DEFNITION OF DISEASE.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS.
. A urinary tract infection is an infection that begins in your
urinary system. Your urinary system is composed of the
kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
. Any part of your urinary system can become infected, but
most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder
and the urethra.
. Women are at greater risk of developing a urinary tract
infection than men. A urinary tract infection limited to your
bladder can be painful and annoying.
. However, serious consequences can occur if a urinary tract
infection spreads to your kidneys.
What Is a Urinary Tract Infection?
About half of women will get a urinary tract infection or UTI at some
point in life. It happens when germs infect the system that carries urine out
of your body -- the kidneys, bladder, and the tubes that connect them.
Bladder infections are common and usually not serious if treated promptly.
But if the infection spreads to the kidneys, it can cause more serious illness.
Signs and Symptoms
Urinary tract infections don't always cause signs and symptoms, but
when they do they can include:
A strong, persistent urge to urinate
A burning sensation when urinating
Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
Urine that appears cloudy
Urine that appears bright pink or cola colored —
a sign of blood in the urine
Pelvic pain, in women
Rectal pain, in men
UTI Symptoms: Kidney Infection
An untreated bladder infection can spread to the kidneys. Signs
of this include:
•Pain on either side of the lower back
•Fever and chills
•Nausea and vomiting
UTIs in Infants
Babies occasionally develop UTIs, but they can't tell you what they feel. Here are
some signs to watch for:
•An unexplained fever
•Poor appetite or vomiting
It's vital to treat a baby's UTI quickly to prevent kidney damage. Promptly
changing a dirty diaper can help prevent bladder infections. And of course, wipe
from front to back whenever changing a baby's diaper.
Types of Urinary Tract Infection.
Each type of urinary tract infection may result in more-specific signs and
symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.
Part of urinary tract affected
Signs and symptoms
Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis)
Upper back and side (flank) pain
Shaking and chills
Lower abdomen discomfort
Frequent, painful urination
Blood in urine
Burning with urination
When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you
have signs and symptoms that worry you.
Tests and diagnosis
Tests and procedures used to diagnose urinary tract infections
Analyzing a urine sample. Your doctor may ask you to turn in a urine sample
that will be analyzed in a laboratory to determine if pus, red blood cells or
bacteria are present. To avoid potential contamination of the sample, you may
be instructed to first wipe your genital area with an antiseptic pad and to collect
the urine midstream.
Growing urinary tract bacteria in a lab. Laboratory analysis of the urine is
sometimes followed by a urine culture — a test that uses your urine sample to
grow bacteria in a lab. This test tells your doctor what bacteria are causing your
infection and which medications will be most effective.
Creating images of your urinary tract. If your doctor suspects that
an abnormality in your urinary tract is causing frequent infections, you
may undergo tests to create images of your urinary tract using
ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT). Another test called an
intravenous urinary pyelogram uses X-rays to create images. During
this test, a dye is injected into a vein in your arm and X-rays are taken
of your urinary tract. The dye highlights your bladder and urethra and
allows your doctor to determine if you have any abnormalities that
slow urine from leaving your body.
Using a scope to see inside your bladder. If you have recurrent
urinary tract infections, your doctor may use a long, thin tube with a
lens (cystoscope) to see inside your urethra and bladder. The
cystoscope is inserted in your urethra and passed through to your
bladder. This procedure is called cystoscopy.
The most common urinary tract infections occur mainly in
women and affect the bladder and urethra.
Infection of the bladder (cystitis) is usually caused by
Escherichia coli (E. coli), a species of bacteria commonly found in the
gastrointestinal tract. Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don't
have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are susceptible to
cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the close proximity of the
urethra to the anus and the short distance from the urethral opening to the
Infection of the urethra (urethritis) can occur when
gastrointestinal bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. In addition,
because of the female urethra's proximity to the vagina, sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs), such as herpes, gonorrhea and chlamydia,
also are possible causes of urethritis.
Some people appear to be more likely than are others to develop
urinary tract infections. Risk factors include:
•Being female. Urinary tract infections are very common in women, and many women
will experience more than one. A key reason is their anatomy. Women have a shorter
urethra, which cuts down on the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
•Being sexually active. Women who are sexually active tend to have more urinary tract
infections than women who aren't sexually active.
•Using certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control
also may be at higher risk, as may women who use spermicidal agents.
•Undergoing menopause. After menopause, urinary tract infections may become more
common because the lack of estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make it
more vulnerable to infection.
•Having urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities
that don't allow urine to leave the body or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an
increased risk of urinary tract infections.
•Having blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged
prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of urinary tract
•Having a suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that
impair the immune system — the body's defense against germs — can
increase the risk of urinary tract infections.
•Using a catheter to urinate. People who can't urinate on their own and
use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of urinary tract
infections. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with
neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to
urinate and people who are paralyzed.
•When treated promptly and properly, urinary tract infections rarely lead to
complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can become
something more serious than merely a set of uncomfortable symptoms.
•Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to acute or chronic kidney
infections (pyelonephritis), which could permanently damage your
kidneys. Urinary tract infections may be overlooked or mistaken for other
conditions in older adults. Young children also have an increased risk of
kidney infections. Pregnant women who have urinary tract infections may
have an increased risk of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
•Women who experience three or more urinary tract infections are likely to
continue experiencing them.
Take these steps to reduce your risk of urinary tract infections:
Drink plenty of liquids, especially water.
Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you'll urinate
more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract
before an infection can begin.
Wipe from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel
movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to
the vagina and urethra.
Empty your bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of
water to help flush bacteria.
Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant
sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the
genital area can irritate the urethra.
Treatments and drugs
Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Which drugs
are prescribed and for how long depend on your health condition and the
type of bacterium found in your urine.
Drugs commonly recommended for simple urinary tract infections include:
Sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim (Co-trimoxazole).,
If you experience frequent urinary tract infections, your doctor may
recommend a longer course of antibiotic treatment or a program
with short courses of antibiotics at the outset of your urinary
Your doctor may also recommend taking home urine tests, in which
you dip a test stick into a urine sample.
For infections related to sexual activity, your doctor may recommend
taking a single dose of antibiotic after sexual intercourse.
If you're postmenopausal, your doctor may recommend vaginal
estrogen therapy to minimize your chance of recurrent urinary tract
For severe urinary tract infections, hospitalization and
treatment with intravenous antibiotics may be necessary.
There's some indication, though it hasn't been proved, that cranberry
juice may have infection-fighting properties and drinking cranberry juice
daily may help prevent urinary tract infections.
Studies have shown the greatest effect in women who have frequent
urinary tract infections.
Studies involving children and older adults have had mixed results.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your
discomfort until antibiotics clear the infection. Follow these tips:
Drink plenty of water to dilute your urine and help flush out bacteria.
Avoid drinks that may irritate your bladder.
Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices and caffeine
until your infection has cleared. They can irritate your bladder and tend to
aggravate your frequent or urgent need to urinate.
Use a heating pad.
Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize
bladder pressure or discomfort
To drink more fluid
Keep perineum clean and dry
In female clan the perineum from front to back
Empty bladder soon after intercourse
Avoid use any chemical products
If any burning micturation or dysuria consult a doctor as early
If needed administer antibiotic as per order
If catheterization needed use strict aseptic precaution
Give catheter care for catheterized patient
If prolonged catheterized patient give bladder wash