ contributions to diversity is another effective technique. ƒ Reflexes: prime people with images and words that discourage biases. A striking example of the effects of priming—or introducing subliminal clues—was provided by research that showed that when Asian women were reminded about their gender, they performed significantly worse in a maths test than when they were reminded about their ethnicity.** Companies can use priming techniques strategically to reduce bias, for example by displaying pictures of well-known powerful women. ƒ Origin: make sure that diversity messages come from trusted opinion leaders within the organization, whether they are line workers or managers, rather than from a diversity group that may be seen as an outsider.†† * Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Allen Lane, 2011. † Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, and Antony G. Greenwald, “Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, volume 83, number 1, pp. 44-59. ‡ Scott Plous, editor, Understanding prejudice and discrimination, McGraw-Hill, 2003. § Gary Klein, “Performing a project pre-mortem”, Harvard Business Review, September 2007. Ryan T. Hartwig, “Facilitating problem solving: A case study using the devil’s advocacy technique”, Group Facilitation, number 10, 2010. ¶ Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness, Yale University Press, 2008. ** Clayton M. Christensen, Stephen P. Kaufman, and Willy C. Shih, “Innovation killers: How financial tools destroy Source: Diversity matters, Mac Kinsey 2015
  143. 143. The good news is: we can rewire our brains! So what can YOU do to shift your biases?
  144. 144. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  145. 145. Source: Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures
  146. 146. Mc Kinsey: there is a direct, linear relationship between increased ethnic diversity in senior- exec positions and financial performance 1. Diversity leads to people being their authentic self at work and thus contribute more creatively and be much happier in their job. 2. It dramatically increases the possibility of new connections between experiences, perspectives, and insights that lead to distinctive, powerful and new creative ideas. 3. Diversity means ideas develop via meritocracy, and not quick buy-in from the dominant cultural voice. It forces us to be truthful about creative merit.
  147. 147. 1. Better work experience • Diversity is about being people being themselves, which is fundamental to ful lling creative potential and attaining true job satisfaction. • hiding the parts of their personality that don’t t the status quo in order to t in themselves. • Liberate from the representation
  148. 148. 2. Diversity leads to better ideas • network philosopher, Gilles Deleuze (1998), to contemporary innovation theorists like Steven Johnson (2010) the power of network and connections are well-documented creative forces. In short, diversity is the lifeblood of creativity, and we ignore at our peril. • a diverse team challenges ideas more, pushing them in new directions and different ways. • By putting the same people in the room together, you’re going to get creative solutions you can predict, and ones your clients will probably anticipate. Not only that, but it’s likely it’s not far off what your competitors are coming up with too. In the age of the internet, a lack of diversity is a huge danger to our industry’s position within wider creative industries. Diversity will give you that broader, richer, more vibrant role within creative networks.
  149. 149. 3. Ideas win by meritocracy • Better creative execution • the status quo is too often that the quickest to be agreed upon by the most people is the one developed. Consensus often happens quickly in teams where everyone has a similar background and experience. In a diverse team, however, there are more opinions. Because when you’ve got a range of different starting points, the things that seem obviously right to you can seem completely alien to someone with a contradictory stance on the world. • Diversity means the process of idea development might be tougher: there’ll be more time spent on selecting ideas and more debate about what works best. You will need to accommodate that, but the output will be better, stronger, more robust creative solutions.
  150. 150. Fears: tougher time agreeing on things and arguments • 1. Consensus is elusive – without dominant culture, group progression can be a dif cult thing to negotiate. • consensus finding within diverse groups requires more energy. • 2. Tokenism does not work – people close up and the power of diversity is lost. • If people feel tokenistic gestures, they end up playing to a type or closing up and the power of having them there is gone. • Getting a few faces is not enough, but you also need to de-politicise diversity, people are there to do the job they love. By doing the minimum, by paying lip-service, chances are you’re going to fall into this trap. The key is thinking about diversity holistically and not in boxes on a recruitment drive. • 3. The leadership challenge – certain styles and management can really inhibit the positive impact of diversity. • Harnessing the power of diversity demands a certain kind of creative leader, and the revered iconoclastic, alpha-male, creative genius, is often the didactic leader who will stop a diverse groups’ creativity. • do we have those kinds of leaders currently? Are we rewarding and listening to those leaders? Are we training those leaders? If not, we are maintaining a dated status quo that blocks the creative bene ts of diverse teams.
  151. 151. Way forward • Embrace messiness • it’s more dif cult to recruit diversely. • There’s more disagreement and debate. • Complicated when you fetishisespeed and ef ciency • Creativity is messy… • developing empathy and listening skills, getting comfortable with being uncomfortable, accepting that ideas don’t always emerge quickly • We need a new breed of leader: one who is able to hire and guide people very different from themselves and, most importantly of all, to create an environment where others can thrive. • investment in mentoring diverse talents: and an understanding that teams of people with diverse understanding and approaches to the world will need guiding in different ways. • In essence, we need fewer Don Drapers and more careful facilitators and this diversity of leadership has to go right through agencies and networks.
