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Building cities with women in mind

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How do we build our cities? Which initiatives exist to make cities more welcoming and inclusive towards women?

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Building cities with women in mind

  1. 1. We live in androcentric cities Why we need more women in urban planning, architecture and real estate development
  2. 2. City signs all around the world are mostly male • Maya Barkai, the artist behind the public art project “Walking Men Worldwide,” has been collecting images of crosswalk light symbols from cities across the world since 2004. • She estimates that of about 180 different symbols in her collection, roughly 10 are gendered female. • http://walking-men.com/
  3. 3. Some examples of cities with female signs • Amersfoort’sfemale crossing symbol is named “Sofie.” • Saragossa,Spain’s figure in a dress; La Coruña, Spain’s figure with a ponytail and skirt. • The Ampelfrau (“crossing light woman”) of Zwickau and Dresden in Germany similarly wears a dress and pigtails. • Odense, Denmark. Instead of attempting to distill its entire populace into a single figure, this city chose simply to honor one of its most beloved residents, Hans Christen Andersen.
  4. 4. Aruna Sankaranarayanan from Mapbox: “Street names sort of define the identity of a place”
  5. 5. Mapbox mapped 7 world metropolis and found out that only 27.5% of the streets were named after women • A new interactive map from Mapbox developer Aruna Sankaranarayanan and her colleagues shows just how scarce female streets are in major cities around the world. • The group mapped seven cities: London, Paris, San Francisco, Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore. • They found that, on average, only 27.5 percent of the studied streets had female names.
  6. 6. San Francisco
  7. 7. London
  8. 8. Mumbai
  9. 9. Paris: Many of the 166 women honored were wives and daughters of famous men
  10. 10. 2% of French streets are named after women
  11. 11. 97% of Paris metro stations have a male name
  12. 12. Only 9 of them have a female name
  13. 13. So, a feminist group in Paris decided to rename 60 streets in honor of women
  14. 14. Same initiative in Paris metro
  15. 15. Or New York subway
  16. 16. The situation is similar in Spain • 90% of Spanish streets are named after men • And those honoring women usually reference saints.
  17. 17. 7 out of 273 metro stations in Madrid named after women
  18. 18. And these “details” are shaping the way we perceive public space and women’s role in history
  19. 19. Yet, a change is coming
  20. 20. In Barcelona, the total number of streets named after women went from 7% in 1996 to 27.7% in 2010 • 1961 streets identified in Catalunya thanks to #nomenclator website. #amnbnomdedona
  21. 21. Now Paris is trying to give female names to its new streets
  22. 22. The classic example of public bathroom From sign to design
  23. 23. First the signs
  24. 24. Then the lack of human centered design
  25. 25. Disproportionately long lines not only drain women’s time, but the wait can be physically painful COLIN HAWKINS VIA GETTY IMAGES Source: Soraya Chemaly
  26. 26. Women are socialized to quietly deal with physical discomfort • Women need to use bathrooms more often and for longer periods of time because: – we sit to urinate (urinals effectively double the space in men’s rooms), – we menstruate, – we are responsible for reproducing the species (which makes us pee more), – we continue to have greater responsibility for children (who have to use bathrooms with us), – and we breastfeed (frequently in grotty bathroom stalls). – Additionally, women tend to wear more binding and cumbersome clothes, whereas men’s clothing provides significantly speedier access. • But in a classic example of the difference between surface “equality” and genuine equity, many public restrooms continue to be facilities that are equal in physical space, while favoring men’s bodies, experiences, and needs. • Legislation to address the design and provision of public restrooms in new construction often requires more space for women’s rooms. But that has hardly made a dent in many of our oldest and most used public spaces. Source: Soraya Chemaly
  27. 27. On average, men take 30 seconds to use the bathroom, according to a Time magazine report about potty parity. Womentake 90 seconds. • In an ideal state of public convenience, the thinking goes, women would not have to endure the long queues created by a simple 1:1 allocation of toilet space, female-to-male. • It is waiting times, not toilet seats, that should be shared equally. • 83% of registered architects and an eerily similar percentage of legislators in the U.S. are the very people least likely to have to wait in lines.
  28. 28. In a more global perspective, cities are not designed for women
  29. 29. Modulor Man, the mascot of Le Corbusier's system for re-ordering the universe • The Modulor was meant as a universal system of proportions. • The ambition was vast: it was devised to reconcile maths, the human form, architecture and beauty into a single system. • This system could then be used to provide the measurements for all aspects of design from door handles to cities, and Corbusier believed that it could be further applied to industry and mechanics. • As is often said, a six-foot rule is hardly fair to women and children.
