Experimental Research

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Experimental Research

  1. 1. DIBRUGARH UNIVERSITYTUTORIAL ON“EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH”Presented by: (GROUP: 3)06 : Arup Bordoloi17 : Joyshree Borah36 : Nikhil Modi48 : Rabby Ullah55 : Sandeep DasMASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION – 2nd SEMESTER
  2. 2. An experiment is generally used to infer a causalitywhere a researcher actively manipulates one or morecausal variables and measures their effects on thedependent variables of interest.What is an Experiment?
  3. 3. It is a collection of research designs which usemanipulation and controlled testing to understandcausal processes. Generally, one or more variablesare manipulated to determine their effect on adependent variable.What is an Experimental Research?
  4. 4. In simple terms Causality means the cause and effectrelationship. The cause and effect relationship oftentends to be probabilistic in nature as the changes inthe dependent variable may be caused by a number ofother variables.Concept of causality
  5. 5.  Concomitant variation Time order of occurrence of variables Absence of other possible causal factorsNecessary Conditions for making CausalInferences
  6. 6. CONCEPTS USED IN EXPERIMENTS• INDEPENDENT VARIABLES• DEPENDENT VARIABLES• EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
  7. 7. VALIDITY IN EXPERIMENTATION1. INTERNAL VALIDITY2. EXTERNAL VALIDITY
  8. 8. FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNAL VALIDITY• MATURATION• TESTING• INSTRUMENTATION• SELECTION BIAS• TEST UNIT MORTALITY
  9. 9. FACTORS AFFECTING EXTERNAL VALIDITY
  10. 10. METHODS TO CONTROL EXTRANEOUS VARIABLE• RANDOMIZATION• MATCHING• STATISTICAL CONTROL
  11. 11. AQUARIUM EXPERIMENTDILEMMA: FISHES ARE HAVING WHITE SPOT DISEASEHYPOTHESIS: USE OF RID-ALL GENERAL AID CAN CURE THE FISHESEXPERIMENTALBOWLCONTROLLEDBOWLX : FEW DROPS OF THE MEDICINE ARE ADDED IN THE EXPERIMENTAL BOWLNO MEDICINE IS ADDED IN CONTROLLED BOWLTHEN TWO FISHES FROM THE AQUARIUM ARE PUT INTO THE TWO BOWLSAFTER APPROX. 24 HOURSO1 : FISH FROM EXPERIMENTAL BOWL BECAME FREE OF WHITE SPOTSO2: FISH FROM CONTROLLED BOWL IS STILL HAVING WHITE SPOTS
  12. 12. EXPERIMENTALDESIGNPRE-EXPERIMENTAL STATISTICALTRUE - EXPERIMENTALQUASSI -EXPERIMENTALSTATIC GROUPONE GROUP PRETEST- POST TESTONE-SHOT CASESTUDYTIME SERIESMULTIPLE TIMESERIESSOLOMON FOURGROUPPOST TEST ONLYCONTROL GROUPPRE- TEST- POSTTEST CONTROLGROUPCOMPLETELYRANDOMIZEDRANDOMIZEDBLOCKSLATIN SQUAREFACTORIAL
  13. 13. PRE- EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNDo not use any randomization procedureCannot control extraneous variables Internal validity is highly questionable
  14. 14. ONE SHOT CASE STUDYSymbolic representation:X OOne Group No random assignment
  15. 15. ONE GROUP PRE TEST- POST TESTSymbolic representation:O1 X O2One Group Not random selection Test units are subjected to both pre and post treatment Treatment effect : O2 – O1
  16. 16. STATIC GROUPSymbolic representation:Group 1: X O1Group 2: O2 Two Groups Not random selection Group1 is experimental group, Group 2 is control group Treatment effect : O1 – O2
  17. 17. QUASSI- EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNCan Control when measurement are taken and whomthey are taken Do not use randomization Cannot control extraneous variables
  18. 18. TIME SERIES DESIGNSymbolic representation:O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8Not randomization
  19. 19. TIME SERIES DESIGN
  20. 20. TRUE- EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Uses randomization procedureCan be able to eliminate extraneous variables bothfrom experimental and control group
  21. 21. PRE- TEST- POST TEST CONTROL GROUPSymbolic representation:Experimental group: R O1 X O2Control group : R O3 O4Two Groups Random selection Findings: O2 – O1 = Treatment +extraneous VariableO4 – O3 = Extraneous Variable Cannot find interactive testing effect
  22. 22. POST TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUPSymbolic representation:Experimental group: R X O1Control group : R O2Two Groups Random selection Findings: O1 – O2 = Treatment effect
  23. 23. SOLOMON FOUR GROUPSymbolic representation:Experimental group1: R O1 X O2Control group1 : R O3 O4Experimental group2: R X O5Control group2 : R O6 Can find both effect of treatment and interactive testing effect
  24. 24. STATISTICAL DESIGNAllow for statistical control and analysis of externalvariables Effect of more than one level of independent variableon the dependent variable can be manipulated The effect of more than one independent variable canbe examined Effect of specific extraneous variable can becontrolled
  25. 25. COMPLETELY RANDOMIZEDUsed when effect of only one independent variable isconsidered. Independent variable should be measured in nominalscale i.e. it should have number of categories. Each category is considered as treatment All test groups are selected at random Statistical technique: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Limitation: Does not consider extraneous variables
  26. 26. Sample shopsPrice of goodsLow Medium High12345678910Average
  27. 27. RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGNOvercomes the limitation of Completely Randomizedblock design Considers the extraneous variables
  28. 28. SampleshopsPrice of goodsLow Medium HighLarge12345Medium12345Small12345

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