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# Logic FORMAL FALLACIES

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### Logic FORMAL FALLACIES

1. 1. Fallacy: “Any error or mistake in reasoning is called Fallacy”. The pattern of mistakes that appear in deductive argument of a certain specifiable form, it is a mistake in form of argument it is called Formal Fallacies. Formal Fallacy:
2. 2. Four Terms Undistributed Middle Illicit Major & Illicit Minor Exclusive Premises Drawing an Affirmative Conclusion from a negative premise. Existential Fallacy Formal Fallacy
3. 3. Four Terms: “Avalid form of categorical syllogism must contain exactly the three terms, each of which is used in the same sense throughout the argument”. Example: All are is a Therefore, 6th September is fruit.
4. 4. Undistributed middle: “In a valid standard form of categorical syllogism, the middle term(M) must be distributed in at least one premise”. Example: All Russians were . All anarchists were . Therefore, all anarchists were Russians.
5. 5. Illicit process of Major & Minor term: “A valid standard form of categorical syllogism, if either term is distributed in conclusion then it must be distributed in the premise”.Illicit Major: All dogs are No cats are dogs Therefore, No cats are . Illicit Minor: All mobiles are electronic device All mobiles are Therefore, all are electronic device.
6. 6. Exclusive Premise: “No standard form categorical syllogism having two negative premise is valid”. Example: Therefore, some magicians are not astrologers.
7. 7. Drawing an affirmative conclusions from a negative premise: “If either premise of a valid standard form categorical syllogism is negative, the conclusion must be negative”. Example: Some artists are poets Therefore, some artists are managers.
8. 8. Existential Fallacy: “No valid standard form categorical syllogism with a particular conclusion can have universal premise”. Example: All household pets are domestic animals No unicorn are domestic animals .