  30. 30. Cities Aren’t Designed For Women • Cities’ plans overwhelmingly don’t address women’s needs, their planning or zoning boards aren’t aware of them and local developers aren’t responsive to them, according to a 2014 survey of more than 600 planners. • Some of the challenges women face may seem simple, such as: – having to navigate poorly maintained sidewalks or stairs with a stroller – use restrooms without trash containers or changing tables. – avoiding public transit rather than facing conditions, like desolate and poorly lit bus stops, that make them feel unsafe. • The built environment — things like the accessibility of public space, zoning for housing and transportation design — can marginalize women and jeopardize their safety.
  31. 31. Different needs • Women use cities differently from men in many ways, according to the American Planning Association and Cornell University’s Women’s Planning Forum: – They have higher poverty rates and different housing needs, – They are still responsible for the majority of housework and childcare – They have unique travel behavior related to their combination of work and household responsibilities.
  32. 32. A city’s layout imposes a significant time burden on women • Where resources like water or schools are located matters as well. • WHO estimates that 72% of the burden of collecting water at standpipes, wells, rivers and other storage units falls on women. • The multiple trips a day to and from water sources eat up women’s time, drawing them away from other activities like education and employment.
  33. 33. Women and men use public spaces, buildings, and even access basic services differently • In areas where resources of all kinds are more limited, these disparities become especially acute, affecting women’s safety, movement and income. • This is particularly true in parts of the global south, where urban planning struggles to even keep up with basic use – much less encourage gender equality. • Separate toilet facilities for women at markets and transportation hubs across the country are identified as a key need.
  34. 34. Nowhere in the world has a city yet been conceived and constructed along the lines that these women planners would like. • Nowhere in the world do women, and others who share the inclusive goals of gender planning, have the political power or access to capital that such an urban renewal project would require. – lack of workplace creches, – continuing arguments about breastfeeding in public places – concerns that women cyclists are more vulnerable to being killed and injured on the roads. • Such issues signal a more productive direction for public discussion of the built environment, surely, than the recent kerfuffle over the suggested resemblance of Zaha Hadid’s 2022 Qatar World Cup stadium to a vagina, or what we think of the latest skyscraper.
  35. 35. Top-down planning is never effective • The women who are potentially the worst affected in unsafe conditions are the very ones who have no voice in deciding the contours of the city or ways to make it safer. • One has often wondered why it is so hard to involve communities in planning their own living and working spaces. • Urban design should better reflect the aspirations, imaginations and requirements of all sections of the population. • Where should the public toilet be? Where should the water source be located? Which is the best site for the school?
  36. 36. Fewer than one-fifth of U.S. cities with populations over 30,000 have female mayors • There aren’t many women in political power or at the helm of influential organizations that steer cities’ futures, said Daphne Spain, author of Constructive Feminism: Women’s Spaces and Women’s Rights in the American City. • Women are often at the forefront of grassroots efforts to address issues that affect themselves and their families, like tenants’ rights and environmental hazards, but they’re underrepresentedin leadership roles, Spain told HuffPost. • Thirty percent of council members in the largest cities are women, down from 33 percent in 2010. • Women are underrepresented in the fields of planning, architectureand real estate development, particularly at the top.
  37. 37. The biggest decisions about urban development are mainly made by men • In the UK, where I did the research for this article, one recent survey found the number of women in architecture firms fell from 28% to 21% between 2009 and 2011. • “You had to clearly articulate the community role of women” – and stresses that the built environment means not simply buildings and public spaces, but also “the way people are in them”.
  38. 38. “We have policy blindness around gender.” • “We basically do not have good examples of gender-sensitive planning in the U.S.,” Mildred Warner, the Cornell planning professor who led the survey with the APA, told HuffPost. • Stop Street Harassment founder and executive director Holly Kearl described the challenge of getting her message to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority several years ago. • They were “saying that one person’s harassment was another person’s flirting, and it wasn’t a problem on their system,” Kearl said.
  39. 39. Safety Design is a feminist issue.
