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Instructional Aids andDevices
Kinds of Instructional MaterialsI. PrintedMaterials:A. TextbookB. SupplementalMaterials1. workbooks2. duplicatedoutlines3....
KindsII. AudioAids:a. Radiob.Phonographc. Taperecorders
III. Visual Aids:a. Chalkboard
b. Still Pictures 1. nonprojected 1.1 Photographs 1.2 illustrations
2. Projected Pictures2.1 slides2.2.filmstrips2.3.opaqueprojections2.4overheadprojections
C. Graphic Materials1.Charts2.Graphs3.Mapsandglobes4.posters
D. Exhibits1.school-madedisplays2. bulletinboards3.museums
Flannel board and felt board- It allows hands-on interaction
F. Objects1. specimen2. realias3. models
IV. Audiovisual AidsA. Motion picturesB. TelevisionC. videotapes
V. Demonstrations
VI. Community ResourcesA. Field tripsB. Resource persons
VII. Language laboratoryVIII. Programmed Instruction- It consists of self-teachingwith the aid of a textbook or teaching...
Basic Guidelines in the use of the AVAidsAudiovisual aids cannot teach by themselves , they needskillful teaching to make...
Guidelines2. Preparing the class for the audiovisual experienceMotivationSpend time discussing the purposeSuggesting p...
Guidelines3. Guiding the pupils through the audiovisual experiences- Ear stops at a certain points during the presentation...
4. Following-up the audiovisual experiences after itscompletionHelps clear out people misunderstanding of certain portio...
Aids To Effective Teaching
1. Recitation:> permanent fixture of the classroom situation>visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situationRatio...
recitationPurpose:1. To develop wholesome attitudesessential to effective social living2. To provide practice indemocrati...
2. AssignmentIntegral part of any lessonWhat they are to do and what they are to accomplish in thelessonChiefly means o...
How to conduct:1. set the goal or direction of the learning activity2. Review past lessons in the preparation for a tests ...
3. The Art of QuestioningUses of questions:1.To stimulate pupils to think2.To motivate pupils3.To diagnose pupil’s diffic...
Characteristics of a Good QuestionA good question1. Simple and clear2. definite3. challenging and thought provoking4....
Techniques of Questioning:1. Questions should be asked in a natural and well- modulatedvoice2.A teacher should ask the q...
Techniques in handling studentresponses to the teachers1. A teacher should make every effort to show an appreciativeattit...
Techniques in Handling StudentQuestions1. Students questions should be welcomed by a teacher2. A teacher should not answ...
Classroom ManagementMeaning and Importance of Management: > CarterV. Goods Dictionary of Education (1973) definesclassro...
Classroom management includes control of its physicalconditions as well as of the materials of instruction.Classroom man...
Aspects of Classroom Management:1. Physical preparation - lighting (avoid Glares)- physical appearance of roomThe physic...
2. Care of RoutineAdvantages:1. Economy in time andeffort2. Prevent confusion3. Promote learning activityDisadvantage...
3. Directing and controlling LearningDemocratic teachings produce better learning results thanthose who dominate, control...
4. DisciplineThe process or result of directing or subordinating immediatewishes, impulses, desires, or interests for the...
Principles of Effective andConstructive Discipline:1. the teacher should be responsible for his own classdiscipline.2. T...
Instructional aids and devices
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Instructional aids and devices

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Instructional aids and devices

