SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 64
Download to read offline
SHREE SA’D VIDYA MANDAL
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Subject:-Advanced Surveying
Topic:-Tacheometric Surveying
Presented by:-
Name
 Arvindsai Nair
 Dhaval Chavda
 Nirmal Patel
 Rupesh Patel
 Saptak Raval
Enrollment no.
130454106002
130454106001
140453106009
140453106010
140453106015
Contents
Topics Slides
1. Tacheometric survey(intro)……….....05
2. Fixed hair method…………………..…06
3. Stadia constant…………………....……30
4. Movable hair method…………….........34
5. Tangential method……………………..39
6. Anallatic lens……………………….…...50
7. Subtense bar…………………………....53
8. Field work in tacheometric survey…57
Tacheometric survey
 Tachometry is a method of measuring both
horizontal distance and vertical elevation of
a point in the distance, without the use of
sophisticated technology, such as electronic
distance measurement (EDM) or satellite
transmissions.
Fixed hair method
Fixed hair method
• This is a method of finding the
distance and elevation of staff from the
theodolite (Tachometer).
•Different formulas are used in finding
distance for different cases.
•Some cases are discussed as follows:-
Case 1 : When line of sight is
horizontal and staff is held
vertically.
Where,
A,B =Point on staff cut but upper and lower hair
a,b=upper and lower cross hair
ab=i=Stadia interval
AB=S= staff intercept
D=distance from axis of tachometer to staff
D=distance between optical center and axis of tachometer.
Proof:
 From Similar triangle ABf and a’b’f
we get,
( f0=f ; AB=S;
a’b’=i)
Now total distance(D)=fC+f+d
+f+d
 Now as i ,f and d are constants we
can write that the total horizontal
distance
i.e. D= K.S + C
where ,
K= =Multiplying
constant
C=f+d= Additive
constant
Here, vertical distance is zero.
Case 2: When line of sight is
inclined but staff is held
vertically.
C
A
O’
D
O
A`
B
C`
P
P’
h
V
Ө
α
(a) Angle of elevation {+}
α
S
Line of axis
Horizontal distance (D)=
Formula for horizontal
distance
cos.L
 cos)cos.( CsKD 
 coscos. 2
CsKD 
Vertical distance (V)=
Formula for vertical distance


sin
2
2Sin
. CsKV 
 sin)cos.( CsKV 
sin.L
Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of
H.I. + V -h
Formula for elevation of staff
station
D
Line of
Axis
A
B
C’
C
V
h
P’
P
O
θ
O’
(b) Angle of Depression {-}
Horizontal distance (D)= L.
Formula for horizontal
distance
 coscos2
CKSD 
 cos)cos( CKSD 


sin
2
2Sin
SK. CV 
Vertical distance (V)= L.
Formula for vertical distance
 sincossinSK. CV 
Reduced level of P = Reduced level of
H.I. -V -h
Formula for elevation of staff
station
Case 3: When line of sight is
inclined but staff is held normal
to the line of sight.
(a) Angle of elevation {+}
C
A
O’
D
O
A`
B
C`
P
P’
h
V
Ө
α
α
S
Line of axis
hcosθ
h sin θ
L cos θ
Horizontal distance (D)
Formula for horizontal
distance
 sincos. hL 
 sincos).( hCsK 
 sincoscos. hCsK 
Vertical distance (V)
Formula for vertical distance
sinL
sin).( CsK 
 sinsin. CsK 
Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of
H.I. + V -h
Formula for elevation of staff
station
cos
(b) Angle of Depression {-}