  40. 40. Today no feminist or minority-friendly city exists yet • In many parts of the world, women can’t even go out on their own without being harassed, points out Caren Levy, who once worked for Caroline Moser and is now a professor at UCL. • She studies public transport, an area of heightened concern for policymakers in light of horrific crimes such as the gang rape and murder on a Delhi bus in 2012 of Jyoti Singh Pandey. • But despite such tragedies, and the proof they provide that women must be taken into account when strategic decisions around transport planning are made, Levy says gender remains at the fringe of policy debate, if it is there at all: • “It’s clearly very hard to talk about questions of gender if you don’t talk about people in the first place, and there are elements of planning that are very technocratic.”
  41. 41. In France 100% of women have experienced harassment in the transportation system
  42. 42. In 2016, ActionAid conducted a survey on street harassment in a number of countries. • They found that 79% of women living in cities in India, 86% in Thailand, and 89% in Brazil have been subjected to harassment or violence in public, as had 75% of women in London, UK. • http://www.stopstreetharassment.org/resources/statistics/statistics- academic-studies/ç
  43. 43. Source: Thomson Reuters
  44. 44. Basic safety is a top concern for women in public spaces across the world. • The statistics are sobering, more than 83% of Egyptian women have been sexually harassed on Cairo’s streets; a rape is reported every 29 minutes in New Delhi and only 12% of women in Lima feel safe in the city, according to the UN. • Originally launched in 2009, UN Women’s Safe Cities campaign aimed to prevent sexual violence in pilot cities, and recommended two straightforward infrastructure improvements in Delhi: more streetlights and improving roadside toilets. • Public toilets, particularly, are often insecure for women. • The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that one in three women around the world do not have access to separate toilet facilities and must use communal facilities instead, which increases their risk of sexual violence. • A study in Cape Town’s Khayelitsha township showed that doubling the number of properly functioning public toilets in the area would reduce sexual assaults by 30%.
  45. 45. A right to safety • Every woman wants to feel safe while going to work, school or running errand. • Sexual violence and harassment are another reason women and girls experience cities differently from men. • Henriette Reker, mayor of Cologne, was stabbed in the neck by a male attacker the day before last year’s election.
  46. 46. The space issue
  47. 47. The dominant tends to occupy more space • In a waiting room, men tend to occupy more space than women. Same about the use of the armrest in planes. • Women tend to have smaller offices,smaller cars. • Men tend to invade the personal space of women more than the other way round. Men tend to touch women more often than the other way round establishing the domination relationship. • When men feel their personal space is invaded, they react aggressively.Women withdraw and flee.
  48. 48. Feminity is valued by the little space occupied while manhood requires spreading
  49. 49. This occupying the space strategy tackles as well the leisure space
  50. 50. Young men get the power to make public space their own and to model it according to their values. • 75% of leisure urban equipments are designed for boys. • Free leisure places (skateparks, city stadiums) are predominantly occupied by young boys. • Girls rapidly don’t feel welcomed. • Example of the swimming pool: how girls try to avoid boys’ gaze: feel insecure and as if the space were not theirs. • This is reinforced by parents who limit their daughters to go out and use public space. • https://antisexisme.net/2012/04/09/le-genre-et- lespace/
  51. 51. The dominating power of staring • Men staring at you (even silently) does not make you feel welcomed in the public space. Especially if they are in groups. • Women learn very young to adapt their behavior: – Lower the gaze. Avoid eye contact. – Try to dress differently to be less noticeable. – Change sidewalks. • But the discomfort remains. • Staring is power over as well.
  52. 52. Many stereotypes limit women cycling
  53. 53. Women are taught to be more cautious and care more about their outfit
  54. 54. Women’s clothes restrict movements or behaviours • Tight clothes prevent large moves, women with skirts or dresses have to be careful so that their underwear is not seen.
  55. 55. So how can women reclaim the public space?
  56. 56. “When society wants to keep a woman safe, it never chooses to make public spaces safe for her” #whyloiter • It instead tries to limit her right to this space. • It highlights the way in which the media, as well as general discourse tends to focus on the dangers that face women who “dare to cross prescribed lines”.
  57. 57. Being in public space without any apparent reason is not appropriate for females #whyloiter • #WhyLoiter initiative is also collaborating with other feminist organisations like Blank Noise, Feminism in India, Prajnya, Queer Feminist India, Girls at Dhabas (from Pakistan), The Fearless Collective, Point of View and CREA.
