Ontology of KM technologies


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Describes an ontology of KM technologies based on four generic modes of support for business strategy. Article to be published in the Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007.

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Ontology of KM technologies

  1. 1. A Strategy-Based Ontology of Knowledge Management Technologies André Saito, Katsuhiro Umemoto and Mitsuru Ikeda Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Graduate School of Knowledge Science Journal of Knowledge Management Vol. 11, No. 1 (2007) Ver 1.1 – 2006.01.17
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Knowledge management (KM) is still emerging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The word knowledge has many different meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributions come from many disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The role of technology in KM needs further explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology itself is complex and fast-paced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing accounts present limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A link between KM technologies and strategy is missing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM itself suffers from lack of strategic alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic alignment of IT is a well known issue </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives and Methodology <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe the relations among technology, KM, and strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To categorize available KM technologies according to those relations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ontology development method was used to identify and formally define concepts and their relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sub-domains were mapped: KM technologies and KM strategy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Findings on KM strategy <ul><li>Three meanings associated to the term: </li></ul><ul><li>An approach to KM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express a particular perspective on knowledge and how it can be managed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A knowledge strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and prioritize knowledge to be managed, based on its contribution to business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A KM implementation strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes steps and conditions for the successful implementation of KM initiatives </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. KM strategy as… Approach to KM
  6. 6. KM strategy as… Knowledge strategy
  7. 7. KM strategy as… KM implementation strategy
  8. 8. KM strategy conceptual map
  9. 9. Findings on KM technologies <ul><li>Common sources of misunderstanding: </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies are usually associated with knowledge processes , which are numerous and highly context-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies are usually integrated into systems, in many different levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Component technologies ≠ KM systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM systems can be either generic or domain-specific applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic KM applications ≠ Business applications </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. An ontology of KM technologies <ul><li>Three basic categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Component technologies (integrated into other systems) </li></ul><ul><li>KM applications (for general knowledge processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Business applications with KM functionality (for specific business processes) </li></ul>
  11. 11. KM component technologies <ul><li>Storage . Databases, repositories, file-servers, data warehouses, data marts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity . Internet, security, wireless, mobility, authentication, P2P, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication . E-mail, mailing lists, discussion groups, chat, instant messaging, audio/video conferencing, VoIP, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring . Office suites, desktop publishing, graphic suites, multimedia, imaging, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution . Web, intranets, extranets, enterprise portals, personalization, syndication, audio/video streaming, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Search . Search engines, search agents, indexing, glossaries, thesauri, taxonomies, ontologies, collaborative filtering, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytics . Query, reporting, multi-dimensional analysis (OLAP), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow . Process modeling, process engines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning . Interactive multimedia (CBT), web seminars, simulations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration . Calendaring, file sharing, meeting support, application sharing, group decision support, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Community . Community management, web logs, wikis, social network analysis, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity . Cognitive mapping, idea generation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Data mining . Statistical techniques, multi-dimensional analysis, neural networks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Text mining . Semantic analysis, Bayesian inference, natural language processing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Web mining . Collaborative profiling, intelligent agents, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization . 2D and 3D navigation, geographic mapping, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization . Ontology development, ontology acquisition, taxonomies, glossaries, thesauri, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning . Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning, knowledge-bases, machine learning, fuzzy logic, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. KM applications <ul><li>Document management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate the control of electronic documents through their entire life-cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the whole Web publishing process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate the flow of tasks and information across business processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support work and collaboration of groups and teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the management of project activities and resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate interaction in large groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate a series of tools for decision making. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovery and data mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the identification of patterns and in large amounts of data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search and organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate access to and organize unstructured content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate access to a range of information at a single point of entry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the delivery of online courses in a variety of formats. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expertise management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brokers expertise in large communities. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Business apps with KM funcionality Sales Force Automation Contact Center Field Service Self-Service E-Commerce Campaign Management Representative Customer Backoffice systems Operational CRM Analytical CRM Data warehousing Analytical applications Segmentation Profiling Personalization Profitability analysis Needs analysis Sales analysis Campaign analysis Etc. Solutions database Customer profiling Information on demand Focus groups
  14. 14. Linking KM technologies to strategy <ul><li>A KM program is strategic if it includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A knowledge strategy that defines knowledge intents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM initiatives that support those knowledge intents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM initiatives are inherently associated with particular approaches to KM </li></ul>Four generic modes of KM support for strategy Knowledge transfer through codification Knowledge transfer through personalization Knowledge creation through codification Knowledge creation through personalization Creation Transfer Personalization Codification
  15. 15. KM component technologies Repository Connectivity Storage Authoring Search Workflow Organization Reasoning Dissemination Connectivity Communication Authoring Distribution E-learning Collaboration Community Discovery Storage Search Analytics Data mining Text mining Web mining Visualization Collaboration Connectivity Communication Authoring Collaboration Community Creativity Workflow Creation Transfer Personalization Codification
  16. 16. KM applications Repository Document management Content management Process management Dissemination Enterprise portals Learning management Expertise management Discovery Decision support Discovery & data mining Search & organization Collaboration Group support Project management Community support Creation Transfer Personalization Codification
  17. 17. An ontology of KM technologies
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>A wide range of technologies can support KM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three basic categories : component technologies , KM apps and business apps with KM functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM applications summarize KM functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM technologies are linked to strategy through KM initiatives that support specific knowledge intents </li></ul><ul><li>There are four generic modes of technological support for strategy in KM </li></ul>
  19. 19. Some implications <ul><li>For research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM technologies can be better analyzed in the context of KM initiatives instead of knowledge processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There seems to be exemplary KM initiatives that connect specific knowledge intents to typical approaches to KM and KM technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance in the design of particular KM strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance in the selection of adequate KM technologies for particular KM initiatives </li></ul></ul>