DEFINITION “Continuing education of health workersincludes the experiences after initial trainingwhich help health care personnel to maintainand improve existing, and acquire newcompetencies relevant to the performance oftheir responsibilities. Appropriate continuingeducation should reflect community needs inhealth and lead to planned improvements in thehealth of the community”.
FEATURES Unified Approach Relationships with other systems Comprehensiveness Accessibility for woman health workers Integration with the management process Analysis of needs as a basis for learningcontinuity Internally coordinated Relevance in planning Credibility and economic Appropriateness in implementation
NEED Safe and effective nursing care. Meet the need of the population. Update the knowledge. Career advancement. Acquire specialized skills of personnel andmeet technologic adjuncts. Prepare in administrative and leadershippositions. Shape their own destiny.
FUNCTIONS To meet the health needs and publicexpectations. To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse. Recruitment function. Recognize gaps in their knowledge. To improve the communication between theparticipants, faculty, community, and healthsector.
Functions……… To test the participants ability to do formalacademic study. To shape or support university educationalpolicies and practices. To ensure the quality of education. To grant budget for extension studies. To maintain academic standards. To meet educational requirements.
PHILOSOPHY Nurse`s philosophy of life, nursing andeducation, belief, etc. will influence thephilosophy of continuing nursing education. It focuses on individual learner. The thoughtful teacher recognizes that one`sphilosophy of education is always an emergingone, rather than a static one.
Philosophy……. Learning must be a continuous processthroughout the lifespan, not limited toformal courses of study. Nursing is based on knowledge of thephysical and psychological functioning ofman within his environment, expandingthe knowledge related to man and hisdynamic, proliferating fields of operation isof concern.
Role of Educator Guide and counselor to the learner. An arranger and organizer of learningexperiences. Motivator and an encourager ofstudents. Evaluator of programmes. Involving resources experts forteaching the students.
Role of educator…….. Providing instructional materials. Select and evaluate materials prepared byothers. Administrative role(planning, directing, budgeting andevaluation). Public relations role to change the imageof nursing and in recognizing thecontributions and potentials of nurses.
Educational preparation Master`s degree in his area of nursingexpertise or with a doctorate in adulteducation. Credentials with more publications. Writing and organizing skills. A continuing learner. Clinical expertisedness.
Educational preparation Depth of nursing knowledge and skill in itsapplication. Interest in the subject, enthusiasm inteaching. Skill in working with adult learners. Adequate knowledge about teaching skillsand methods of teaching. Broad base knowledge.
Competencies and othercharacteristics Concern for people. Flexibility. Sensitive to group response. Willing to travel. Detailed advance preparation and organizationfor teaching. Resourcefulness. Determination.
Competencies and othercharacteristics Self-confidence. A sense of humour. Broader outlook. A zest for life. An innate curiosity. Love of Adventure. Desire to search the unknown. Interest in self-development and in othersdevelopment.
PRINCIPLES Provision for school and nursing faculty involvement inplanning and teaching the continuing nursing educationcourses tends to maintain high educational standards forthe programme. An adequate staff is essential to planning, implementingand evaluating a programme which is based on learningneeds and which has an impact on the quality of nursingcare provided. Responsibilities of the director of continuing nursingeducation are:-Determination of learning needs of the nursepopulation.
Principles……….. Staff services are required with sufficienttalents and numbers to implement the plannedprogramme:- Advisory.-Secretarial.- Administrative.- Supportive- Assistance withresearch, publicity, questionnaire, evaluationtools, data analysis, computer programming.
Principles……….. An advisory committee has to be appointed, whichincludes:-Faculty members from a variety ofareas of nursing practice.-Directors of hospital nursing services.-Representatives from the statelicensing authority, health department andvoluntary agencies.-Extended care facilities-Hospital association.-Medical and allied healthprofessionals.-Regional medical programme.
Principles………. Other agencies involved in the delivery of healthcare in the community. The community may serve as a liaison betweenthe school of nursing and the health communityand fulfill a communication and public relationsfunction for the university. Continuing nursing education programme maybe decentralized or centralized.
Principles……… Decentralization is characterized by programmingwithin each academic department, faculty involvedin consultation and surveys with the publicinterested in their subject field were mostknowledgeable about the needs for continuingnursing education. Centralization is characterized by a separatedepartment or extension division. Financial supportis by either university grants or self-supporting.Faculty may be assigned to continuing education asa regular part of the normal teaching load, but forperiods they will get extra-remuneration or non-university faculty may hired on a contract basis toteach specific courses.
PLANNINGA successful continuing nursing educationprogramme is the result of careful and detailedplanning.Aspects of continuing nursing educationplanning: Broad planning by institution and agenciesresponsible for continuing nursing education. Specific planning by individuals for their owncontinuing education.
Planning…… Planning is essential to:-Meet the nursing needs.-Use available resources.-Meet needs at all levels i.e., local,state, regional, national, and international.-Avoid duplication and fragmentationof efforts.-Help keep at a minimum any gaps inmeeting the continuing education needs of thenurses.
Planning………-The selection of teaching faculty maydepend on the availability of the person rather than hisexpertise or teaching ability. The content of theprogramme is designed around faculty knowledge andlearning needs of the participants.-In interdisciplinary approach requiresrepresentation of all the groups involved;determination of common and compatible goals forsuccessful programming. Planning is an ongoing process, the rapid technologicadvances and proliferation of knowledge demandscontinuous planning to meet ever changing learningneeds.