  58. 58. In Karachi
  59. 59. In France
  60. 60. In Tunisia
  61. 61. A recent project entitled #WECount, between the Women’s Equality Party and My Body Back, sought to “reclaim our streets for women”
  62. 62. Take Back the Metro invites transport systems to warn passengers about sexist violences (and not only about pickpockets or the gap to mind)
  63. 63. In Cairo
  64. 64. In New York
  65. 65. Providing safe transportation
  66. 66. WOMEN-ONLY TRANSPORTATION SCHEMES
  67. 67. “Protection” has often been used to repress people • In previous centuries, women weren’t allowed to go out without a chaperone, under the guise of needing protection. • In modern times, women in countries like Saudi Arabia still live under protective rules where they can’t drive a car alone, and must travel with a male guardian in public. • When you take away a woman’s agency, you take away her freedom. • This phenomenon is what Glick calls “the protection racket”.
  68. 68. Segregation as a band aid • “We want to cherish and protect women, and these special spaces will do that,” Chrisler explained to me. • “But benevolent sexism is still sexism … • When women are exposed to benevolent sexism it interferes with their cognition and how they see themselves.”
  69. 69. How do we transform our world culture to one in which women are not constantly harassed by men? • “The real change has to come in how we socialize men and how we punish sexual assault,” said Glick. • As things currently stand, we’re a long way from a feminist Utopia. • In the meantime, slapping some pink paint on the problem is unlikely to solve it—but at the very least, it could help save some lives.
  70. 70. Designing a city with women in mind
  71. 71. Gender mainstreaming has been in place in the Austrian capital since the early 1990s • In practice, this means city administrators create laws, rules and regulations that benefit men and women equally. • The goal is to provide equal access to city resources. • And so far, officials say it's working.
  72. 72. In the 1990s, a simple survey in Vienna led urban planners to rethink their whole approach to infrastructure development. • The questionnaire asked residents why and how they used public transportation, and the results were striking because men and women had very different responses. – Men’s typical route was short and simple: often to and from work. – Women’s responses, however, were complex and varied, usually including multiple trips a day on the metro as well as on foot: dropping off children at school, going to the doctor, getting groceries, visiting an older family member, back to school for pick up. • This prompted a moment of realisation for Vienna’s city planners: infrastructure has a gendered aspect to it; women and men have different needs and uses for public structures and systems. • As a result, the planners adapted transportation projects to women’s needs, adding street lights so women were safer walking at night and widening sidewalks to make it easier to move around with walkers, strollers or wheelchairs.
  73. 73. Concrete examples from Vienna’s experience • The researchers observed that boys were often more assertive than girls; when both tried to lay claim to a sports field or ball court, the boys usually won. • So planners from the gender unit hired landscape architects for six new parks that included features such as high perches for girls where they could see across the park; fences that had gaps in them, so they wouldn’t feel trapped; and different ball and sports courts, so if one space was taken over by boys, they’d have other options to play. • They widened sidewalks and built huge ramps near a major intersection to make movement easier for people with strollers, wheelchairs or walkers. They added lighting to streets to make women feel safer at night, and moved bus stops to spots where women felt comfortable waiting. • Today, in a policy known as “gender mainstreaming” or “fair-shared cities,” every design decision in Vienna takes into account the needs of girls and women – as well as other often overlooked groups, such as immigrants and the disabled.
  74. 74. “If you are using public space, you are also becoming a public person,” says Kail. • As Vienna has transformed, the political aspect of the change has become increasingly clear, says gender unit head planner Eva Kail. • “In Europe, starting with Greek democracy, all the revolutions started in public places. Political history is always connected with specific spots in city. To be able to be in the city, in the way you want to be, shows in a really clear way what your chances in society are.”
  75. 75. Examples of Gender criteria • Sufficient lighting throughout the park and on park trails • Adequate visibility around the area • Some play areas close to adjacent to housing to permit social monitoring • A clear spatial layout of the whole park and play zones • Multifunctional play areas, i.e. special areas for activities favoured by girls, such as volleyball and badminton • Hollows in the open field that can be used for ball games, as arenas, for gymnastics, for sitting together and for sunbathing • Park keepers.
