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Solid Waste Management 
10/9/2014 SWM 1
10/9/2014 SWM 2
What are solid wastes? 
 All wastes happening from human and animal 
activities 
 Normally solid 
 Discarded as useless...
10/9/2014 SWM 4
Materials Flow and Waste 
Generation 
Raw Materials 
Manufacturing 
Secondary 
manufacturing 
Processing and 
recovery 
Co...
Solid Waste Management 
 The discipline associated with the control of 
generation, storage, collection, transfer and 
tr...
10/9/2014 SWM 7
Solid Waste Management 
(continued) 
 Complex interdisciplinary relationships among 
political science, city and regional...
Interrelationships between the functional elements in a solid 
waste management system 
Waste generation 
Waste handling, ...
Waste handling, separation, storage, 
and processing at the source 
 Handling and separation involve the activities 
asso...
Collection 
 Include the gathering and the transport of these 
materials 
 In large cities, where the haul distance to t...
Separation and processing and 
transformation of solid waste 
 Separated wastes are recovered by three means, i.e. 
curbs...
Transfer and Transport 
1. The transfer of wastes from the smaller 
collection vehicle to the larger transport 
equipment ...
Disposal 
 Landfilling or landspreading is the ultimate 
fate of all solid wastes. 
 A modern sanitary landfill is not a...
Integrated Solid Waste 
Management 
“The selection and application of suitable 
techniques, technologies, and management 
...
Hierarchy of Integrated Solid Waste 
Management 
 Source reduction: the most effective way to reduce 
waste quantity 
 R...
Sources, Types, and 
Composition of Industrial 
Solid Wastes 
10/9/2014 SWM 17
Sources of Solid Wastes 
 Residential 
 Commercial 
 Institutional 
 Construction and Demolition 
 Municipal services...
Plastic Materials 
 Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE/1) 
 High-density polyethylene (HDPE/2) 
 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC/...
Hazardous Wastes 
“Wastes or combinations of wastes 
that pose a substantial present or 
potential hazard to human health ...
Industrial Solid Waste Excluding Process 
Wastes 
10/9/2014 SWM 21
Industrial Solid Waste Excluding Process 
Wastes (cont.) 
10/9/2014 SWM 22
10/9/2014 SWM 23
10/9/2014 SWM 24
Determination of the Composition 
of MSW in the Field 
 Residential MSW: 200 lb (90.72kg) of samples is 
considered enoug...
Physical, Chemical, and 
Biological Properties of 
MSW 
10/9/2014 SWM 26
Physical Properties of MSW 
 Specific weight 
 Moisture content 
 Particle size and size distribution 
 Field capacity...
10/9/2014 SWM 28
Chemical Properties of MSW 
 The four most important properties if solid 
wastes are to be used as fuel are; 
1. Proximat...
Proximate Analysis 
 Moisture (moisture lost after heated at 
105°C for 1 hr.) 
 Volatile combustible matter (additional...
Ultimate Analysis of Solid Waste 
Components 
 Involves the determination of the percent 
C, H, O, N, S, and ash 
 Due t...
10/9/2014 SWM 32
Energy Content of Solid Waste 
Components 
Determined by; 
1. A full scale boiler as a calorimeter 
2. A laboratory bomb c...
10/9/2014 SWM 34
10/9/2014 SWM 35
Physical Transformations 
1. Component separation 
2. Mechanical volume reduction 
3. Mechanical size reduction 
10/9/2014...
Chemical Transformations 
1. Combustion (chemical oxidation) 
2. Pyrolysis 
3. Gasification 
10/9/2014 SWM 37
10/9/2014 SWM 38
Biological Transformations 
 Aerobic Composting 
 Anaerobic Digestion 
10/9/2014 SWM 39
10/9/2014 SWM 40
10/9/2014 SWM 41
Waste Handling and 
Separation, Storage, and 
Processing at The Source 
10/9/2014 SWM 42
Waste Handling and Separation 
at Commercial and Industrial 
Facilities 
 Relatively large containers mounted on 
rollers...
Storage of Solid Wastes at 
The Source 
 Effects of Storage on Waste Components; 
biological decomposition, absorption of...
10/9/2014 SWM 45
10/9/2014 SWM 46
Processing of Solid Wastes at 
the Source 
 Grinding of Food Wastes 
 Separation of Wastes 
 Compaction 
 Composting 
...
