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  1. 1. Presentation on Ottoman Empire Presented by: Malik Asadullah Shahid
  2. 2. Origin : • After Baghdad fell to the Mongols , the Seljuks declared an independent sultanate in East and Central Asia minor. • In 1301, UTHMAN, the Uzbek of the Ottoman clan overthrow the seljuk aristocracy and proclaimed himself the Sultan of Asia minor. • Othman was a son of Etrul Ghazi and Khalima Khanum and reined the empire until his death.
  3. 3. Introduction: • The Ottoman Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history. • During the peak time of this empire following countries became the part of this empire including Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Parts of Arabia, and much of the Coastal strip of North Africa. • The Empire began to decline after being defeated at the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and losing almost its entire navy.
  4. 4. Language: • Educated Ottoman Turks spoke Arabic and Persian. • Turkish alphabets are based on Arabic alphabet. • Turkish was formed by Arabic letters, Persian letters and additional letters in Turkish.
  5. 5. Food: • Ottomans was the food lovers. • Food they eat includes soups, pilafs, kebabs, vegetables, fish, breads, pastries, candy and halva, syrup and jams and beverages, fed as many as ten thousand people a day and, in addition, sent trays of food to others in the city as a royal favor. • The importance of food has been also evident in the structure of the Ottoman military elite, the Janissaries.
  6. 6. Festivals • Crowning the prince was one of the most celebrated festival in Ottoman Empire. • In 1582, Ottoman sultan, Murat III, wanted to show the splendor and the power of the Ottoman Empire and decided to show it through a festival on the occasion of the circumcision of his crown prince, Mehmet. • This festival was lasted for 52 days and 52 nights.
  7. 7. Economy: • Economically the Ottoman Empire was the most powerful Empire in the history. • The city of Istanbul was the crossroads of trade between the East and West. • The Sultan received a fifth of all booty, a 10 % death tax and all property of civil servants on their death in addition to the numerous luxurious gifts he received, Sultan also owned all lands except for those of the mosques.
  8. 8. Sultans: • There was a total 36 number of Sultans who reigned the Ottoman Empire. • Osman (I) was the first Sultan and also the founder of Ottoman Empire. • Suleiman (I) was known to be the most powerful Sultan and also known as a religious leader. • Mehmed (VI) was the last Ottoman Emperor.
  9. 9. Conquest of Constantinople 1453 CE:• The fall of the Constantinople was the capture of the capital of Byzantine Empire which occurred after a siege laid by the Ottoman Empire, under the command of Sultan Mehmed (II). • The siege lasted from Thursday, 5 April 1453 until Tuesday, 29 May 1453 (according to the Julian calendar), when the city was conquered by the Ottomans.
  10. 10. Devshirme system:• Non-Muslims in parts of the empire had to hand over some of their children as a tax under the devshirme ('gathering') system introduced in the 14th century. • The devshirme played a key role in Mehmet's conquest of Constantinople, and from then on regularly held very senior posts in the imperial administration.
  11. 11. Architecture:• Turks was famous for their architecture. • They built Mosques, Mausoleums and Madrassahas. • Ottoman architecture was a mixture of Islamic and European traditions. • One of the other source of Ottoman architecture is Christian Art.
  12. 12. Golden Era:• This era is said to be under the Suleiman the magnificent (ruled 1520-1566 CE) and under his Grandson Selim (II) (ruled 1566-1574 CE). • Suleiman came to the throne as one of the wealthiest rulers in the world. • The wealth and stability of the Empire at this time attracted the top Muslim brains of the period, and craftsmen, artists, intellectuals and writers were eager to move to Istanbul.
  13. 13. Decline of Ottoman Empire:• Three major reasons played a role in the decline of Ottoman Empire. • Suleiman’s the magnificent death. • Janissaries demanding more pay while growing more slow and lazy. • Corruption .
  14. 14. Thank you 