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Lysergic acid diethylamide-drug abuse

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  1. 1. By, Arunraj Group-10 Tbilisi state medical university
  2. 2.  Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was invented in 1938 by Albert Hofmann.  Story of Hofmann’s hallucinations  Experimentation process, 25th synthesized molecule, analeptic  LSD is made from ergotamine, a grain fungus.
  3. 3. - Also called psychedelics or psychomimetics - Classic synthetic hallucinogens - LSD - Some “designer” amphetamines (i.e. MDA, MDMA) - Classic natural hallucinogens - Psilocybin (“magic mushrooms”) - Mescaline - Schedule I Drugs based on the FDA classification system - Salvia - most powerful natural hallucinogen. Legal. Grows throughout the Americas, including the US. In mint family.
  4. 4. - LSD is the most commonly used synthetic hallucinogen. - LSD is a white or clear, odorless, water- soluble crystal that can be crushed into a powder and dissolved. - The most common form of LSD is as a liquid that has been transferred onto a small paper square known as “blotter” - Experiences on LSD are known as “trips” lasting from 6-12 hours. - Can be dried on gelatin sheets, put into capsules or on sugar cubes, or laced with other drugs.
  5. 5.  LSD is not addictive.  However, adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible.  LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, though it may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature.  In pure form it is odorless and clear or white in color.  As little as 20–30 micrograms can produce an effect.
  6. 6. • Acid • Battery acid • Boomers • Doses • Dots • Golden Dragon • Hippie • Loony toons • Lucy in the sky with diamonds • Microdot • Pane • Superman • Tab • Window pane • Yellow sunshine • Zen and many others
  7. 7. - 1st hour of trip – anxiety, tingling feelings, nausea, colors appear brighter - 3rd hour – peak - Extreme visual, open and closed eyes, hallucinations. Vivid colors and seeing things that are not there. - Epiphanies or internal revelations. - Can go from periods of giddiness, to extreme insight. - Can become extremely paranoid, especially when put in a situation with people who are not tripping.
  8. 8.  “Good trips” are simulating pleasurable, and typically involve feeling as if one is floating, disconnected from reality, feelings of joy or euphoria, decreased inhibitions, and the belief of superpowers.  Negative experiences, referred to as "bad trips", produce intense negative emotions, such as irrational fears and anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, rapid mood swings, intrusive thoughts of hopelessness, wanting to harm others, and suicidal ideation.
  9. 9.  Visual hallucinations and illusions ("trips")  Trips usually start within 20–30 minutes of taking LSD by mouth (less if snorted or taken intravenously), peak three to four hours after ingestion, and last up to 12 hours.
  10. 10. Physical effects • Dilated pupils • Higher or lower body temperature • Sweating or chills (“goose bumps”) • Loss of appetite • Sleeplessness • Dry mouth • Tremors Mental Effects • Delusions • Visual hallucinations • An artificial sense of euphoria or certainty • Distortion of one’ssense of time andidentity • Impaired depth perception • Impaired timeperception, distorted perception of the size and shape of objects, movements, color, sounds, touch and the user’s own body image • Severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings • Fear of losing control • Panic attacks • Flashbacks, or a recurrence of the LSD trip, often without warning long after taking LSD • Severe depression or psychosis
  11. 11.  On April 19th Albert Hofmann (the inventor of LSD) ingested 250 micrograms of the drug , today 20 micrograms is the general dose given.  Ray Charles LSD usage “made the blind man see”  Eric Clapton used every night throughout the 60s, 70s and 80s.  Chris Farley (Actor)  Fat Boy Slim (Recording Artist)  Doc Ellis (Baseball)  Bill Hicks (Comedian)  Steve Jobs (Apple)  John Belushi (Actor)  Eminem (Rapper)  Jack Nicholson (Actor)  Cary Grant (Actor)  Angelina Jolie (Actress)  Francis Crick (Scientist)  Aldous Huxley (Writer)  Jimmy Hendrix (Musician)
  12. 12. Supportive care Massive ingestions of LSD should be treated with supportive care, including respiratory support and endotracheal intubation if needed. Hypertension, tachycardia, and hyperthermia should be treated symptomatically. Hypotension should be treated initially with fluids and subsequently with pressors if required.
  13. 13. Ergotism therapy Ergotism is treated with discontinuation of any inciting drugs and supportive care. Intravenous administration of anticoagulants, vasodilators, and sympatholytics may be useful. The use of balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in severe cases has been reported.
  14. 14.  A benzodiazepine (lorazepam or diazepam) is the medication of choice, especially in patients with dysphoric reactions.  Benzodiazepines decrease central and peripheral sympathomimetic drug effects.
  15. 15.  The antihypertensive agent clonidine has been shown to attenuate some signs and symptoms of LSD toxicity.  Clonidine has been found to decrease the severity of flashbacks and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) and to attenuate increased sympathetic activity associated with LSD use.