Collection of Solid Waste 
10/9/2014 SWM 48
Introduction 
 Difficulties arise from the complexity 
of the sources of solid wastes. 
 Due to the high costs of fuel a...
Definition of Collection 
“Gathering or picking up of solid wastes, 
including the hauling to and unloading at 
the site” ...
10/9/2014 SWM 51
10/9/2014 SWM 52
Types of Collection Systems 
 Hauled Container Systems (HCS) 
 Stationary Container Systems (SCS) 
10/9/2014 SWM 53
HCS: Conventional Mode 
10/9/2014 SWM 54
HCS: Exchange Container Mode 
10/9/2014 SWM 55
Hauled Container Systems (HCS) 
Pros 
 Suited for the removal of 
wastes from high rate of 
generation sources because 
r...
10/9/2014 SWM 57
Personnel Requirements for HCS 
 Usually, a single collector-driver is used 
 A driver and helper should be used, in 
so...
SCS 
10/9/2014 SWM 59
Stationary Container Systems (SCS) 
 Can be used for the collection of all types of wastes 
 There are two main types: m...
Transfer Operations 
Can be economical when; 
1. Small, manually loaded collection vehicles are 
used for residential wast...
Personnel Requirements for SCS 
Mechanically 
 The same as for HCS 
 A driver and two helpers 
are used if the container...
Separation and Processing 
and Transformation of Solid 
Waste 
10/9/2014 SWM 63
Uses for recovered materials 
 Direct reuse 
 Raw materials for remanufacturing and 
reprocessing 
 Feedstock for biolo...
Unit Operations Used For The 
Separation and Processing of Waste 
Materials 
 To modify the physical characteristics of t...
Shredders (a) hammermill (b) fail mill (c) shear shredder 
Trommel 
10/9/2014 SWM 66
Magnetic Separators 
Baler 
10/9/2014 SWM Can Crusher 67
Facilities for Handling, Moving, and Storing Waste Materials 
10/9/2014 SWM 68
10/9/2014 SWM 69
10/9/2014 SWM 70
10/9/2014 SWM 71
Waste Transformation Through 
Combustion 
10/9/2014 SWM 72
Waste Transformation through 
Aerobic Composting 
10/9/2014 SWM 73
Objectives of Composting 
1. To stabilise the biodegradable organic 
materials 
2. To destroy pathogens, insect eggs, etc....
Windrow 
Composting 
Static Pile 
Composting 
10/9/2014 SWM 75
Transfer and Transport 
10/9/2014 SWM 76
The Need for Transfer Operations 
 Direct hauling is not feasible 
 Illegal dumping due to the excessive haul 
distances...
The Need for Transfer 
Operations (continued) 
 The use of HCS with small containers for 
commercial sources waste 
 The...
Types of Transfer Station 
Direct-load 
Storage-load 
Combined direct-and 
discharge-load 
Storing 
capacity 
1-3 days 
10...
Disposal of Solid Wastes 
and Residual Matter 
10/9/2014 SWM 80
10/9/2014 SWM 81
Development and completion 
of a landfill 
Preparation of the 
site for landfilling 
The placement of 
wastes 
Postclosure...
Concerns with the Landfilling 
of Solid Wastes 
 The uncontrolled release of landfill gases 
 The impact of landfill gas...
“The goal for the design and 
operation of a modern landfill 
is to eliminate or minimize the 
impacts associated with the...