Line of
Axis
A
B
C
V
h cosθ
P P1
O
θ
O’
D
L cos θ
L
h
sinθ
Horizontal distance (D)
Formula for horizontal
distance
 sincos. hL 
 sincos).( hCsK 
 sincoscos. hCsK 
Vertical distance (V)
Formula for vertical distance
sinL
sin).( CsK 
 sinsin. CsK 
Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of
H.I. -V -h
Formula for elevation of staff
station
cos
STADIA CONSTANTS
STADIA CONSTANTS
 Stadia or tacheometric constants are:-
1. Multiplying constant
where,
f =focal length of the
lens
i =stadia intercept
The value of multiplying constant is
generally 100.
i
f
A 
2. Additive constant
B=(f+d)
where,
f=focal length of the
lens
d= horizontal distance
between instrument axis to optical
centre of a lens
The value of additive constant. varies
from 0.15 m to 0.60 m.
 In tachometric surveying, instrument used is
known as a tachometer.
 With the help of a tachometer observations
(stadia readings and vertical angles) are taken
and horizontal and vertical distances are
determined by using formulae.
 Before doing calculations we should known
the values of two constants for a tachometer
to be used for survey work.
 Generally their values are mentioned in the
catalogue supplied by the manufacturer.
 Also the constants may be determined by:
1. Laboratory measurement
2. Field measurement
MOVABLE HAIR
METHOD
MOVABLE HAIR METHOD
 In this method the staff intercept is kept
constant, but the distance between the stadia
hairs is variable.
 This of theodolite is known type as substense
theodolite.
 The diaphragm consists of a central wire
fixed with the axis of the telescope.
 The upper and lower stadia wires can be
moved by micrometer screws in a vertical
plane.
 The distance by which the stadia wires are
moved is measured according to the number
of turns of the micrometer screws.
Fig. A special type diaphragm of
a moving hair theodolite
 The full turns are read on the graduated scale
seen in the filed of view and the fractional part of
a turn is of the read on the graduated drum
micrometer screw placed one above and one
below the eye piece.
 The total distance through which stadia is the
sum wires move, equal to of the micrometer
readings.
 If the distance between the instrument station
and staff position is within 200 m, an ordinary
leveling staff may be used and a full meter
reading used for the purpose of observing a
constant intercept.
 In such cases two vanes or targets fixed at a
known distance apart on a staff, are
observed.
 A third target is fixed at the mid-point of the
two targets.
 For taking the observation, the middle target
is first bisected by the central wire.
 Then the micrometer screws are
simultaneously turned to move the stadia
wires until the upper and lower targets are
bisected.
 The readings are then noted.
Tangential Method
Tangential Method
 No stadia hairs
 Levelling staff with vanes or targets
at known distance
 Horizontal and vertical distances are
measured by measuring the angles
of elevation or depression.
 Some cases are discussed as
follows:-
Case 1 : Both Angles of target are
Angles of elevation.
O’
O
S
h
V
B
A
D
C1
C2
θ2θ1
O’ -Instrument axis
O – Instrument station
C1 – Staff station
V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument
S – distance between the targets
θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets
θ2 - vertical angle lower targets
h – height of lower vane above the staff station
From figure we can say that,
Formula
21
2
21
21
2
1
tantan
tan
tantan
)tan(tan
tan
tan













S
V
S
D
DS
DV
DSV
RL of station C1 = RL of instrument axis + V - h
Case 2 : Both angles of target are
Angles of Depression
V
S
h
θ1 θ2
C2
A
B
C1
O’
O
D
O’ -Instrument axis
O – Instrument station
C1 – Staff station
V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument
S – distance between the targets
θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets
θ2 - vertical angle lower targets
h – height of lower vane above the staff station
From figure we can say that,
Formula
12
2
12
12
1
2
tantan
tan
tantan
)tan(tan
tan
tan













S
V
S
D
DS
DSV
DV
RL of station A = RL of instrument axis - V - h
Case 3 : One angle is angle of
elevation and the other is angle of
depression.
O’ -Instrument axis
O – Instrument station
C1 – Staff station
V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument
S – distance between the targets
θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets
θ2 - vertical angle lower targets
h – height of lower vane above the staff station
S
V
h
θ1
θ2
C2
C1
O’
O
D
From figure we can say that,
Formula
21
2
21
1
2
tantan
tan
tantan
tan
tan