  152. 152. STEPS TO TAKE TODAY 1 2 3 Change your creative process Don’t fixate on speed and ease, embrace messiness and accept that to get diversity to deliver an advantage, you need to accept that cultural consensus can damage the creative process. Instead, let divergence, difference and merit win through. What everyone’s probably asking is – where do we start? What can we do today to change the industry for good? Retrain your leaders This is a leadership issue. If they cannot provide ‘clear enablement’ they will not get the benefit of diversity. We need action at the upper echelons of our industry to demonstrate clear intent. Implement the Rooney Rule Bringing in diverse talent is not a CSR thing, it is critical to business success. Go 10x further than 1 2 3 Change your creative process Don’t fixate on speed and ease, embrace messiness and accept that to get diversity to deliver an advantage, you need to accept that cultural consensus can damage the creative process. Instead, let divergence, difference and merit win through. Retrain your leaders This is a leadership issue. If they cannot provide ‘clear enablement’ they will not get the benefit of diversity. We need action at the upper echelons of our industry to demonstrate clear intent. Implement the Rooney Rule Bringing in diverse talent is not a CSR thing, it is critical to business success. Go 10x further than you are now and demand every new role has a diverse short list – the Rooney Rule. Look harder, further and accept that often a round peg in a square hole is a good thing. And then implement the Rooney Rule for those people who are actually doing the interviewing too. 52
  153. 153. 4 5Build an open network and access new tribes You need teams of super heroes in order to compete. It is not about tokenism. Diversity is one of the things that makes Britain Great. If you hire new people you will have access into new communities and networks which will mean the Rooney Rule won’t even be needed. Make your attitudes as accessible as your buildings More than 10 million people in the UK identify as having limitations in their daily activities for physical and mental health reasons, yet how many people in your company are from this community? Even worse how often have you talked about how you can encourage more people with a disability into your company? This is an issue that isn’t receiving the attention it deserves and our industry is falling behind because of it. Let’s start the debate and inspire change. 53
  154. 154. Diversity is diverse • the notion of diversity feels more fraught, positioning one group (white, male Americans) as the default, and everyone else as the Other. Multiple studies suggest that white Americans understand“diversity” much differently than black Americans. • When Reynolds Farley, a demographer at the University of Michigan, researched the attitudes of people in Detroit about the racial composition of residential neighborhoods in 1976, 1992 and 2004,most African- Americans considered ‘‘integrated’’ to be a 50/50 mix of white and black, while a majority of whites considered such a ratio much too high for their comfort each time the study was conducted. • Two kinds of diversity: inherent and acquired. Inherent diversity involves traits you are born with, such as gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Acquired diversity involves traits you gain from experience: Working in another country can help you appreciate cultural differences,
  155. 155. 9 Diversity Factors That Will Increase Team Creativity • 1. Demographic • Demographic diversity is what we typically refer to when we use the word. It includes gender, ethnical / cultural and age diversity. While its initial focus is on fair employment, this diversity does increase the understanding that a company has of a broad and diverse customer base, but also does increase creativity through different perspectives due to those different backgrounds. Men may not be able to understand women clothing (for the most part), and baby boomer employees may not be able to create products that millennials will consume. • The next 8 factors are not considered the "classic" diversity, will not be monitored by the human resources department for fair employment practices, and will have marginal impact on understanding customers, but will significantly increase creativity due to the different points of view brought to the team. • 2. Multi-disciplinary and cross-functional • If the team is involved in an engineering project, the participants will typically be engineers, mainly of the specific discipline required for the project. However, going beyond "tier 1" of disciplines will enhance creativity. The hardware design team of a product typically includes only hardware engineers. Including software engineers ("tier 2") will allow developing products that make software design easier. Including mechanical engineers (also "tier 2") will help assuring a compelling form factor for the product. Including finance, human resources, and others ("tier 3") will provide insights from other disciplines that will overall increase the quantity and quality of ideas considered. • 3. Knowledge & Education • Even if different team members are from the same discipline, they may know (or have studied) different aspects of the project at hand. Having different knowledge can give yet again different perspective on similar things. • 4. Experience • Much like different knowledge and education, diversified experiences increase team creativity. When you walk into a room to see a team of 5 who worked together in the same company and same business units for more than 20 years--you will not get diversity. All team members will think alike. When your team is made of members who worked in very different business units and possibly different companies--you are assured to increase team creativity. • 5. Generalists & Specialists (Breadth vs. Depth) • Some know little about a lot (generalists), while others know a lot about little (specialists). There is a limit to how much we know and have experience with, and throughout our careers we balance breadth with depth. No doubt that you need matter experts to completely solve a problem, but it is the generalists who bring solutions from remote disciplines and allow the solutions to be disruptive and novel.