  1. 1. Instructional Aids andDevices
  2. 2. Kinds of Instructional MaterialsI. PrintedMaterials:A. TextbookB. SupplementalMaterials1. workbooks2. duplicatedoutlines3. teacher-prepared studyguide4. referencebooks5. pamphlets6. magazinearticles7. newspapers
  3. 3. KindsII. AudioAids:a. Radiob.Phonographc. Taperecorders
  4. 4. III. Visual Aids:a. Chalkboard
  5. 5. b. Still Pictures 1. nonprojected 1.1 Photographs 1.2 illustrations
  6. 6. 2. Projected Pictures2.1 slides2.2.filmstrips2.3.opaqueprojections2.4overheadprojections
  7. 7. C. Graphic Materials1.Charts2.Graphs3.Mapsandglobes4.posters
  8. 8. D. Exhibits1.school-madedisplays2. bulletinboards3.museums
  9. 9. Flannel board and felt board- It allows hands-on interaction
  10. 10. F. Objects1. specimen2. realias3. models
  11. 11. IV. Audiovisual AidsA. Motion picturesB. TelevisionC. videotapes
  12. 12. V. Demonstrations
  13. 13. VI. Community ResourcesA. Field tripsB. Resource persons
  14. 14. VII. Language laboratoryVIII. Programmed Instruction- It consists of self-teachingwith the aid of a textbook or teaching machine that presentsmaterial structured in a logical sequence.
  15. 15. Basic Guidelines in the use of the AVAidsAudiovisual aids cannot teach by themselves , they needskillful teaching to make them effective1.Selecting the materials- appropriateness and effectiveness- regency- availability- appeal- technical quality- costTry it before using
  16. 16. Guidelines2. Preparing the class for the audiovisual experienceMotivationSpend time discussing the purposeSuggesting points that will direct attention to key ideasduring the activityIn working order
  17. 17. Guidelines3. Guiding the pupils through the audiovisual experiences- Ear stops at a certain points during the presentation to askquestions or to explain to the pupils what they areexperiencing
  18. 18. 4. Following-up the audiovisual experiences after itscompletionHelps clear out people misunderstanding of certain portionsof the experienceEvaluates worth of the materialBasis for improving
  19. 19. Aids To Effective Teaching
  20. 20. 1. Recitation:> permanent fixture of the classroom situation>visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situationRationale:1.Occasion for developing reflective thinking, creativeexpressions, favorable attitudes and ideas of social living2.Matrix for inculcating democratic ideals such as respect forthe human personality, cooperative effort, general welfare,grp resp. and the use of one’s intelligence.
  21. 21. recitationPurpose:1. To develop wholesome attitudesessential to effective social living2. To provide practice indemocratic ideals and processes3. To provide problem solvingactivities that will train pupils inreflective thinking and criticalevaluation4. to encourage freedom ofexpression and respect for theopinion of othersHow to conduct:1. Planning and organizing-ensuresmooth unfolding of activities2. Recitation should beprogressive-clear goal3. Should provide for active pupilparticipation and self-activity-learn by doing4. Should utilize lifelike situations5. Should provide for individualdifferences6. Should provide for evaluation
  22. 22. 2. AssignmentIntegral part of any lessonWhat they are to do and what they are to accomplish in thelessonChiefly means of stimulating and directing learningMeans of developing good study habits and independentworkPurposive, meaningful and significant to students
  23. 23. How to conduct:1. set the goal or direction of the learning activity2. Review past lessons in the preparation for a tests ororganization of ideas and concepts3. Motivate the pupil and prepare the job to be done4. Setting up definite learning activities to carried out5. Providing directions for learning activity6. Establishing of habit of studying regularly
  24. 24. 3. The Art of QuestioningUses of questions:1.To stimulate pupils to think2.To motivate pupils3.To diagnose pupil’s difficulties4.To discover pupils’ interests5.To help pupils organize and evaluate6.To aid pupils to relate pertinent experiences to the lesson7.To focus pupils attention on the key points od the lesson8.To develop new appreciations and attitudes9.To provide drill or practice10.To show relationships, such as cause and effect
  25. 25. Characteristics of a Good QuestionA good question1. Simple and clear2. definite3. challenging and thought provoking4. adapted to the age, abilities and interests of the students5. requires an extended response
  26. 26. Techniques of Questioning:1. Questions should be asked in a natural and well- modulatedvoice2.A teacher should ask the question first and then wait for theclass to think about it before calling on a student to answer thequestions3. A sufficient number of questions should be asked tostimulate students to activity4. A teacher should refrain from repeating the questions5. Questions should be evenly distributed so that the majorityof the pupils can take part in the discussion6. A teacher avoid resorting to any mechanical system offielding questions to the class7. A teacher should ask questions that are really interesting
  27. 27. Techniques in handling studentresponses to the teachers1. A teacher should make every effort to show an appreciativeattitude toward students answers2. A teacher should never allow wrong answers to slip by3. Correct answers of students should be followed withencouraging remarks by the teacher4. Clarity in every point expressed by the students should beinsisted upon by the teacher5. Answering in concert should be discouraged6. A teacher should encourage students to answer in a loudand clear voice.7. Students should be encouraged to answer in completethought units and grammatically correct statements8. A teacher should refrain from marking the students in his
  28. 28. Techniques in Handling StudentQuestions1. Students questions should be welcomed by a teacher2. A teacher should not answer a student question right away3. Indiscriminate students questions should not be allowed4. A teacher should require students to frame grammaticallycorrect questions5. If a teacher is asked questions he cannot answer, assometimes happens, he should promptly admit his inability
  29. 29. Classroom ManagementMeaning and Importance of Management: > CarterV. Goods Dictionary of Education (1973) definesclassroom management as “ the administration or direction ofactivities with reference to such problems as discipline,democratic techniques, use and care of supplies and referencematerials, the physical features of the classroom, generalhousekeeping and social relationship of the pupils”.
  30. 30. Classroom management includes control of its physicalconditions as well as of the materials of instruction.Classroom management includes operation and control ofactivities.A well-managed class is conducive to mental growth anddevelopment.Pleasant surroundings induce good thoughts and inspire bothteacher and the pupils to do their best.Good classroom management establishes an atmosphere whichpermits activities to be carried on efficiently and economically.
  31. 31. Aspects of Classroom Management:1. Physical preparation - lighting (avoid Glares)- physical appearance of roomThe physical appearance of the room can stimulate pleasantfeelings, attitudes, ideas, and appreciations essential tolearning.
  32. 32. 2. Care of RoutineAdvantages:1. Economy in time andeffort2. Prevent confusion3. Promote learning activityDisadvantages:1. If over mechanized, noroom for initiative is left tothe pupils.2. Students may behave likeautomatons, creativity isdestroyed.
  33. 33. 3. Directing and controlling LearningDemocratic teachings produce better learning results thanthose who dominate, control or manipulate learning situation.Two-way communication
  34. 34. 4. DisciplineThe process or result of directing or subordinating immediatewishes, impulses, desires, or interests for the sake of an ideal,or for the purpose of gaining more effective, dependableaction.- The ultimate function of discipline is to help the childdevelop good moral character.- It must help attain right behavior.- Discipline should provide opportunities for training theintellect, the emotions, and the will.- Discipline should help the child develop desirable habitsleading to self-discipline.
  35. 35. Principles of Effective andConstructive Discipline:1. the teacher should be responsible for his own classdiscipline.2. The teacher should provide a wholesome atmosphere whichresults from orderly and adequate classroom conditions.3. Effective discipline aims for self-direction.4. Discipline, to be effective, should be vital meaningful,sympathetic, and humane.5. Pupils right should be respected.6. Effective discipline should be based in the tenets ofdemocracy.*Restraint without freedom is tyranny;freedom without restraint is anarchy.

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