  76. 76. 1 GENDER MAINSTREAMING MADE EASY Practical advice for more gender equality in the Vienna City Administration Fdaftr Executive Group for Organisation, Safety and Security (MD-OS) Section for Gender Mainstreaming Recommended reading: Bergmann, Nadja / Pimminger, Irene (2004): Praxis-Handbuch Gender Mainstreaming MA 57 – Frauenförderung und Gender mainstreaming and promotion of women Women are usually the ones most affected by gender-based inequalities. Therefore, both gender mainstreaming and promotion of women should be applied to com- plement one another. Specific promotion of women aims to make inequalities visi- ble, rectify them, and provide special support (“repairing issues”). Gender main- streaming uses those findings and attempts to change regulations and ways of thinking in the long term so that inequalities no longer occur in future (“prevention”). Promotion of women Gender mainstreaming directed at women considers the situations of women and men aims to rectify existing unequal treatment of women aims to change frameworks and structures that create inequalities provides measures for women integrates an equality perspective into all measures Typically female – typically male Even though laws and regulations have granted women and men equal rights and duties since the 1970s, gender roles are still very present in our society. The divi- sion into “typically female” and “typically male” still dominates our thinking and limits the scope of action and development of girls and boys, women and men. Al- though the boundaries between what is considered female or male are more fluid than 30 years ago, female apprentices still predominantly go into retail or hair- dressing, while male apprentices tend to choose technical or manual trades. There
  77. 77. Principle No.4: T Wo he m ge e nd n a e n r d ra m ti e o n a a t a re ll e le q v u e ally of inv w o or lve k d in d ls a and ecision making. h an s d a r n esu imp lts. ac d t ecis Ens on ur p ion roc m es a s k a e i e a bal n- s ng ced gender ratio. THE FIVE PRINCIPLES OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING If you follow these five principles, you will notice that gender mainstreaming is easier than you think.
  78. 78. THE 4 R METHOD The 4 R method is a very simple but highly successful gender analysis tool. It is the basis for the application of gender mainstreaming in most areas addressed in this manual. The 4 R method Who (representation) gets what (resources) and why or why not (reality and rights)? is based on one core question: Reality refers to the different living conditions and situations of women and men. W Ea it ch h o th f es th e s e fo im ur pl a e q rea u s es com tion e s s , w yo it u h c a an nu ex m am ber in of e d in if di fer vi en du t a a l r q eas ues o t f ion wo s ( rk, see below). a is n u d s s e e d rv a i c ce ros s s for Eu t r h o e p ir e g – e i n nc de lud r im ing pa t ct he . C Th it e y 4 of R V m ie e nna tho . d is originally from p S r w od e u de ct n s and F b 1 ir e . R s e gi pres • t nni ask y ng e o o n u f a t r a s g el ti e o f nd n w e h r o t an h a e lys us i er s. s of your services are. Listing them by gender is the • • W Do ho yo ne u kn ed ow the exact numb Who canno s t t u hi s s e s t e h rvi e s c e e rv p i a ce rt ? ic e ul rs a ? rl O y? r can you estimate the ratio? Ex W tion h am e or r p e m l p es: o i s g s r i a b t l i e on , y b ou ac s k h g ou rou ld n a d. lso consider other factors such as age, income situa- W us h es o p re a ce rk i s v a e n s d cer pu ta b in lic w sw el i f m ar m e i b n en g p ef ool its s ? ? W W h h o o u us s e e s s a in su fo b r s m idised sports facility? Who 2 u How t . R ed e b a s et r o e u w fi rc een n e a s n ation and help lines? cia • the services? wo l m a en nd a o n th d e m r r en es ? ou Do rce al s l u (t s i e m r e s h , a a c v ce e s eq s t u o i al n a for cces m s at to ion in , f s o p r a m ce a ) ti di on s ab trib- out • W an h d at m k o in ney d o b f e im tw p een act w do o t m h en e ser an v d ic m es en h ? ave on the distribution of time, space ( Do e.g t . h a e v s a er ila v ble ices ti tak me e in , inc ac om co e u , e n d t u th ca e t d io if n f ) er ? ent living circumstances
  79. 79. 10 F b 1 ir e . R s e gi pres • t nni ask y ng e o o n u f a t r a s g el ti e o f nd n w e h r o t an h a e lys us i er s. s of your services are. Listing them by gender is the • • W Do ho yo ne u kn ed ow the exact numb Who canno s t t u hi s s e s t e h rvi e s c e e rv p i a ce rt ? ic e ul rs a ? rl O y? r can you estimate the ratio? Ex W tion h am e or r p e m l p es: o i s g s r i a b t l i e on , y b ou ac s k h g ou rou ld n a d. lso consider other factors such as age, income situa- W us h es o p re a ce rk i s v a e n s d cer pu ta b in lic w sw el i f m ar m e i b n en g p ef ool its s ? ? W W h h o o u us s e e s s a in su fo b r s m idised sports facility? Who 2 u How t . R ed e b a s et r o e u w fi rc een n e a s n ation and help lines? cia • the services? wo l m a en nd a o n th d e m r r en es ? ou Do rce al s l u (t s i e m r e s h , a a c v ce e s eq s t u o i al n a for cces m s at to ion in , f s o p r a m ce a ) ti di on s ab trib- out hospital stays? How much room do homeless shelters have for women and men? Do information brochures address women and men equally? • W an h d at m k o in ney d o b f e im tw p een act w do o t m h en e ser an v d ic m es en h ? ave on the distribution of time, space • ( Do e.g t Do w . h a e v s a er ila v ble ices o t men and m i tak me e in , inc ac om co e u , e n d t u th ca e t d io if n f ) er ? ent living circumstances the services? en really have the same opportunities to use Ex Wh am o cl pl a e i s: ms more space in parks, playgrounds or waiting rooms? How long are