  156. 156. • 6. Extra-curricular interests • Whether we like it or not, we bring our extra-curricular activities to the workplace. Be it surfing, cooking, shooting, riding motorcycles--we are the sum of our experiences, and those experiences, even if not directly related to the problem at hand, can help formulate different solutions to problems. • 7. Cognitive Preferences • Different people think differently. Some are introverts and need time alone to produce ideas they can later bring to the team, while others (myself included) need the other team members to bounce ideas off of, and to be sounding boards. Some prefer the "shotgun" approach of producing many ideas in many different directions, while others prefer the "rifle" approach of finding a very specific solution to a very specific and well-defined problem. • 8. Risk taking • Some are willing to take more risk than others. Those are the ones who push the team to try new things, to experiment, and not rule out anything until it blew up in their hands. Others are very careful and assure that the final product is safe for the company's health. • 9. Visionaries vs. Pragmatists • Finally, some are optimistic visionaries who can only see what can be done, while others balance them with more pragmatic attitudes. Both are needed. However, you need to be cautious with "devil's advocates," people who only see faults in everything. Your team need to see upsides and downsides, but to be productive and creative avoid having members that only see the negative, and what cannot be done. • • The ability for a team to see a problem (as well as the solution) from different sides dramatically grows as diversity increases. To increase this diversity, select team members that are as "orthogonal" and complementary to each another on as many dimension as possible. • Having said that, diversity can also delay team bonding and the development of trust, which is so desperately required for the ability to argue freely and built on each other's ideas. As hard as it may be--it is still worth it.
  157. 157. Six behaviors, we have found, unlock innovation across the board • Ensuring that everyone is heard; • Making it safe to propose novel ideas; • Giving team members decision-making authority; • Sharing credit for success; • Giving actionable feedback; • Implementing feedback from the team. Leaders who give diverse voices equal airtime are nearly twice as likely as others to unleash value-driving insights, and employees in a “speak up” culture are 3.5 times as likely to contribute their full innovative potential.
  158. 158. Why is diversity vital for innovation? • Greater impact on complex tasks requiring creativity and innovation. • When a collection of people work together, and one person makes an improvement, the others can often improve on this new solution even further: improvements build on improvements. • Outsiders don’t stay outsiders for long. • New plays, new conversations, new voices and new audiences • Being around people who are different from us makes us more creative, more diligent and harder-working. • Tests have shown that the one sure-fire way of improving your creativity is to move abroad. • Makes us smarter
  159. 159. THE ADVANTAGE IN TALENT RECRUITMENT In the decade before the financial crisis, it became apparent that demographic pressures and economic Exhibit 9 Diversity has a positive impact on many key aspects of organisational performance Rationale Diversity manage- ment helps to… …enhance the company's image ▪ Social responsibility is becoming increasingly important ▪ Many countries have legal requirements for diversity (e.g., UK Equality Act 2010) …improve decision making ▪ Diversity fosters innovation and creativity through a greater variety of problem-solving approaches, perspectives, and ideas. Academic research has shown that diverse groups often outperform experts. …increase employee satisfaction ▪ Diversity increases employee satisfaction and reduces conflicts between groups, improving collaboration and loyalty …strengthen customer orientation ▪ Women and minority groups are key consumer decision makers: for example, women make 80% of consumer purchases in the UK ▪ Gay men and women have average household incomes that are almost 80% higher than average …win the war for talent ▪ A strong focus on women and ethnic minorities increases the sourcing talent pool, a particular issue in Europe. In a 2012 survey, 40% of companies said skill shortages were the top reason for vacancies in entry-level jobs SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner, and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst, Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011; McKinsey qualitative survey; The War for Diverse Talent, Green Park , September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner, and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst, Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011; McKinsey qualitative survey; The War for Diverse Talent, Green Park, September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis
  160. 160. Source: Apple diversity website
  161. 161. Creativity is a mental process in which two or more bits of information come together in your mind to create a new and useful idea. • In our minds, similar pieces of information are associated with each other and effectively exist in proximity. • But, if you want to get creative, you need to diversify your thinking and encourage your mind to look for information associated with other concepts. • If you are looking to generate more creative ideas to solve a problem, the best thing you can do is to diversify your thinking. • open a dictionary, or any book, and select a word at random. applying a distantly related model. taking the team to external locations • Facebook, many of us now have networks that include people we have never met. So, from time to time, why not select someone from your on- line network and meet up for a coffee just to exchange ideas and get to know each other. It’s a great way to learn and diversify.
  162. 162. Diversity factors • Demographic • Multi-disciplinary and cross-functional • Knowledge & Education • Experience • Generalists & Specialists (Breadth vs. Depth) • Extra-curricular interests • Cognitive Preferences (introverts) • Risk taking • Visionaries vs. Pragmatists
  163. 163. Kathryn Finney, founder and managing director of DigitalUndivided, a New York-based social enterprise supporting black and Latina entrepreneurs • Mentorship is great, but sponsorship is key. Mentorship is not hard to get, because everyone likes to give advice. But it’s another thing to walk someone in, advocate for them and put your name on the line and say “you should invest in her, you should hire her”.