10/9/2014 SWM 85
10/9/2014 SWM 86
10/9/2014 SWM 87
10/9/2014 SWM 88
10/9/2014 SWM 89
10/9/2014 SWM 90
10/9/2014 SWM 91
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Solid waste management

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Solid waste management

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Solid waste management

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management 10/9/2014 SWM 1
  2. 2. 10/9/2014 SWM 2
  3. 3. What are solid wastes?  All wastes happening from human and animal activities  Normally solid  Discarded as useless or unwanted  Urban community, Agricultural, Industrial and Mineral wastes 10/9/2014 SWM 3
  4. 4. 10/9/2014 SWM 4
  5. 5. Materials Flow and Waste Generation Raw Materials Manufacturing Secondary manufacturing Processing and recovery Consumer Final disposal Residual debris Residual waste material Raw materials, products, and recovered materials Waste materials 10/9/2014 SWM 5
  6. 6. Solid Waste Management  The discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes. 10/9/2014 SWM 6
  7. 7. 10/9/2014 SWM 7
  8. 8. Solid Waste Management (continued)  Complex interdisciplinary relationships among political science, city and regional planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, demography, communications, and conservation, as well as engineering and materials science 10/9/2014 SWM 8
  9. 9. Interrelationships between the functional elements in a solid waste management system Waste generation Waste handling, separation, storage, and processing at the source Collection Separation and processing and transformation of solid waste Transfer and transport Disposal 10/9/2014 9 SWM
  10. 10. Waste handling, separation, storage, and processing at the source  Handling and separation involve the activities associated with management of wastes until they are placed in storage containers for collection.  The best place to separate waste materials for reuse and recycling is at the source of generation (currently, also for hazardous wastes). 10/9/2014 SWM 10
  11. 11. Collection  Include the gathering and the transport of these materials  In large cities, where the haul distance to the point of disposal is greater than 15 miles, the haul may have significant economic implications.  Transfer and transport facilities are normally used where long distances are involved 10/9/2014 SWM 11
  12. 12. Separation and processing and transformation of solid waste  Separated wastes are recovered by three means, i.e. curbside collection, drop off, and buy back centres.  Processing includes; e.g. the separation of bulky items, size reduction by shredding, separation of ferrous metals using magnets.  Transformation processes are used to reduce the volume and weight of waste requiring disposal and to recover conversion products and energy. 10/9/2014 SWM 12
  13. 13. Transfer and Transport 1. The transfer of wastes from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment 2. The subsequent transport of the wastes, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site 10/9/2014 SWM 13
  14. 14. Disposal  Landfilling or landspreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes.  A modern sanitary landfill is not a dump; it is an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety.  EIA is required for all new landfill sites. 10/9/2014 SWM 14
  15. 15. Integrated Solid Waste Management “The selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals” 10/9/2014 SWM 15
  16. 16. Hierarchy of Integrated Solid Waste Management  Source reduction: the most effective way to reduce waste quantity  Recycling: involves the separation and collection; the preparation for reuse, reprocessing; the reuse, reprocessing  Waste transformation: the physical, chemical, or biological alteration of wastes  Landfilling: the least desirable but indispensable mean for dealing with wastes 10/9/2014 SWM 16
  17. 17. Sources, Types, and Composition of Industrial Solid Wastes 10/9/2014 SWM 17
  18. 18. Sources of Solid Wastes  Residential  Commercial  Institutional  Construction and Demolition  Municipal services  Treatment plant sites  Industrial  Agricultural Municipal solid waste (MSW) 10/9/2014 SWM 18
  19. 19. Plastic Materials  Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE/1)  High-density polyethylene (HDPE/2)  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC/3)  Low-density polyethylene (LDPE/4)  Polypropylene (PP/5)  Polystyrene (PS/6)  Other multilayered plastic materials (7) 10/9/2014 SWM 19