  80. 80. Recommended reading: Doblhofer, Doris / Küng, Zita (2008): Gender Mainstreaming. Gleichstellungsmanagement als Erfolgsfaktor – das Praxisbuch, Heidelberg 3. Reality Why is the situation what it is? How can it be changed? This step is a first assess- ment of the background and causes of gender differences. It questions roles, values and traditional ways of doing things. • Are the different interests and needs of women and men taken into ac- count? • Are women and men who, e.g., seek advice faced with different attitudes or preconceived notions? • Is there a factual reason for the different treatment of women and men or might it even be necessary in order to eradicate discrimination? Example: Girls and boys have the same general access to sports facilities. However, due to different values in their upbringing, role models and the portrayal of sports in the media, they are not interested in the same kinds of sports. Without targeted sup- port and promotion, girls do not have the same opportunities when it comes to sports as boys do. 4. Rights Does the legal framework provide sufficient protection from disadvantages and discrimination? Do not only consider laws but also ordinances and internal regulations (e.g. access to subsidies or opportunity to use a facility). • Are all target groups equally informed about the legal situation? • Do the current regulations take the different realities of women and men into account? • What other regulations are needed to ensure equal opportunities? Examples: Do the legal regulations concerning opening hours take into account different life and work rhythms (e.g. opening hours of kindergartens, counselling centres or
  81. 81. Recommended reading: Doblhofer, Doris / Küng, Zita (2008): Gender Mainstreaming. Gleichstellungsmanagement als Erfolgsfaktor – das Praxisbuch, Heidelberg It questions roles, values and traditional ways of doing things. • Are the different interests and needs of women and men taken into ac- count? • Are women and men who, e.g., seek advice faced with different attitudes or preconceived notions? • Is there a factual reason for the different treatment of women and men or might it even be necessary in order to eradicate discrimination? Example: Girls and boys have the same general access to sports facilities. However, due to different values in their upbringing, role models and the portrayal of sports in the media, they are not interested in the same kinds of sports. Without targeted sup- port and promotion, girls do not have the same opportunities when it comes to sports as boys do. 4. Rights Does the legal framework provide sufficient protection from disadvantages and discrimination? Do not only consider laws but also ordinances and internal regulations (e.g. access to subsidies or opportunity to use a facility). • Are all target groups equally informed about the legal situation? • Do the current regulations take the different realities of women and men into account? • What other regulations are needed to ensure equal opportunities? Examples: Do the legal regulations concerning opening hours take into account different life and work rhythms (e.g. opening hours of kindergartens, counselling centres or public offices, school holiday care for children)? Do laws concerning the minimum width of sidewalks consider the needs of pedestrians or people with prams?
  82. 82. Gender budgeting allows you to implement gender balanced the financial planning • The City of Vienna spends a lot of money for its citizens in many different areas every day. – Which proportion of that money benefits women and men? – Applying gender mainstreaming and promotion of women in procurement ensures that the money also contributes to the equality of women and men in private business. • The goal is to distribute the budget equally among women and men.
  83. 83. Mixed communities, mixed neighbourhoods, and mixed land use make for a greater sense of safety. • Women in public spaces reported feeling safer when there were “eyes on the road”, when there were people around: vendors, shopkeepers, rickshaw drivers and others who use the streets and make a living on them. • Women feel safer when they can freely use local transport and move around without any threat or fear of sexual harassment. • The “sanitisation” or “beautification” of cities, where working class communities are re-located to distant sites and street vendors are taken off the roads, actually ends up making them more prone to crime and generates a feeling of insecurity.