S
V
S
D
DVS
DV
RL of station A = RL of instrument axis - V - h
Anallatic lens
Anallatic lens
• It is an additional lens generally provided in the
external focusing tachometer between object
glass & eyepiece
• Advantages of anallatic lens:-
1) For calculation of horizontal & vertical distances
constant (f+c)=0, if tacheometer is provided with
anallatic lens.
2) Calculation becomes simple.
 Disadvantages of anallatic lens :-
1. The anallatic lens absorbs some of the
incident light which consequently results in reduction
of the brightness of the image.
2. It also adds to the initial cost of the instrument
because of one extra lens
SUBTENSE BAR
SUBTENSE BAR
 The subtense bar is an instrument used for
measuring the horizontal distance between the
instrument station and a station where the
subtense bar is to be set up.
 Substense method is an indirect method of
distance determination.
 This method essentially consists of measuring the
angle subtended by two ends of a horizontal rod of
fixed length, called a subtense bar.
 In this method a staff or target rod is not necessary,
and the theodolite required is also of the ordinary
transit type.
SUBTENSE BAR
 The subtense bar is a metal bar of length
varying from 3 to 4 m.
 There are two discs of diameter about 20
cm at both ends of the bar.
 The discs are painted black or red in front
and white on the other side.
 The alidade is made perpendicular to the
axis of the bar.
 A spirit level is included for levelling. The
bar is mounted on a tripod stand which
contains a ball and socket arrangement for
levelling.
FIELD WORK IN
TACHEDMETRY
1. Suitability:- A tacheometric survey is
conducted mainly for preparing a contour
map of a reservoir site, alignment of
highways or railways, canals etc. It is
also suitable for carrying out traverses
and filling in detail in rough and rugged
terrain where direct chaining is very
difficult. By means of a tacheometer the
relative distances and RLs of different
points can be computed from the
instrument station by taking observations
(vertical angles and staff readings).
2. Reconnaissance:- Before starting the
survey work the area to be surveyed is
thoroughly inspected examined) and
the instrument stations are selected
according to the nature of the area. If
the survey is conducted along a
narrow belt. the stations are selected
along the centre line of the belt fie.
alignments of highways,railways,
canals, etc)
Procedure:-
 The tacheometric survey should be
conducted in the following steps:-
1. The tacheometer is set at station. It is
centred up the starting and levelled with
respect to the plat bubble and altitude
bubble.The height of the instrument
(HI) is measured by leveling staff or
stadia rod or tape. (i.e. height from
ground to centre of the trunnion axis).
2. Set-up horizontal and vertical vernier to
zero. Sight the staff held on the nearby
bench mark and observe the vertical
angle (for inclined sight, and the
readings of the three hairs on staff held
vertically bench mark. If there is no
bench mark nearby, fly levelling may
be done from any nearby BM. To
establish another one near the site area
to know the RL of the starting station.
3. The instrument is oriented with
reference to any pre-determined station
by taking its magnetic bearing and
consider it as first ray at 0.
4. To cover the area (details) from the station, rays at 15
or 30 intervals are extended from the station The
overlap of the rays from nearby stations should be 10
to 15.Also the extension of rays depends on the
topography of the area of the station. Staff positions
on these rays depend on the slope of the ground.
Sight all the representive points from the starting
station and first must be extended up to the whole
length of the ray traverse leg (1e, A to E) to know the
length of the line. Observe the vertical angle and the
staff readings at the three hairs at each staff position.
This way take observations all rays and complete
the station. Take fare sight the traverse a station and
observe the vertical angle and the staff readings the
three wires. Also measure the horizontal angle
between the two traverse legs . Close the work the
BM. before shining the instrument on second station
get the check.
5. Shifting the instrument and set up at the second station.
it is centered and leveled. Measure the height of
instrument. Take the first reading from the BM and then
orient the telescope the first ray.First ray must be extended
to its fun length from B to A Sight all the representative
points on the rays observe vertical angles and staff
readings, and complete the station. Take a for sight on the
third station and observe vertical angle and staff readings.
Also measure horizontal angle between the two traverse
legs. Same way close the the work on the BM. to get the
check. All readings are recorded in the tachometric book.
6. Proceed similarly at each of the successive stations and
all the traverse stations are connected and the necessary
observations for all the points are taken from each station
and recorded clearly in the book.
7. From the metric book, the distances of the points from
the instrument stations and their respective RLs are
calculated by using tachometric table.
8. Since each station is sighted twice, the two values for
the length and elevation are obtained. If they are within
the limits of accuracy, the average of the two values
may be taken and if not work should be repeated.
9. The traverse is plotted to any suitable scale. Rays are
drawn from each station. The points are marked on
these rays considering their horizontal distances from
the station and RLs of the respective written. Then lines
may points are the contour be drawn by the method of
interpolation or by approximate method. North-line is
plotted considering the magnetic bearing of the first
traverse line. This way field work is carried out and
Tacheometric survey

More Related Content

What's hot

Topic 2 area & volume
Topic 2   area & volumeTopic 2   area & volume
Topic 2 area & volumekmasz kamal
 
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...Triangulation and trilateration pdf...
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...Gokul Saud
 
Traverse Survey Part 2/2
Traverse Survey Part 2/2Traverse Survey Part 2/2
Traverse Survey Part 2/2Muhammad Zubair
 
Levelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingLevelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingRAHUL SINHA
 
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversing
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversingTheodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversing
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversingDolat Ram
 
Types of samplers used in soil sampling
Types of samplers used in soil samplingTypes of samplers used in soil sampling
Types of samplers used in soil samplingAna Debbarma
 
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTUVATSAL PATEL
 
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORY
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORYTERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORY
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORYSANJEEV Wazir
 
Trigonometric leveling
Trigonometric leveling Trigonometric leveling
Trigonometric leveling Siddhant Patel
 
Tacheometric surveying
Tacheometric surveying Tacheometric surveying
Tacheometric surveying neharajpl
 
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]Muhammad Irfan
 
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)Riezat Zainal
 
Traverse Survey Part 1/2
Traverse Survey Part 1/2Traverse Survey Part 1/2
Traverse Survey Part 1/2Muhammad Zubair
 

What's hot (20)

Topic 2 area & volume
Topic 2   area & volumeTopic 2   area & volume
Topic 2 area & volume
 
Trigonometric levelling
Trigonometric levellingTrigonometric levelling
Trigonometric levelling
 
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...Triangulation and trilateration pdf...
Triangulation and trilateration pdf...
 
Traverse Survey Part 2/2
Traverse Survey Part 2/2Traverse Survey Part 2/2
Traverse Survey Part 2/2
 
Boussinesq'S theory
Boussinesq'S theoryBoussinesq'S theory
Boussinesq'S theory
 
Levelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingLevelling in Surveying
Levelling in Surveying
 
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversing
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversingTheodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversing
Theodolite traversing, purpose and principles of theodolite traversing
 
Types of samplers used in soil sampling
Types of samplers used in soil samplingTypes of samplers used in soil sampling
Types of samplers used in soil sampling
 
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU
6. TACHOMETRIC SURVEYING (SUR) 3140601 GTU
 
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORY
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORYTERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORY
TERZAGHI’S BEARING CAPACITY THEORY
 
Levelling
LevellingLevelling
Levelling
 
Trigonometric leveling
Trigonometric leveling Trigonometric leveling
Trigonometric leveling
 
Levelling
LevellingLevelling
Levelling
 
Tacheometric surveying
Tacheometric surveying Tacheometric surveying
Tacheometric surveying
 
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #9+10: Westergaard Theory]
 
Curve setting ppt
Curve setting pptCurve setting ppt
Curve setting ppt
 
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)
Area and Volume Survey Engineering (RZ)
 
Traverse Survey Part 1/2
Traverse Survey Part 1/2Traverse Survey Part 1/2
Traverse Survey Part 1/2
 
Plane Table Survey
Plane Table SurveyPlane Table Survey
Plane Table Survey
 
Vertical Curves (Part 1)
Vertical Curves (Part 1)Vertical Curves (Part 1)
Vertical Curves (Part 1)
 

Viewers also liked (13)

tacheometry surveying
tacheometry surveyingtacheometry surveying
tacheometry surveying
 
Computation of area
Computation of areaComputation of area
Computation of area
 
TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYS under the subject of SURVEYING
TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYS under the subject of SURVEYINGTACHEOMETRIC SURVEYS under the subject of SURVEYING
TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYS under the subject of SURVEYING
 
Tacheometric
TacheometricTacheometric
Tacheometric
 
Volume and Area Calculation
Volume and Area Calculation Volume and Area Calculation
Volume and Area Calculation
 
1392741020 traverse survey
1392741020 traverse survey1392741020 traverse survey
1392741020 traverse survey
 
Vampire Electricity-Standby Power
Vampire Electricity-Standby PowerVampire Electricity-Standby Power
Vampire Electricity-Standby Power
 
Trigonometric levelling jithin
Trigonometric levelling   jithinTrigonometric levelling   jithin
Trigonometric levelling jithin
 
levelling and contouring
 levelling and  contouring levelling and  contouring
levelling and contouring
 
Chap.6 traverse surveys
Chap.6 traverse surveysChap.6 traverse surveys
Chap.6 traverse surveys
 
Traversing final-report
Traversing final-reportTraversing final-report
Traversing final-report
 
Surveying
Surveying Surveying
Surveying
 
Industries
IndustriesIndustries
Industries
 

Similar to Tacheometric survey

3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf
3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf
3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdfDeepak37004
 
tacheometric-surveying.pdf
tacheometric-surveying.pdftacheometric-surveying.pdf
tacheometric-surveying.pdfMaureenNassanga
 
Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt
Tacheometric-Surveying.pptTacheometric-Surveying.ppt
Tacheometric-Surveying.pptADCET, Ashta
 
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2Sem 2 Site surveying report 2
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2Est
 