  20. 20. Hazardous Wastes “Wastes or combinations of wastes that pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms” 10/9/2014 SWM 20
  21. 21. Industrial Solid Waste Excluding Process Wastes 10/9/2014 SWM 21
  22. 22. Industrial Solid Waste Excluding Process Wastes (cont.) 10/9/2014 SWM 22
  23. 23. 10/9/2014 SWM 23
  24. 24. 10/9/2014 SWM 24
  25. 25. Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field  Residential MSW: 200 lb (90.72kg) of samples is considered enough. To obtain a sample, the load is first quartered. One part is then selected for additional quartering until a sample size of about 200 lb (90.72kg) is obtained.  Commercial and Industrial MSW: Samples need to be taken directly from the source, not from a mixed waste load in a collection vehicle. 10/9/2014 SWM 25
  26. 26. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of MSW 10/9/2014 SWM 26
  27. 27. Physical Properties of MSW  Specific weight  Moisture content  Particle size and size distribution  Field capacity  Compacted waste porosity 10/9/2014 SWM 27
  28. 28. 10/9/2014 SWM 28
  29. 29. Chemical Properties of MSW  The four most important properties if solid wastes are to be used as fuel are; 1. Proximate analysis 2. Fusing point of ash 3. Ultimate analysis (major elements) 4. Energy content  The major and trace elements are required if the MSW is to be composted or used as 10/9/2014 feedstock SWM 29
  30. 30. Proximate Analysis  Moisture (moisture lost after heated at 105°C for 1 hr.)  Volatile combustible matter (additional loss of weight after ignited at 950°C)  Fixed carbon (combustible residue after volatile matter removal)  Ash (weight of residue after combustion) 10/9/2014 SWM 30
  31. 31. Ultimate Analysis of Solid Waste Components  Involves the determination of the percent C, H, O, N, S, and ash  Due to the chlorinated compounds emission, the determination of halogens is often included.  Moreover, they are used to define the proper mix of waste materials to achieve suitable C/N ratios for biological conversion processes. 10/9/2014 SWM 31
  32. 32. 10/9/2014 SWM 32
  33. 33. Energy Content of Solid Waste Components Determined by; 1. A full scale boiler as a calorimeter 2. A laboratory bomb calorimeter 3. Calculation, if the elemental composition is known 1 Btu lb C H O ) 40S 10N / 145 610( 2 2      8 10/9/2014 SWM 33
  34. 34. 10/9/2014 SWM 34
  35. 35. 10/9/2014 SWM 35
  36. 36. Physical Transformations 1. Component separation 2. Mechanical volume reduction 3. Mechanical size reduction 10/9/2014 SWM 36
  37. 37. Chemical Transformations 1. Combustion (chemical oxidation) 2. Pyrolysis 3. Gasification 10/9/2014 SWM 37
  38. 38. 10/9/2014 SWM 38
  39. 39. Biological Transformations  Aerobic Composting  Anaerobic Digestion 10/9/2014 SWM 39
  40. 40. 10/9/2014 SWM 40
  41. 41. 10/9/2014 SWM 41
  42. 42. Waste Handling and Separation, Storage, and Processing at The Source 10/9/2014 SWM 42
  43. 43. Waste Handling and Separation at Commercial and Industrial Facilities  Relatively large containers mounted on rollers are utilised before being emptied.  Solid wastes from industrial facilities are handled in the same way as those from the commercial facilities. 10/9/2014 SWM 43
  44. 44. Storage of Solid Wastes at The Source  Effects of Storage on Waste Components; biological decomposition, absorption of fluids, contamination of waste components  Types of Containers 10/9/2014 SWM 44
  45. 45. 10/9/2014 SWM 45
  46. 46. 10/9/2014 SWM 46
  47. 47. Processing of Solid Wastes at the Source  Grinding of Food Wastes  Separation of Wastes  Compaction  Composting  Combustion 10/9/2014 SWM 47
  48. 48. Collection of Solid Waste 10/9/2014 SWM 48
  49. 49. Introduction  Difficulties arise from the complexity of the sources of solid wastes.  Due to the high costs of fuel and labour, ~50-70% of total money spent for collection, transportation, and disposal in 1992 was used on the collection phase. 10/9/2014 SWM 49
  50. 50. Definition of Collection “Gathering or picking up of solid wastes, including the hauling to and unloading at the site” 10/9/2014 SWM 50
  51. 51. 10/9/2014 SWM 51
  52. 52. 10/9/2014 SWM 52
  53. 53. Types of Collection Systems  Hauled Container Systems (HCS)  Stationary Container Systems (SCS) 10/9/2014 SWM 53
  54. 54. HCS: Conventional Mode 10/9/2014 SWM 54
  55. 55. HCS: Exchange Container Mode 10/9/2014 SWM 55