  84. 84. Incorporating women’s needs starts with better data • The good news is cities around the world have made progress incorporating the needs of both genders in infrastructure planning, but this has not yet been institutionalised everywhere. • As a first step, we need a better understanding of how women and men experience and use public spaces. Sometimes the implications are counter-intuitive to typical planning. For example, urban investments that focused on “cleaning up” and beautifying cities in India drove off roadside hawkers and street vendors. But it was these extra eyes and people on the street that helped women feel and stay safe. • Currently, the limited amount of urban datasets that track and trend data on gender make it hard to develop infrastructure programmes that factor in women’s needs. According to the Hunger Report, 92% of gender specific economic data and 76.9% of gender health data is missing from sub- Saharan Africa. Cities and municipal authorities should mandate that existing surveys or other forms of input from residents mirror the demographics of the area – proportional to the gender balance and also by age.
  85. 85. One of the encouraging areas of change is in public transit • Several U.S. cities have acknowledged the issue of sexual harassment and worked to combat it with publicity campaigns and tools that allow victims to easily report it. • There’s more that can be done, however. For example, a Toronto- based organization created a “safety audits” program, which allows women to identify where they feel unsafe and has been replicated in cities around the world. • Considering women’s concerns doesn’t hurt men or other groups. Instead, it helps cities reflect the needs of all residents, Warner and the other researchers argue in their report: • Asking “Would a woman feel comfortable walking here at dusk?” and getting an affirmative response likely means that most people will feel comfortable using the space. Women can be used as a bellwether for safety, as well as other planning priorities. Regarding transportation planning, women are choice riders: if more women ride transit, more people will ride.
  86. 86. Gendered patterns in use of space > Poorly considered land-use zoning policy separates residential areas from employment locations, with a greater impact on women’s mobility. > Women make more complex journeys than men, often travelling to childcare, school, work, and shops. More than twice as many women as men are responsible for escorting children to school. > Seventy-five per cent of bus journeys are undertaken by women > Only thirty per cent of women have access to the use of a car during the daytime. > Poor public transport and lack of caring facilities and shopping outlets near employment locations restrict women’s access to the labour market. > Women feel less safe than men being out alone after dark, especially in the inner city, or social housing estates.1 A virtuous circle? When planning takes into account the different needs of women and men, this means: > public transport routes that support women’s travel patterns > measures to make public space feel safer at night > more support facilities, such as local shops, childcare, and public toilets > employment opportunities locally, meaning more mixed use development > more women would be able to take employment, training, and leisure opportunities > economic development opportunities would be increased > social inclusion programmes would be more effective. Gender Equality Duty on public authorities to look at the barriers, examine planning levels, and recommend changes, giving examples of good practice. Land-use planning provides the spatial setting for government policy, shaping the way our towns and cities are designed. However, planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women and men use public space very differently and have different concerns about how it meets their needs. For more detailed guidance, we recommend the Royal Town Planning Institute Good Practice Note on Gender and Spatial Planning (RTPI, 2007) Planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women and men use public space very differently continued overleaf… section ocuments/ ate y G.Alber Women nts ernment Planning ng: The l Town on rating ing: of by Louise University g.uk re?: Royal art on ation. Gendered patterns in use of space > Poorly considered land-use zoning policy separates residential areas from employment locations, with a greater impact on women’s mobility. > Women make more complex journeys than men, often travelling to childcare, school, work, and shops. More than twice as many women as men are responsible A virtuous circle? When planning takes into account the different needs of women and men, this means: > public transport routes that support women’s travel patterns > measures to make public space feel safer at night Why is planning a gender issue? Looking at gender issues in planning is central to success in economic regeneration and social inclusion. We take the opportunity of the new Gender Equality Duty on public authorities to look at the barriers, examine planning levels, and recommend changes, giving examples of good practice. Land-use planning provides the spatial setting for government policy, shaping the way our towns and cities are designed. However, planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women and men use public space very differently and have different concerns about how it meets their needs. For more detailed guidance, we recommend the Royal Town Planning Institute Good Practice Note on Gender and Spatial Planning (RTPI, 2007) A place for everyone? Gender equality and urban planning A ReGender Briefing Paper Planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women and men use public space very differently