Site surveying report 2
Site surveying report 2Site surveying report 2
Site surveying report 2Doreen Yeo
 
S2 6 theodolites
S2 6 theodolitesS2 6 theodolites
S2 6 theodolitesEst
 
Ss report 2
Ss report 2Ss report 2
Ss report 2Shen Sin
 
Project 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingProject 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingseenyee
 
Project 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingProject 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingseenyee
 
Theory of theodolite traversing
Theory of theodolite traversingTheory of theodolite traversing
Theory of theodolite traversingSuman Jyoti
 
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)Jing Chuang
 
Site Surveying Traversing
Site Surveying TraversingSite Surveying Traversing
Site Surveying Traversingashleyyeap
 
Assignment 2 - Traverse
Assignment 2 - TraverseAssignment 2 - Traverse
Assignment 2 - TraverseKai Yun Pang
 
Tranverse report
Tranverse report Tranverse report
Tranverse report Wen Crystal
 
Mass diagram and its characeristics .ppt
Mass diagram and its characeristics .pptMass diagram and its characeristics .ppt
Mass diagram and its characeristics .pptNITINSURESH30
 

Similar to Tacheometric survey (20)

3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf
3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf
3140601_surveying_module-6-tacheometric-surveying.pdf
 
tacheometric-surveying.pdf
tacheometric-surveying.pdftacheometric-surveying.pdf
tacheometric-surveying.pdf
 
UNIT 1.pptx
UNIT 1.pptxUNIT 1.pptx
UNIT 1.pptx
 
Laboratory manual surveying_ii
Laboratory manual surveying_iiLaboratory manual surveying_ii
Laboratory manual surveying_ii
 
Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt
Tacheometric-Surveying.pptTacheometric-Surveying.ppt
Tacheometric-Surveying.ppt
 
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2Sem 2 Site surveying report 2
Sem 2 Site surveying report 2
 
Site surveying report 2
Site surveying report 2Site surveying report 2
Site surveying report 2
 
surveying ii
surveying iisurveying ii
surveying ii
 
Tacheometry 1
Tacheometry 1Tacheometry 1
Tacheometry 1
 
S2 6 theodolites
S2 6 theodolitesS2 6 theodolites
S2 6 theodolites
 
Ss report 2
Ss report 2Ss report 2
Ss report 2
 
Project 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingProject 2- traversing
Project 2- traversing
 
Project 2- traversing
Project 2- traversingProject 2- traversing
Project 2- traversing
 
Theory of theodolite traversing
Theory of theodolite traversingTheory of theodolite traversing
Theory of theodolite traversing
 
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)
ABC Report - 123 (gathered with reference)
 
Ss report 2
Ss report 2Ss report 2
Ss report 2
 
Site Surveying Traversing
Site Surveying TraversingSite Surveying Traversing
Site Surveying Traversing
 
Assignment 2 - Traverse
Assignment 2 - TraverseAssignment 2 - Traverse
Assignment 2 - Traverse
 
Tranverse report
Tranverse report Tranverse report
Tranverse report
 
Mass diagram and its characeristics .ppt
Mass diagram and its characeristics .pptMass diagram and its characeristics .ppt
Mass diagram and its characeristics .ppt
 

More from Student

Urban transportation system - methods of route assignment
Urban transportation system - methods of route assignmentUrban transportation system - methods of route assignment
Urban transportation system - methods of route assignmentStudent
 
Introduction to management
Introduction to managementIntroduction to management
Introduction to managementStudent
 
Poisson distribution
Poisson distributionPoisson distribution
Poisson distributionStudent
 
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms Student
 
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdp
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdpEngage deeply chapter 9 cpdp
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdpStudent
 
Large hadron collider
Large  hadron  colliderLarge  hadron  collider
Large hadron colliderStudent
 

More from Student (6)

Urban transportation system - methods of route assignment
Urban transportation system - methods of route assignmentUrban transportation system - methods of route assignment
Urban transportation system - methods of route assignment
 
Introduction to management
Introduction to managementIntroduction to management
Introduction to management
 
Poisson distribution
Poisson distributionPoisson distribution
Poisson distribution
 
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms
Damped force vibrating Model Laplace Transforms
 
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdp
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdpEngage deeply chapter 9 cpdp
Engage deeply chapter 9 cpdp
 
Large hadron collider
Large  hadron  colliderLarge  hadron  collider
Large hadron collider
 

Recently uploaded

1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx
1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx
1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptxMel Paras
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxLina Kadam
 