  56. 56. Hauled Container Systems (HCS) Pros  Suited for the removal of wastes from high rate of generation sources because relatively large containers are used  Reduce handling time, unsightly accumulations and unsanitary conditions  Require only one truck and driver to complete the collection cycle Cons  Each container requires a round trip to the disposal site (or transfer point)  Container size and utilisation are of great economic importance 10/9/2014 SWM 56
  57. 57. 10/9/2014 SWM 57
  58. 58. Personnel Requirements for HCS  Usually, a single collector-driver is used  A driver and helper should be used, in some cases, for safety reasons or where hazardous wastes are to be handled 10/9/2014 SWM 58
  59. 59. SCS 10/9/2014 SWM 59
  60. 60. Stationary Container Systems (SCS)  Can be used for the collection of all types of wastes  There are two main types: mechanically loaded and manually loaded  Internal compaction mechanisms are widely use thanks to their economical advantages 10/9/2014 SWM 60
  61. 61. Transfer Operations Can be economical when; 1. Small, manually loaded collection vehicles are used for residential wastes and long haul distances are involved 2. Extremely large quantities of wastes must be hauled over long distances 3. One transfer station can be used by a number of collection vehicles 10/9/2014 SWM 61
  62. 62. Personnel Requirements for SCS Mechanically  The same as for HCS  A driver and two helpers are used if the containers are at the inaccessible locations, e.g. congested downtown commercial area Manually  The number of collectors varies from 1 to 3 10/9/2014 SWM 62
  63. 63. Separation and Processing and Transformation of Solid Waste 10/9/2014 SWM 63
  64. 64. Uses for recovered materials  Direct reuse  Raw materials for remanufacturing and reprocessing  Feedstock for biological and chemical conversion products  Fuel source  Land reclamation 10/9/2014 SWM 64
  65. 65. Unit Operations Used For The Separation and Processing of Waste Materials  To modify the physical characteristics of the waste  To remove specific components and contaminants  To process and prepare the separated materials for subsequent uses 10/9/2014 SWM 65
  66. 66. Shredders (a) hammermill (b) fail mill (c) shear shredder Trommel 10/9/2014 SWM 66
  67. 67. Magnetic Separators Baler 10/9/2014 SWM Can Crusher 67
  68. 68. Facilities for Handling, Moving, and Storing Waste Materials 10/9/2014 SWM 68
  69. 69. 10/9/2014 SWM 69
  70. 70. 10/9/2014 SWM 70
  71. 71. 10/9/2014 SWM 71
  72. 72. Waste Transformation Through Combustion 10/9/2014 SWM 72
  73. 73. Waste Transformation through Aerobic Composting 10/9/2014 SWM 73
  74. 74. Objectives of Composting 1. To stabilise the biodegradable organic materials 2. To destroy pathogens, insect eggs, etc. 3. To retain the maximum nutrient (N,P,K) 4. To produce fertilizer 10/9/2014 SWM 74
  75. 75. Windrow Composting Static Pile Composting 10/9/2014 SWM 75
  76. 76. Transfer and Transport 10/9/2014 SWM 76
  77. 77. The Need for Transfer Operations  Direct hauling is not feasible  Illegal dumping due to the excessive haul distances  Disposal sites are far from the collection routes more than 10 mi  Use of small-capacity collection vehicles (< 20 yd3)  Low-density residential service area 10/9/2014 SWM 77
  78. 78. The Need for Transfer Operations (continued)  The use of HCS with small containers for commercial sources waste  The use of hydraulic or pneumatic collection systems  Transfer operation is an integral part of the operation of a MRF 10/9/2014 SWM 78
  79. 79. Types of Transfer Station Direct-load Storage-load Combined direct-and discharge-load Storing capacity 1-3 days 10/9/2014 SWM 79
  80. 80. Disposal of Solid Wastes and Residual Matter 10/9/2014 SWM 80
  81. 81. 10/9/2014 SWM 81
  82. 82. Development and completion of a landfill Preparation of the site for landfilling The placement of wastes Postclosure management 10/9/2014 SWM 82
  83. 83. Concerns with the Landfilling of Solid Wastes  The uncontrolled release of landfill gases  The impact of landfill gases as the greenhouse gases  The uncontrolled release of leachate  The breeding and harbouring of disease vectors  The adverse effects of the trace gases arising from the hazardous materials 10/9/2014 SWM 83
  84. 84. “The goal for the design and operation of a modern landfill is to eliminate or minimize the impacts associated with these concerns.” 10/9/2014 SWM 84
  85. 85. 10/9/2014 SWM 85
  86. 86. 10/9/2014 SWM 86
  87. 87. 10/9/2014 SWM 87
  88. 88. 10/9/2014 SWM 88
  89. 89. 10/9/2014 SWM 89
  90. 90. 10/9/2014 SWM 90
  91. 91. 10/9/2014 SWM 91

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