Date of submission: 26-August-2013
Submitted to: Sir Abdur Rehman Ganiyani
“Presentation is defined as the act of formally giving something to someone or of formally
demonstrating or showing something”.
.According to Oxford Dictionary:
“The giving of something to someone, especially as part of a formal ceremony is called
“The manner or style in which something is given, offered, or displayed is called Presentation”.
An example of presentation is when a salesman holds a conference to show all his clients a
cool new product.
When a person address in an assembly or a hall.
Purposes of Presentation:
There are many purpose of giving presentations, but the four main purposes are as follows:
1. To inform
2. To persuade
3. To educate
4. To entertain
1. To inform:
Here your core goal is to clarify. Secure understanding, explain a process. The presenter, most often, is
making a presentation to inform. In brief, at the conclusion of your message you hope listeners have a better
comprehension of an issue, an idea, a process, a procedure.
For example: A manager informs his employees about the rules and policy of the company.
2. To persuade:
Gaining willing acceptance of an idea is core to persuasion. Note that the key word here is willing. Your goal
is that after you have finished your presentation. Listeners will accept your proposal, your claim, your thesis.
You hope they will do ask them to do. Advertisements also desire a positive result. But their tools of
presentation may include the oral plus many other kinds of persuasive devices.
For example: A salesman persuades public for buying the products.
3. To educate:
This type of presentation is to educate people, to provide knowledge, to share knowledge and ideas, and
experience in an effective way.
For example: A teacher give lecture to students.
4. To entertain:
This speaking genre may include not only humorous statements you will make-of which there will probable
will few-but also the numerous ceremonial, introductory, or stimulating statements. Social occasions such as
promotion parties, retirements, or anniversaries are characteristics of this kind of speaking.
For example: A stage artist performs on stage or an actor performed in a film on TV.
Types of giving Presentations:
There are four ways to give presentation.
1. Reading out
1. Reading out:
Major political figures and others who do not want to make a mistake read a manuscript. If they will be filmed
or have their statements appeared on the evening news, ad-libbing could lead to problems.
Few Presenters today memorize complete presentation. Nor should they. Often the first few words of a
statement can be memorized. But the time needed to recall a long speech is prohibited.
This method most preferred by audiences and presenters, allows a presenter to use notes or an outline. Use
this method whenever possible, it allows more eye contact with an audience, permits you to establish
rapport, and enables you to move with ease.
Many of us are called upon at the last moment to offer comments. When you speak “off the cuff” without
preparation. Without a forewarning that you will speak, you are speaking impromptu.
Steps of preparing Presentation:
During your career in the business world, you will give various kinds of oral presentation. Indeed, how your
capabilities are measured will initially occur based on your oral words. You need a strategy. Seven steps are
essential for successful oral statements, short or long. The more up-front preparation you do, the more confidence
you will have before a group.
1. Determine the purpose
2. Analyze the audience and occasion
3. Select the main ideas for the message
4. Research the topic
5. Organize the data and write the draft
6. Create visual aids
7. Rehearse the presentation
8. Deliver the presentation
1. Determine the purpose:
First we determine the purpose, what is our main purpose of presentation. We communicate to produce a
result. We wish something to occur as a result of our words. On the macro level these overall goals are to
inform, to persuade, to educate, to entertain.
2. Analyze the audience:
Whether one write or speaks, the message must be adapted to the audience. If your talk within your
organization, you will have some idea about who and how many people will be in the audience. Less
information is available when speaking to outside groups. Then seek out information such as the size of the
groups , age range, interests, goals, occupations, and other tidbits which could be incorporated into your
remarks. Some of that information may be obtained from the person who asked you to speak and from other
members of the group. If all audience members have the same occupation, such as purchasing agents or
computer salespersons, you can use more technical experience and illustrations.
3. Select the main idea of topic:
Selecting your main theme or your core ideas should be done first. Then gathering additional information will
be in support of those core ideas. Your first list of core ideas may be disorganized, haphazard, which is fine.
Later you can select those ideas that are workable and offer a unified theme.
4. Research the topic:
It is obvious that you will not possess all information relating to your central theme. Thus, as in writing, you
need to collect facts, data, and information. Your research may cause you to drop some of your initial ideas
and add new ones.
5. Organize the data and write the draft:
Assume that you have completed gathering your information. Then it is time to force some order on your
information. Usually in the form of an initial outline. as you do this . Remember that a good speech or
presentation has three parts, an introduction, a body, an conclusion or summary.
Traditionally an introduction seeks to do several things. Get attention. Include an aim or purpose, and lay out
the direction of the speech. An introduction we can include the historical background, definitions, agenda
Some people refer to the heart of the message as text or discussion. Here you include evidence, data for
your central theme; here you organize the supports for your central purpose. Organizing the body of the talk
is similar to developing the text or discussion of a major paper.
A summary reminds the audience of the main ideas covered in the body of the presentation, whereas a
conclusion draws inferences from the data. Regardless of your intent, there must be an ending or a “closing”
to your remarks.
6. Create visual aids:
Some presentation does not require visual aids. It would be odd to include an overhead of the major dates in
the career of a retiree; on the other hand, it would be odd not to include a visual when speaking about the
structure of an organization. A visual aids support our data to present.
7. Rehearse the talk:
Two purposes underlie rehearsals: you will become more comfortable with your material and you can still
revise where necessary. When rehearsing, stand and deliver your talk out loud. Keep in mind the following
tricks of rehearsal.
Always imagine that the audience in front of you.
Use transitional phrases and sentences to show your listeners the relationship between sections of
your report. Avoid long sentence and unusual words.
Take each of the main points one at a time and learn to present each with its supporting material as a
Include the visual aids you’ll use- and in the margin. Note where each aid should be used.
Anticipate questions from the audience. Jot them on paper and consider thoughtful answers.
Stop at the allotted time. Then cut and revise the speech accordingly until you can deliver it within the
same limit, allowing also for a question and answer period.
8. Deliver the presentation:
After the rehearsal you will be prepared for giving the presentation, getting ready for presentation.
Increasing your speaking skill in public is an achievable goal, especially with a little knowledge of the ways
that can help you deliver a presentation with confidence. The way you give your presentation must be