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfTheory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfShreyas Pandit
 
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxTriangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxRomil Mishra
 
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overview
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overviewArtificial Intelligence in Power System overview
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overviewsandhya757531
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Amil baba
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfBalamuruganV28
 
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTFUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTSneha Padhiar
 
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...IJAEMSJORNAL
 
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionCost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionSneha Padhiar
 
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptx
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptxIntroduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptx
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptxPoonam60376
 
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork
 
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationThe Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationnovrain7111
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSneha Padhiar
 
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfComprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfalene1
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studydhruvamdhruvil123
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labsamber724300
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdfsahilsajad201
 
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHSubstation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHbirinder2
 

Recently uploaded (20)

1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx
1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx
1- Practice occupational health and safety procedures.pptx
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
 
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfTheory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
 
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxTriangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
 
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overview
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overviewArtificial Intelligence in Power System overview
Artificial Intelligence in Power System overview
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
 
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTFUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
 
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
 
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based questionCost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
Cost estimation approach: FP to COCOMO scenario based question
 
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptx
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptxIntroduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptx
Introduction of Object Oriented Programming Language using Java. .pptx
 
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
 
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationThe Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
 
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfComprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
 
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRHSubstation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
Substation Automation SCADA and Gateway Solutions by BRH
 

Tacheometric survey

  • 1. SHREE SA’D VIDYA MANDAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
  • 3. Presented by:- Name  Arvindsai Nair  Dhaval Chavda  Nirmal Patel  Rupesh Patel  Saptak Raval Enrollment no. 130454106002 130454106001 140453106009 140453106010 140453106015
  • 4. Contents Topics Slides 1. Tacheometric survey(intro)……….....05 2. Fixed hair method…………………..…06 3. Stadia constant…………………....……30 4. Movable hair method…………….........34 5. Tangential method……………………..39 6. Anallatic lens……………………….…...50 7. Subtense bar…………………………....53 8. Field work in tacheometric survey…57
  • 5. Tacheometric survey  Tachometry is a method of measuring both horizontal distance and vertical elevation of a point in the distance, without the use of sophisticated technology, such as electronic distance measurement (EDM) or satellite transmissions.
  • 7. Fixed hair method • This is a method of finding the distance and elevation of staff from the theodolite (Tachometer). •Different formulas are used in finding distance for different cases. •Some cases are discussed as follows:-
  • 8. Case 1 : When line of sight is horizontal and staff is held vertically.
  • 9. Where, A,B =Point on staff cut but upper and lower hair a,b=upper and lower cross hair ab=i=Stadia interval AB=S= staff intercept D=distance from axis of tachometer to staff D=distance between optical center and axis of tachometer.
  • 10. Proof:  From Similar triangle ABf and a’b’f we get, ( f0=f ; AB=S; a’b’=i) Now total distance(D)=fC+f+d +f+d
  • 11.  Now as i ,f and d are constants we can write that the total horizontal distance i.e. D= K.S + C where , K= =Multiplying constant C=f+d= Additive constant Here, vertical distance is zero.
  • 12. Case 2: When line of sight is inclined but staff is held vertically.
  • 13. C A O’ D O A` B C` P P’ h V Ө α (a) Angle of elevation {+} α S Line of axis
  • 14. Horizontal distance (D)= Formula for horizontal distance cos.L  cos)cos.( CsKD   coscos. 2 CsKD 
  • 15. Vertical distance (V)= Formula for vertical distance   sin 2 2Sin . CsKV   sin)cos.( CsKV  sin.L
  • 16. Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of H.I. + V -h Formula for elevation of staff station
  • 18. Horizontal distance (D)= L. Formula for horizontal distance  coscos2 CKSD   cos)cos( CKSD 
  • 19.   sin 2 2Sin SK. CV  Vertical distance (V)= L. Formula for vertical distance  sincossinSK. CV 
  • 20. Reduced level of P = Reduced level of H.I. -V -h Formula for elevation of staff station
  • 21. Case 3: When line of sight is inclined but staff is held normal to the line of sight.
  • 22. (a) Angle of elevation {+} C A O’ D O A` B C` P P’ h V Ө α α S Line of axis hcosθ h sin θ L cos θ
  • 23. Horizontal distance (D) Formula for horizontal distance  sincos. hL   sincos).( hCsK   sincoscos. hCsK 
  • 24. Vertical distance (V) Formula for vertical distance sinL sin).( CsK   sinsin. CsK 
  • 25. Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of H.I. + V -h Formula for elevation of staff station cos
  • 26. (b) Angle of Depression {-}  Line of Axis A B C V h cosθ P P1 O θ O’ D L cos θ L h sinθ
  • 27. Horizontal distance (D) Formula for horizontal distance  sincos. hL   sincos).( hCsK   sincoscos. hCsK 
  • 28. Vertical distance (V) Formula for vertical distance sinL sin).( CsK   sinsin. CsK 
  • 29. Reduced level of Q = Reduced level of H.I. -V -h Formula for elevation of staff station cos
  • 31. STADIA CONSTANTS  Stadia or tacheometric constants are:- 1. Multiplying constant where, f =focal length of the lens i =stadia intercept The value of multiplying constant is generally 100. i f A 
  • 32. 2. Additive constant B=(f+d) where, f=focal length of the lens d= horizontal distance between instrument axis to optical centre of a lens The value of additive constant. varies from 0.15 m to 0.60 m.
  • 33.  In tachometric surveying, instrument used is known as a tachometer.  With the help of a tachometer observations (stadia readings and vertical angles) are taken and horizontal and vertical distances are determined by using formulae.  Before doing calculations we should known the values of two constants for a tachometer to be used for survey work.  Generally their values are mentioned in the catalogue supplied by the manufacturer.  Also the constants may be determined by: 1. Laboratory measurement 2. Field measurement
  • 35. MOVABLE HAIR METHOD  In this method the staff intercept is kept constant, but the distance between the stadia hairs is variable.  This of theodolite is known type as substense theodolite.  The diaphragm consists of a central wire fixed with the axis of the telescope.  The upper and lower stadia wires can be moved by micrometer screws in a vertical plane.  The distance by which the stadia wires are moved is measured according to the number of turns of the micrometer screws.
  • 36. Fig. A special type diaphragm of a moving hair theodolite
  • 37.  The full turns are read on the graduated scale seen in the filed of view and the fractional part of a turn is of the read on the graduated drum micrometer screw placed one above and one below the eye piece.  The total distance through which stadia is the sum wires move, equal to of the micrometer readings.  If the distance between the instrument station and staff position is within 200 m, an ordinary leveling staff may be used and a full meter reading used for the purpose of observing a constant intercept.
  • 38.  In such cases two vanes or targets fixed at a known distance apart on a staff, are observed.  A third target is fixed at the mid-point of the two targets.  For taking the observation, the middle target is first bisected by the central wire.  Then the micrometer screws are simultaneously turned to move the stadia wires until the upper and lower targets are bisected.  The readings are then noted.
  • 40. Tangential Method  No stadia hairs  Levelling staff with vanes or targets at known distance  Horizontal and vertical distances are measured by measuring the angles of elevation or depression.  Some cases are discussed as follows:-
  • 41. Case 1 : Both Angles of target are Angles of elevation.
  • 42. O’ O S h V B A D C1 C2 θ2θ1 O’ -Instrument axis O – Instrument station C1 – Staff station V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument S – distance between the targets θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets θ2 - vertical angle lower targets h – height of lower vane above the staff station
  • 43. From figure we can say that, Formula 21 2 21 21 2 1 tantan tan tantan )tan(tan tan tan              S V S D DS DV DSV RL of station C1 = RL of instrument axis + V - h
  • 44. Case 2 : Both angles of target are Angles of Depression