PLANNING PROCESS1.Plan2. Establishing goals and objectives.3. Determining needs and priorities.4. Assess the available resources.5. Plan the budget appropriate for theprogramme.
EVALUATE THE RESULTS ATSTATED INTERVALS Evaluation is needed to assess theeffectiveness of the programme or theprogress in order to find out to what extent pre-set goals have been achieved evaluationsshould be done at different stages of theprogramme. E.g. Preparatory stage;Implementation stage; the impact ofprogrammes; the process of programmeoperation, the management systems, effortsand performance evaluation.
Purpose of evaluation: To identify the areas which require greaterattention in-terms of participation oftrainees, academic activities and management (atplanning stage). To identify bottlenecks in various activities carriedout during the operation of the programme(implementation stage). To assess the applicability of training in field oractual situation. Qualitative improvement in instruction, promotesbetter learning, determines future changes andneeds. For quality control or qualitative improvement.
What to evaluate?Evaluation should cover: The growth and satisfaction of participants. The outcome course and the wholeprogramme/activity/task. Effectiveness of faculty members. Transfer of knowledge. Effect on the system.
Procedures for evaluation Pre-test and post-test. Attitude tests. Observation of skills. Questionnaire. Audio or visual tapes.
Evaluation Design Focus of evaluation- what do you want to find out? Device the instrument- collection of information. Organize the formation-coding, organizing, storingand retrieving. Analyze the information. Report the findings. Reassessing the goals. Updating, modifying the plan periodically basedon needs. Evaluate the design forvalidity, reliability, credibility, timeliness andpervasiveness.
DEFINITION"It is the education of grown upmen and women who are morethan 18yrs old. Education foradults mainly those who could notget any formal education in theearly days of their lives".
Purpose of adult educationi) Individuals point of view: From individualspoint of view the purpose of adult educationare, Remedial Development of physical health Vocational development Development of social skills Self development Recreational aim
Purpose of adult educationii) Social point of view: Promotion of social cohesion Conservation and Improvement of nationalresources Building Co-operative groups Inculcation of social ideology
NEED & IMPORTANCE OF ADULTEDUCATION A new hope for the illiterate to wider intellectual horizon of partially illiterate adults. to broaden the political horizon of the adults ie. value ofvote. to complete Indias political awakening. to set the cultural tone of the community. to make adult life a happy and joyous living. to satisfy the recreational needs of rural adults. to train the adult in co-operative living. to compulsory primary education. Continuing education - Education does not end withschooling. It is a life long process.
ORGANIZATION OF ADULTEDUCATIONi) Village level: Youth clubs and Mahila mandals areorganized for this purpose. In villagepanchayats, secretary of co-operative society ifany, primary school teachers should combine theirefforts.ii) Block level: 2 full time officers at the block level 1 - oneman & one women.iii) District level: district social education officer.iv) State level: the rank of a joint or Deputy director atthe state level to look after the administration of allaspects of adult education.v) Central level: Ministry of education is in-charge of allthe programmes of adult education. So all theseprogrammes are directly implemented by it either
MATERIALS FOR ADULTEDUCATION1. Reading Materials: Books and pamphlets Daily Newspapers: All adults are interested in news,and all over the world the daily news - sheetprovides the chief reading matter for adults. Periodicals, Charts, Graphs and Maps were alsoused.2. Audiovisual Materials: The main A.V. aids used are black board, bulletinboard, film, film strips, maps, graphs, charts,
METHODS OF TEACHINGADULTS:1. Learner - dominated methods: In these methods thelearner dominates. He initiates and mostly dependsupon himself. These are following 3 subgroupswithin these methods. Trial & Error Method: drill and practice. Individual investigation method: Here the processinvolves thinking out a thing or learning byinsight, supplemented by use of library, use oflaboratory, Questionnaire, survey and field trips. Project method: It combines the essentials of firsttwo methods.
METHODS OF TEACHINGADULTS…..2. Teacher - dominated methods:Here the teacher is more active and dominatesthe learning process. It includes a) Lecture Method b) Counseling c) Case work - Here the teacher goes into thehistory of an individuals case and teaches himthe way to lead a happy and satisfying life.
METHODS OF TEACHINGADULTS …. d) Demonstration: This is of 2 types. Method demonstration - pupils are shown howto do a thing. Eg: Washing a babys sore eyes. Result demonstration - adults are shown thestart and end of an demonstration.
METHODS OF TEACHINGADULTS …. 3. Co-operative methods: Apprenticeship - a student learns throughworking in close co-operative with his teacher. Group discussion
AGENCIES OF ADULTEDUCATION: Classes of people like teachers, governmentservants, volunteers, social education workers etc. Regular educational institution likeschools, colleges, universities, libraries, museums, correspondence schools, communitycentres, agriculture extension groups. Informal educational device like forums, studycircles, discussion groups, listening groups, campsetc. Recreational educational bodies like theatres. Institutions whose primary function is not education.
PROBLEMS OF ADULTEDUCATION 1. Non co-operation of adults: 2. Problem of social education workers: 3. Problem of attendance : 4. Problem of vocational training: 5. Problem of Equipment: 6. Problem of social backwardness: 7. Problems of suitable literature 8. Problem of Finance: