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SHREE SA’D VIDYA MANDAL
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Subject:-Urban Transportation
System
Topic:- Methods Of Route
Assignment
Presented by:-
Name
 Arvindsai Nair
 Kulchandani Rahul
 Mistry Mitali
 Padhiyar Pinal
 Yadav Divya
Enrollment no.
130454106002
130450106014
130450106018
130450106021
140453106016
1. Introduction
2. Methods Of Route Assignment
• All-or-nothing assignment
method
• Direction curve method
• Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
• Multi-route assignment
technique
Content
 A route is simply a chain of links between an origin
and destination .
 The final Route assignment, route choice, or traffic
assignment concerns the selection of routes between
origins and destinations in transportation networks. It
is the fourth step in the conventional transportation
forecasting model, following trip generation, trip
distribution, and mode choice.
Route Assignment
 Between the two zones A and B, there maybe
alternate routes to follow, having different lengths and
characteristics. The estimation of what proportion of
total forecasted trips between A and B, shall use the
available alternate routes is known as “Route
Assignment".
 In the route assignment:-
i) The route to be travelled is determined.
ii) The interzonal trips are assigned to the selected
routes.
Route Assignment
 To determine facility needs and costs and benefits, we
need to know the number of travellers on each route
and link of the network. We need to undertake traffic
(or trip) assignment.
 Suppose there is a network of highways and transit
systems and a proposed addition. We first want to
know the present pattern of traffic delay and then what
would happen if the addition were made.
Route Assignment
• Some of the basic methods of route assignment are:-
 All-or-nothing assignment method
 Direction curve method
 Capacity restraint assignment techniques
 Multi-route assignment technique
Methods Of Route
Assignment
All-or-nothing assignment
method
 This is the simplest technique, in which all trips for a
zone are assigned the minimum path connecting the
nodes. The minimum path is the route which has the
least travel time, travel cost or distance. The
technique assumes that the capacity of each link is
infinite so that the volume of traffic does not affect the
time of travel or cost of travel.
 In the first stage, the network description and tree
building is made. The next stage is to assign the traffic
flows to the minimum path tree.
All-or-nothing assignment
method
Limitations
1. If time alone is used as the governing factor in
selecting the minimum path, the other important
factors like cost, distance, safety will be neglected.
2. In a network with two or more parallel and close links,
the link which is only marginally quicker will be
allocated all the trips. The resulting flow pattern may
lead to an unrealistic situation.
3. Too many vehicles tend to be assigned to more
attractive routes. This may cause increasing
congestion on these routes, and the technique takes
All-or-nothing assignment
method
Limitations
4. All facilities in the network are not effectively utilised.
5. If a superior facility is available, say, for example a
motorway people tend to prefer to use this facility for
longer journeys. This technique does not reflect this
tendency
All-or-nothing assignment
method
Direction curve method
 Diversion curves method is one of the frequently used
assignment techniques.
 This method predicts the percentage of trips that is
likely to use a proposed new facility (bypass, new
expressway, new arterial street, etc.) based on
distance saved or time saved or cost saved.
 The data collected from the pattern of road usage in
the past serve to build up such curves.
Direction curve method
 Diversion curves can be constructed using the
following variables:-
1. Travel time saved
2. Distance saved
3. Travel time ratio
4. Distance ratio
5. Travel time and distance saved
6. Travel cost ratio
7. Distance and speed ratio
Direction curve method
 Bureau of Public Roads curve shown in Fig.
The following formula has been fitted to this type
of curves
where,
P=percentage of traffic diverted to
new system
TR=travel time ratio
Direction curve method
6
1
100
TR
P


systemoldontimetravel
systemnewontimetravel
TR
Zonetozoneusageofmotorway(%)
Travel time ratio
Bureau Of Public Roads Diversion
Curve
Travel time saved
min
Distance saved
min
Travel time ratio Distance ratio
 California Division of Highways, based on their
observations on freeway in California in 1956,
developed the following equation for arriving at
percentage use of freeway:
where, P=percentage of motorway usage
d=distance saved in miles on new
route
t=time saved in minutes on new
route
The main drawback of diversion curve assignments is
that only two alternative routes for each pair of zones
Direction curve method
5.02
]5.40.5t)-[(d
0.5t)50(d
50


P
Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
 The capacity restrained assignment technique
involves a sequence of all-or-nothing minimum path
assignments where the sequence is iterated until the
traffic volumes assigned to each links are comparable
with the link travel time assumed in the minimum path
tree building phase.
 The link travel time used in assignment is a function of
speed on that link, which again is independent on the
traffic flow being assigned.
 Because of the iterative nature of the calculation
involved this technique is carried out entirely by
Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
The Detroit Model
 In the Detroit area traffic study on iterative procedure
was utilised. In this study, traffic was assigned to
various links, using all-or-nothing approach. The
speed assumed for initial assignment was the free
speed. Each link's travel time was modified as
follows:-
where, TA=adjusted travel time
To=original assigned travel
time
Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
)1(. 
C
VeTT OA
The TRC trip assignment model
 This model involves two travel time versus volume
relationships used iteratively, to arrive at prediction of
volumes on separate routes between any two zones.
The equation used for predicting the volume on a
route r is given as under:-
where, Vr=volume of traffic on route r
(vehicles per hour per lane)
V=total volume of traffic (trips) from
zone i to zone j on all routes m
tr=travel time on route r (minutes)
Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
V
t
t
V m
r r
r
r 
1
1
1
The TRC trip assignment model
 The value of tr, for iterations is found by the following
equation:-
where, trc=unit travel time at the critical volume (min/mile)
tr=travel time on route r (minutes)
Vr=Volume of traffic on route r
(vehicle/hour/lane)
Vrc=critical volume for route r (vehicle
/hour/lane)
Lr=Length of route r (km)
Capacity restraint assignment
techniques
r
rc
rcr
rcr L
V
VVd
tt 


)(
Multi-route assignment technique
 All road users may not be able to judge the minimum
path for themselves.
 It may also happen that all road users may not have
the same criteria for judging the shortest route.
 These limitations of tall-or-nothing approach are
recognised in the multiple route assignment
technique.
 The method consists of assigning the interzonal flow
to a series of routes, the proportion of the total flow
assigned to each being a function of the length of that
Multiroute assignment technique
 Mclaughlin developed one multipath traffic assignment
technique as under:
 A driver's route selection criteria is used which is a
function of :-
(i) Travel time
(ii) Travel cost
(iii) Accident potential
Multi-route assignment technique
 The minimum resistance path between origin and
destination pair are calculated with all the link
resistances set to values which correspond to a zero
traffic volume.
 The minimum resistance value between O-D pair is
increased by 30% .
 All the path between O-D pair with resistance values
less than this maximum value are identified.
Multi-route assignment technique
Urban transportation system - methods of route assignment

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Urban transportation system - methods of route assignment

  • 1. SHREE SA’D VIDYA MANDAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
  • 3. Presented by:- Name  Arvindsai Nair  Kulchandani Rahul  Mistry Mitali  Padhiyar Pinal  Yadav Divya Enrollment no. 130454106002 130450106014 130450106018 130450106021 140453106016
  • 4. 1. Introduction 2. Methods Of Route Assignment • All-or-nothing assignment method • Direction curve method • Capacity restraint assignment techniques • Multi-route assignment technique Content
  • 5.  A route is simply a chain of links between an origin and destination .  The final Route assignment, route choice, or traffic assignment concerns the selection of routes between origins and destinations in transportation networks. It is the fourth step in the conventional transportation forecasting model, following trip generation, trip distribution, and mode choice. Route Assignment
  • 6.  Between the two zones A and B, there maybe alternate routes to follow, having different lengths and characteristics. The estimation of what proportion of total forecasted trips between A and B, shall use the available alternate routes is known as “Route Assignment".  In the route assignment:- i) The route to be travelled is determined. ii) The interzonal trips are assigned to the selected routes. Route Assignment
  • 7.  To determine facility needs and costs and benefits, we need to know the number of travellers on each route and link of the network. We need to undertake traffic (or trip) assignment.  Suppose there is a network of highways and transit systems and a proposed addition. We first want to know the present pattern of traffic delay and then what would happen if the addition were made. Route Assignment
  • 8. • Some of the basic methods of route assignment are:-  All-or-nothing assignment method  Direction curve method  Capacity restraint assignment techniques  Multi-route assignment technique Methods Of Route Assignment
  • 10.  This is the simplest technique, in which all trips for a zone are assigned the minimum path connecting the nodes. The minimum path is the route which has the least travel time, travel cost or distance. The technique assumes that the capacity of each link is infinite so that the volume of traffic does not affect the time of travel or cost of travel.  In the first stage, the network description and tree building is made. The next stage is to assign the traffic flows to the minimum path tree. All-or-nothing assignment method
  • 11. Limitations 1. If time alone is used as the governing factor in selecting the minimum path, the other important factors like cost, distance, safety will be neglected. 2. In a network with two or more parallel and close links, the link which is only marginally quicker will be allocated all the trips. The resulting flow pattern may lead to an unrealistic situation. 3. Too many vehicles tend to be assigned to more attractive routes. This may cause increasing congestion on these routes, and the technique takes All-or-nothing assignment method
  • 12. Limitations 4. All facilities in the network are not effectively utilised. 5. If a superior facility is available, say, for example a motorway people tend to prefer to use this facility for longer journeys. This technique does not reflect this tendency All-or-nothing assignment method
  • 14.  Diversion curves method is one of the frequently used assignment techniques.  This method predicts the percentage of trips that is likely to use a proposed new facility (bypass, new expressway, new arterial street, etc.) based on distance saved or time saved or cost saved.  The data collected from the pattern of road usage in the past serve to build up such curves. Direction curve method
  • 15.  Diversion curves can be constructed using the following variables:- 1. Travel time saved 2. Distance saved 3. Travel time ratio 4. Distance ratio 5. Travel time and distance saved 6. Travel cost ratio 7. Distance and speed ratio Direction curve method
  • 16.  Bureau of Public Roads curve shown in Fig. The following formula has been fitted to this type of curves where, P=percentage of traffic diverted to new system TR=travel time ratio Direction curve method 6 1 100 TR P   systemoldontimetravel systemnewontimetravel TR
  • 17. Zonetozoneusageofmotorway(%) Travel time ratio Bureau Of Public Roads Diversion Curve
  • 18. Travel time saved min Distance saved min Travel time ratio Distance ratio
  • 19.  California Division of Highways, based on their observations on freeway in California in 1956, developed the following equation for arriving at percentage use of freeway: where, P=percentage of motorway usage d=distance saved in miles on new route t=time saved in minutes on new route The main drawback of diversion curve assignments is that only two alternative routes for each pair of zones Direction curve method 5.02 ]5.40.5t)-[(d 0.5t)50(d 50   P
  • 21.  The capacity restrained assignment technique involves a sequence of all-or-nothing minimum path assignments where the sequence is iterated until the traffic volumes assigned to each links are comparable with the link travel time assumed in the minimum path tree building phase.  The link travel time used in assignment is a function of speed on that link, which again is independent on the traffic flow being assigned.  Because of the iterative nature of the calculation involved this technique is carried out entirely by Capacity restraint assignment techniques
  • 22. The Detroit Model  In the Detroit area traffic study on iterative procedure was utilised. In this study, traffic was assigned to various links, using all-or-nothing approach. The speed assumed for initial assignment was the free speed. Each link's travel time was modified as follows:- where, TA=adjusted travel time To=original assigned travel time Capacity restraint assignment techniques )1(.  C VeTT OA
  • 23. The TRC trip assignment model  This model involves two travel time versus volume relationships used iteratively, to arrive at prediction of volumes on separate routes between any two zones. The equation used for predicting the volume on a route r is given as under:- where, Vr=volume of traffic on route r (vehicles per hour per lane) V=total volume of traffic (trips) from zone i to zone j on all routes m tr=travel time on route r (minutes) Capacity restraint assignment techniques V t t V m r r r r  1 1 1
  • 24. The TRC trip assignment model  The value of tr, for iterations is found by the following equation:- where, trc=unit travel time at the critical volume (min/mile) tr=travel time on route r (minutes) Vr=Volume of traffic on route r (vehicle/hour/lane) Vrc=critical volume for route r (vehicle /hour/lane) Lr=Length of route r (km) Capacity restraint assignment techniques r rc rcr rcr L V VVd tt    )(
  • 26.  All road users may not be able to judge the minimum path for themselves.  It may also happen that all road users may not have the same criteria for judging the shortest route.  These limitations of tall-or-nothing approach are recognised in the multiple route assignment technique.  The method consists of assigning the interzonal flow to a series of routes, the proportion of the total flow assigned to each being a function of the length of that Multiroute assignment technique
  • 27.  Mclaughlin developed one multipath traffic assignment technique as under:  A driver's route selection criteria is used which is a function of :- (i) Travel time (ii) Travel cost (iii) Accident potential Multi-route assignment technique
  • 28.  The minimum resistance path between origin and destination pair are calculated with all the link resistances set to values which correspond to a zero traffic volume.  The minimum resistance value between O-D pair is increased by 30% .  All the path between O-D pair with resistance values less than this maximum value are identified. Multi-route assignment technique