  87. 87. ney patterns between home and work, e represented on decision-making ation committees. ut what really concerns both women , public participation needs to nclude them. Gateway Forum, as a result of a new h to participation, pioneered innovative involving women in decision-making, onally ‘male’ technical transport . Rather than restricting consultation dy agreed policy issues, women n in the community were encouraged heir concerns. Women drew on to station toilet provision, fety at unstaffed stations, and off-peak journey provision for part-time workers.7 4. Local authority planners, using a proactive approach, have a major role in ensuring gender is taken into account locally. For example, Leicester has established a model gender monitoring system in its evelopment control department.15 Local ority technical departments can have nd effect on women’s access to, ement within the built environment. h has found that if public toilets are able at transport termini and in city within walking distance, some women ravel at all.8 g law is influential. Reasonable quirements should be included in lopment plan (with detail provided, sary, in a SPD). The move from land patial planning, which takes into account social, environmental and economic s, should reduce the risk of reasonable quirements being ‘ultra vires’ (‘beyond An inclusive and creative aproach to g gain’, through Section 106 agreements lt in gender-related provision, such as irement for childcare provision as part ommercial development.9, 10 Recommendations Getting policy and practice right > Gender should be a key consideration in all overarching policy areas including sustainability policy and economic development.11 This would also contribute towards high-level policy objectives in social inclusion, housing policy, healthy cities, crime reduction, liveability, transport planning and urban regeneration (Department of Communities and Local Government, 200612 ). > Revisions to national planning guidance, including Planning Policy Statements, should incorporate advice on the gender implications of specific planning policy topics. Gender guidance at national level should be cascaded down through the Government Offices, and taken into account by Regional Development Agencies, strengthening government support for gender-sensitive planning at local planning authority level. > Local planning authorities should develop gender-disaggregated statistical data on the needs of men and women, when monitoring transport planning policies, use of facilities and types of development, complaints, feedback and public participation exercises. > Gender considerations need to be taken into account at the local planning level, on development control practice and management, and in all aspects of local area decision-making. To make this requirement effective the scope and remit of planning law needs clarification and revision to accommodate the requirements of the new equality agenda, and the Gender Equality Duty in particular. > Local authority technical departments, and transport operations need to develop awareness as to the different impact of their work on women and men. Areas of responsibility include design and maintenance of street lighting, highways, railway stations, public toilets, refuse disposal, and street management. > Planning policy should take into account the requirements of women as well as men in the location of different land uses and the transport links between them at strategic and city-wide level.13 > More public transport routes are needed within and between local areas, especially in the suburbs and for more off-peak provision for those undertaking part-time work locally. Hearing from women and men > The specific needs of women and men need to be actively brought into “Statements of Community Involvement”, now a statutory requirement in the new planning system. Practical issues such as when, where and how meetings are held, and a more open, proactive approach is needed, rather than a fixed agenda to comment on. > Men are the majority of planners and urban decision makers, and they need to be aware of the different needs of women and men. Examples of good practice include gender- sensitive training schemes for planning inspectors.14 Gender awareness training should be integral to educational programmes, degree courses, and Continuing Professional Development alongside other overarching issues such as sustainability and transportation policy. > Women should be encouraged into the built environment professions, such as surveying, architecture and engineering. There are fewer women in the commercial sector of property development and therefore there is unlikely to be an consideration of gender issues in the deliberations on regeneration schemes.15 For example, currently, the Royal Institute of British Architects is acting upon research recommendations to recruit and retain more women architects.16 > Guidance and support is already out there: the RTPI Toolkit (RTPI, 2003) and the Equality Score Card (RTPI, 007) enable local planning authorities to integrate gender considerations into planning. Gender should be a key consideration in all overarching policy areas including sustainability policy and economic development
  88. 88. Nine female mayors out of 57 high-profile cities provides hope
  89. 89. Future vision • Cyvette Gibson, Paynesville’s first female: “I always say women build differently than men. Men build for today but women build for tomorrow because we’re interested in making sure we have some form of security for our children. That’s why we elected a woman as president in Liberia – we knew we needed a woman to rebuild our nation.”
  90. 90. Different perspective • While not every woman mayor is a feminist with the specific goal of improving the lives of women in their city, it is still the case that women bring with them a set of experiences different in important ways from those of many of their male peers. • “If you’ve never tried to put a buggy on a bus, you don’t really understand what many women’s experience of public transport is,” Childs says, adding that there’s a burgeoning argument for childcare to be thought about as infrastructure – not just roads and rail.

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