Knowledge Management Arun VI


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It describes various aspects of Knowledge Management.

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Knowledge Management Arun VI

  1. 2. <ul><li>K nowledge is treated more and more as a principle success factor and major driving force behind the successful business </li></ul><ul><li>It will be a powerful tool to enhance productivity and reduce cost </li></ul>
  2. 3. What is Knowledge Management? <ul><li>Key words : Data, Information And Knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be illustrated as a fact, which has not been structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is the relevant, structured and meaningful data. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, on the other hand, is acquired through personal experience or the study of factual information. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is Knowledge Management? <ul><li>Knowledge Management can be defined as a systematic process that, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shares, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes </li></ul></ul></ul>knowledge in ways that directly improve performance .
  5. 6. Knowledge Management Tools <ul><li>Knowledge management tools fit in five areas of competences </li></ul>
  6. 7. Goal of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Ultimately, KM can be interpreted as the ability to get the right information to the right people at the right time, and in the right place. </li></ul>Improve the Creation And Exploitation Of Knowledge Dissemination Competitive Advantage
  7. 8. Goal of Knowledge Management contd. Improved performance Innovation The sharing of lessons learned Competitive advantage Continuous improvement of the organisation KM focus on organizational objectives Management of knowledge as a strategic asset
  8. 9. Knowledge Management Framework
  9. 10. Knowledge management (KM) <ul><li>Comprises a range of practices used in an organisation to </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute And </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Adoption Of Insights And Experiences . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organisational processes or practice . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Knowledge Management <ul><li>To share valuable organisational insights , </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce redundant work </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid reinventing </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce training time for new employees, </li></ul><ul><li>To retain intellectual capital as employees turnover in an organisation& </li></ul><ul><li>To adapt to changing environments and market </li></ul>KM efforts can help individuals and groups;
  11. 12. KM efforts can help individuals and groups; <ul><ul><li>To share valuable organisational insights , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce redundant work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid reinventing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce training time for new employees, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To retain intellectual capital as employees turnover in an organisation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To adapt to changing environments and markets (mcadam & mccreedy 2000) (thompson & Walsham 2004). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Research <ul><li>KM emerged as a scientific discipline in the earlier 1990s . </li></ul><ul><li>It was initially supported by only practitioners, when Scandia hired Leif Edvinsson of Sweden as the world’s first Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO). </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Core components of KM include People, Processes, Technology (or) Culture, Structure, Technology , depending on the specific perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Different KM schools of thoughts include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>community of practice (Wenger, McDermott & Synder 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social network analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complexity science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>constructivism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Dimensions <ul><li>Different frameworks for distinguishing between knowledge exist. </li></ul><ul><li>One proposed framework for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge . </li></ul>
  15. 16. Tacit knowledge & Explicit knowledge <ul><li>Tacit knowledge represents internalised knowledge that an individual may not be consciously aware of , such as how he or she accomplishes particular tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge represents knowledge that the individual holds consciously in mental focus , in a form that can easily be communicated to others.. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Early research suggested that a successful KM effort needs to convert internalised tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge in order to share it, </li></ul>Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge convert Sharing of knowledge
  17. 20. <ul><li>Subsequent research into KM suggested that a distinction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge represented an oversimplification and that the notion of explicit knowledge is self-contradictory . </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, for knowledge to be made explicit, it must be translated into information </li></ul>Tacit knowledge Information Explicit knowledge
  18. 21. <ul><li>Later on, Ikujiro Nonaka proposed a model (SECI for Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization ) which considers a spiraling knowledge process </li></ul><ul><li>In this model, knowledge follows a cycle </li></ul>Reinternalise d Explicit knowledge Extracted Implicit knowledge
  19. 22. Second proposed framework <ul><li>A second proposed framework for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between embedded knowledge of a system outside of a human individual (e.g., an information system may have knowledge embedded into its design) and embodied knowledge representing a learned capability of a human body’s nervous and endocrine systems (Sensky 2002) </li></ul>
  20. 23. Third proposed framework <ul><li>for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between the exploratory creation of &quot;new knowledge&quot; (i.e., innovation) vs. the transfer or exploitation of &quot;established knowledge &quot; within a group, organisation, or community. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative environments such as communities of practice or the use of social computing tools can be used for both knowledge creation and transfer </li></ul>new knowledge ( innovation) Established knowledge
  21. 24. Pillars of Knowledge Management
  22. 25. Technical domains of KM
  23. 26. Strategies <ul><li>Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>after KM-related activities . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Strategies
  25. 29. Strategies contd.. <ul><li>One strategy to KM involves actively managing knowledge ( push strategy ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In such an instance, individuals strive to explicitly encode their knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a database, as well as retrieving knowledge they need that other individuals have provided to the repository. This is also commonly known as the Codification approach to KM . </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Strategies contd.. <ul><li>Another strategy to KM involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals making knowledge requests of experts associated with a particular subject on an ad hoc basis ( pull strategy ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In such an instance, expert individual(s) can provide their insights to the particular person or people needing this (Snowden 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also commonly known as the - Personalization approach to KM. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Other knowledge management strategies for companies include: <ul><li>Rewards (as a means of motivating for knowledge sharing) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling (as a means of transferring tacit knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-project learning </li></ul><ul><li>After action reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge mapping (a map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all) </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Expert directories (to enable knowledge seeker to reach to the experts) </li></ul><ul><li>Best practice transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Competence management (systematic evaluation and planning of competences of individual organization members) </li></ul>
  28. 32. Other knowledge management strategies for companies include : <ul><li>Proximity & architecture (the physical situation of employees can be either conducive or obstructive to knowledge sharing) </li></ul><ul><li>Master-apprentice relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative technologies (groupware, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge repositories (databases, bookmarking engines, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring and reporting intellectual capital (a way of making explicit knowledge for companies) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge brokers (some organizational members take on responsibility for a specific &quot;field&quot; and act as first reference on whom to talk about a specific subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Social software </li></ul>
  29. 33. Benefits <ul><li>Making available increased knowledge content in the development and provision of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving shorter new product development cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating and managing innovation and organizational learning </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging the expertise of people across the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing network connectivity between internal and external individuals </li></ul>
  30. 34. Benefits contd.. <ul><li>Managing business environments and allowing employees to obtain relevant insights and ideas appropriate to their work </li></ul><ul><li>Solving intractable or wicked problems </li></ul><ul><li>Managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed by key individuals) </li></ul>
  31. 35. Referances <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 36. Thank You