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  1. 1. An Operating system is a collection of integrated programs that provide recurring services to the other programs or to the user of a computer. These services consist of disk management, file management, and device management. Without an Operating system a computer would be useless.
  2. 2. It is a function of an operating system that allows users to interact with a computer. A user interface program may include a combination of menus, screen design, keyboard commands. An operating system manages a collection of computer hardware resources by using a variety of programs. Each hardware device is controlled by a piece of software, called a driver which allow the operating system to activate and use the device.
  3. 3. The data management function of an operating system govern the input & output of the data & their location, storage & retrieval. The task management function of operating system prepares, schedules,, controls & monitors task submitted for execution to ensure the most efficient processing. A task is a collection of one or more related programs & their data.
  4. 4. The operating system keeps track of all the files on each disk. Users can make file management easier by creating a hierarchical file system that include folders and subfolders arranged in a logical order.
  5. 5.  Most modern operating System, like windows and the Macintosh OS, provide a graphical user interface (GUI).  A GUI lets you control the system by using a mouse to click graphical object on screen.  A GUI is based on desktop metaphor. Graphical object appear on a background (the desktop), representing resources you can use.
  6. 6.  In GUI, icons are pictures that represent computer resources.  In a GUI, each program opens and runs in a separate window-a frame that present the program and its documents.
  7. 7.  In a command line interface, you type commands at a prompt. Under command line interfaces.  individual applications do not need to look or function the same way, so different programs can look very different.
  8. 8.  Very fast small operating system.  It build into device.  It respond quickly to user input.  This operating system is used in many devices like, MP3 Players, Medical devices, Electronic appliances ETC.
  9. 9.  One user work on the system.  It perform task at a time.  It take up little space on disk.  It run on inexpensive computer.  Examples are MS-DOS AND PALM- OS.
  10. 10.  User perform many tasks at once.  Most common form of operating system.  Required expensive computers.  Tend to be computer.  Examples are WINDOWS, MACINTOSH ETC.
  11. 11.  Many user connect to one computer.  Each user has a unique session.  Maintenance can be easy.  Require a powerful computer.  Examples are UNIX, LINUX ETC.
  13. 13.  In the early 1980’s, Microsoft got the right to QDOS(Quick and Dirty Operating system) developed by small company. Microsoft licenses a version called PC-DOS to IBM and its version , MS-DOS to other PC manufacturers.  DOS is the most popular microcomputer operating system.  It runs thousands of applications.  DOS does not require an expensive computer system.  DOS has direct access to 640 kilobytes of primary storage.  DOS is a single tasking operating system.  DOS has character face interface.
  14. 14.  UNIX was originally developed in 1969 by K.Thompson, R.Canaday and D.Ritchie for minicomputers. By the mid-1970’s, UNIX had been introduced to University of California at Berkeley by Thompson.  It is a multiuser, multitasking operating system that runs on many different computer systems from micro to main frame.  UNIX is written in C programming language.  UNIX allows users to run multiple programs simultaneously, UNIX also share it among different peoples.  UNIX can be connected through several different kinds of equipment. It can share files among them.  Limited application program is the disadvantage of UNIX.  There is not a standard GUI for many UNIX’s.  An application program is written for one version of UNIX may not run on other versions.
  15. 15.  Linux is a free version of UNIX, and its continual improvement results from the efforts of tens of thousands of volunteer programmers.  It is a open source software-meaning any programmer can download it from the internet for free and modify it with suggested improvements.  LINUX is more reliable than Windows for inline applications.  Runs on a wide range of hardware.  Has largest number of user interface types.  Can be used as server or desktop PC- DOS.  Limited commercial applications available.  Can be difficult to learn.
  16. 16.  The operating system for Apple’s Macintosh line of computer systems.  It uses graphical user interface.  It has a hierarchical file system.  Ease of use and learn.  It has a great video architecture that allows users to add multiple monitors to a computer.  It enables user to do multitasking.  It provide a high quality graphics processing for desktop publishing.  It is incompatible with DOS and Windows applications.
  17. 17.  This is a graphic based operating system from Microsoft.  In this windows user can run DOS applications and change data between them.  It allows cooperative multitasking capability.  A graphical user interface-GUI.  Windows 3.x is not very efficient in network environment although it has a network version.
  18. 18.  The operating system that succeeded the combination of DOS with Windows. Two versions are Windows 95 and Windows 98.  It offers better preemptive multitasking.  It provide plug and play support.  It provide compatibility with existing DOS device drivers.  It works as standalone computer and in network environment.  This is easier to use and learn.  It has integrates applications better, connects better.  Windows 98 adds web browsing capabilities.  It has support larger disks, support DVD’S an USB standards.  Windows 9X is a mix of 16 and 32 bit application programming interface.
  19. 19.  Windows 2000 combines the user friendly interface and features of windows 98 with the file system.  It has networking power and stability of windows NT.  Some new and improved features this combination of features makes windows 2000 both powerful and easy to use.
  20. 20.  Client side operating system introduces in 2001.  It combines elements of windows networking software and windows ME with a new GUI.  It has improved stability and increased driver and hardware support.  Windows XP home edition is for typical home users.  Windows XP professional is for business of all sizes and for home users.  It also has new features such as built-in instant messaging.  It runs on a wide range of hardware.  It has many built-in utilities.  Have to reboot every time a network configuration is changed.  It has not efficient used as server operating system.
  21. 21.  Here's everything that's improved in the Windows 7 UI.  Win 7 kept the glassy Aero desktop from Vista, but added many more usability improvements on top of it.  It has improved boot performance. It has improved performance on multi- core processors.  It helps users interact with any compatible device connected to a Windows 7 computer; view device status and run common tasks from a single window.  It enables users to quickly and easily create home networks between computers using Windows 7.
  22. 22.  Windows 8 features a new user interface based on Microsoft’s metro design language similar to that in windows phone.  The new interface is design to better suit touch screen input along with traditional mouse and keyboard input.  Many Windows 8 programs will be easy-to-use apps like those found on smartphones and tablets.  Windows 8 is tightly integrated with a variety of Internet-based services, like Facebook, Twitter, and Microsoft’s SkyDrive online data storage service.  There are two ways to multitask in Windows 8. One is the traditional method. This means all your open programs are accessible from the task bar. But this works only in Desktop mode. If you want to multitask in Modern UI mode, you are limited to seeing two windows at a time
  23. 23. A network operating system is an operating system that is design to run on a network server dedicated to providing various services to other computers on the network. The other computers are called client computers. And each computer that connect to a network server designed to request a specific service.
  24. 24.  Windows NT has support for network services useful to applications like client/server database engines.  Windows NT has performs excellently as a disk server.  It has a familiar Windows 3.x style user interface, so users do not need to spend much for learning.  It has a multitasking capability.  It has much more reliable networking capability than that provided by windows 3.x or windows 9X.  Windows NT is a multi-user system, which means that depending on the user who is connected to the system, the interface might be different.
  25. 25. VERSIONS MARKET NAME NT 3.1 Windows NT 3.1 NT 3.5 Windows NT 3.5 NT 3.51 Windows NT 3.51 NT 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 NT 5.0 Windows 2000 NT 5.1 Windows XP NT 5.2 Windows XP, Windows 2003 server NT 6.0 Windows VISTA, Windows server 2008 NT 6.1 Windows 7, Windows server 2008 R2 NT 6.2 Windows 8, Windows server 2012