  • 45. V S h θ1 θ2 C2 A B C1 O’ O D O’ -Instrument axis O – Instrument station C1 – Staff station V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument S – distance between the targets θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets θ2 - vertical angle lower targets h – height of lower vane above the staff station
  • 46. From figure we can say that, Formula 12 2 12 12 1 2 tantan tan tantan )tan(tan tan tan              S V S D DS DSV DV RL of station A = RL of instrument axis - V - h
  • 47. Case 3 : One angle is angle of elevation and the other is angle of depression.
  • 48. O’ -Instrument axis O – Instrument station C1 – Staff station V – vertical distance between lower vane and axis of instrument S – distance between the targets θ1 - vertical angle by upper targets θ2 - vertical angle lower targets h – height of lower vane above the staff station S V h θ1 θ2 C2 C1 O’ O D
  • 49. From figure we can say that, Formula 21 2 21 1 2 tantan tan tantan tan tan            S V S D DVS DV RL of station A = RL of instrument axis - V - h
  • 51. Anallatic lens • It is an additional lens generally provided in the external focusing tachometer between object glass & eyepiece • Advantages of anallatic lens:- 1) For calculation of horizontal & vertical distances constant (f+c)=0, if tacheometer is provided with anallatic lens. 2) Calculation becomes simple.
  • 52.  Disadvantages of anallatic lens :- 1. The anallatic lens absorbs some of the incident light which consequently results in reduction of the brightness of the image. 2. It also adds to the initial cost of the instrument because of one extra lens
  • 54. SUBTENSE BAR  The subtense bar is an instrument used for measuring the horizontal distance between the instrument station and a station where the subtense bar is to be set up.  Substense method is an indirect method of distance determination.  This method essentially consists of measuring the angle subtended by two ends of a horizontal rod of fixed length, called a subtense bar.  In this method a staff or target rod is not necessary, and the theodolite required is also of the ordinary transit type.
  • 56.  The subtense bar is a metal bar of length varying from 3 to 4 m.  There are two discs of diameter about 20 cm at both ends of the bar.  The discs are painted black or red in front and white on the other side.  The alidade is made perpendicular to the axis of the bar.  A spirit level is included for levelling. The bar is mounted on a tripod stand which contains a ball and socket arrangement for levelling.
  • 57. FIELD WORK IN TACHEDMETRY 1. Suitability:- A tacheometric survey is conducted mainly for preparing a contour map of a reservoir site, alignment of highways or railways, canals etc. It is also suitable for carrying out traverses and filling in detail in rough and rugged terrain where direct chaining is very difficult. By means of a tacheometer the relative distances and RLs of different points can be computed from the instrument station by taking observations (vertical angles and staff readings).
  • 58. 2. Reconnaissance:- Before starting the survey work the area to be surveyed is thoroughly inspected examined) and the instrument stations are selected according to the nature of the area. If the survey is conducted along a narrow belt. the stations are selected along the centre line of the belt fie. alignments of highways,railways, canals, etc)
  • 59. Procedure:-  The tacheometric survey should be conducted in the following steps:- 1. The tacheometer is set at station. It is centred up the starting and levelled with respect to the plat bubble and altitude bubble.The height of the instrument (HI) is measured by leveling staff or stadia rod or tape. (i.e. height from ground to centre of the trunnion axis).
  • 60. 2. Set-up horizontal and vertical vernier to zero. Sight the staff held on the nearby bench mark and observe the vertical angle (for inclined sight, and the readings of the three hairs on staff held vertically bench mark. If there is no bench mark nearby, fly levelling may be done from any nearby BM. To establish another one near the site area to know the RL of the starting station. 3. The instrument is oriented with reference to any pre-determined station by taking its magnetic bearing and consider it as first ray at 0.
  • 61. 4. To cover the area (details) from the station, rays at 15 or 30 intervals are extended from the station The overlap of the rays from nearby stations should be 10 to 15.Also the extension of rays depends on the topography of the area of the station. Staff positions on these rays depend on the slope of the ground. Sight all the representive points from the starting station and first must be extended up to the whole length of the ray traverse leg (1e, A to E) to know the length of the line. Observe the vertical angle and the staff readings at the three hairs at each staff position. This way take observations all rays and complete the station. Take fare sight the traverse a station and observe the vertical angle and the staff readings the three wires. Also measure the horizontal angle between the two traverse legs . Close the work the BM. before shining the instrument on second station get the check.
  • 62. 5. Shifting the instrument and set up at the second station. it is centered and leveled. Measure the height of instrument. Take the first reading from the BM and then orient the telescope the first ray.First ray must be extended to its fun length from B to A Sight all the representative points on the rays observe vertical angles and staff readings, and complete the station. Take a for sight on the third station and observe vertical angle and staff readings. Also measure horizontal angle between the two traverse legs. Same way close the the work on the BM. to get the check. All readings are recorded in the tachometric book. 6. Proceed similarly at each of the successive stations and all the traverse stations are connected and the necessary observations for all the points are taken from each station and recorded clearly in the book.
  • 63. 7. From the metric book, the distances of the points from the instrument stations and their respective RLs are calculated by using tachometric table. 8. Since each station is sighted twice, the two values for the length and elevation are obtained. If they are within the limits of accuracy, the average of the two values may be taken and if not work should be repeated. 9. The traverse is plotted to any suitable scale. Rays are drawn from each station. The points are marked on these rays considering their horizontal distances from the station and RLs of the respective written. Then lines may points are the contour be drawn by the method of interpolation or by approximate method. North-line is plotted considering the magnetic bearing of the first traverse line. This way field work is carried out and