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Conflict in North Uganda

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In 1800s, Boganda had a lot of power and it was ruled by King or Kabaka. Boganda was one of the richest and most sophisticated kingdoms in Africa. Up to 1890, British Colonial rule. In 1962, Uganda gained independence from the British. In 1966, leader of the ruling party – Uganda People’s Congress, Milton Obote drafted a new Constitution for the country. In 1971, Idi Amin toppled Obote’s government. In 1986, due to the Civil War about a million people were dead and about 600,000 were injured. The economy was virtually bankrupt. People wanted a change and they supported a new party called the National Resistance Movement (NRM). NRM seized power. In 2002, Museveni became the President.

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Conflict in North Uganda

  1. 1. By Arundathie Abeysinghe Journalist/Lecturer International Aviation Academy Arundathie Abeysinghe SriLankan Airlines 1
  2. 2. Capital: Kampala City is spread over a series of hills 1890: HQ of British colonial administration 1962: Capital of independent Uganda Arundathie Abeysinghe Population: 1.2m 2
  3. 3. Flag of Uganda Flag of Lord’s Resistance Army Arundathie Abeysinghe 3
  4. 4.  In 1800s, Boganda had a lot of power and it was ruled by King or Kabaka  Boganda was one of the richest and most sophisticated kingdoms in Africa  Up to 1890, British Colonial rule  In 1962, Uganda gained independence from the British  In 1966, leader of the ruling party – Uganda People’s Congress, Milton Obote drafted a new Constitution for the country  In 1971, Idi Amin toppled Obote’s government Arundathie Abeysinghe 4
  5. 5. In 1986, due to the Civil War about a million people were dead and about 600,000 were injured The economy was virtually bankrupt People wanted a change and they supported a new party called the National Resistance Movement (NRM) NRM seized power In 2002, Museveni became the President Arundathie Abeysinghe 5
  6. 6. Surge of rebel groups in response to government Support from Khartoum, Sudan In 2005, LRA established a base in Congo In 1999, rebel units withdrew to bases in Sudan In 2004, ongoing troubles in the north of the country Children were kidnapped and forced to join rebels The Government tried to disarm the Karimojong but they wanted guns to defend their cattle from Kenyans and from LRA rebels Arundathie Abeysinghe 6
  7. 7.  30,000 children have been abducted and recruited to LRA by brainwashing them  30,000 people have been killed in direct action with the LRA  About 100,000 died due to direct and indirect actions of the LRA  Thousands have been maimed physically - lips, ears, mouths and limbs being cut off since they were considered as traitors  About 2 million people were displaced either voluntarily or through government action into camps where life was simply hell on earth  Countless children died in combat Arundathie Abeysinghe 7
  8. 8. Govt. of Sudan SPLA LRA Govt . of Uganda Tanzania USA UN Arundathie Abeysinghe 8
  9. 9. Positions Interests Needs P Positions Protection of a government from insurgents Interests Maintaining the monopoly of wealth and power of the Southerners Aid and recognition of the international community Needs Need to be the sole representative of the People of Uganda Arundathie Abeysinghe 9
  10. 10. Positions Interests Needs Positions Resisting government oppression against Acholi people Interests Restoring northerners power in the government Survival of the key characters of the LRA Needs Significant power in the government Arundathie Abeysinghe 10
  11. 11. Violation of Human Rights Fragmented national politics Increased economic decay National Insecurity Legitimacy of the Government Arundathie Abeysinghe Instability & Political Violence Grievances against Government 11
  12. 12. Ugandan Government's commitments to Northern Uganda’s recovery Political instability and violence Violent conflicts UNs’ commitment to treating the conflict as both regional and political Background of mistrust & violence Unwillingness to accept alternative political views Return of IDPs (Internally Displaced People) Arundathie Abeysinghe 12
  13. 13. NRA/ UN/ USA/ INGOs Government Religious leaders/ Elders/NGO’s Diplomats/ Regional states/Religious groups Acholi/Iteso/Alur/ Langi/Karamojong communities and the Bantu communities Humanitarians Arundathie Abeysinghe 13
  14. 14. History Economic factors Sociological factors Political factors Gender factors Arundathie Abeysinghe 14
  15. 15.  Bond-LRA & Acholi, LRA and Sudanese Government NRA and Ugandans  Power-Socio-economical disparities, North-South Division, banning of political opponents  Patterns - Threatening Acholis to draw their support to LRA  Looting and engaged in massacres to voice their grievances, using ICC warrants to get LRA in to Peace talks, harassing Acholis using NRA to withdraw their support to LRA Arundathie Abeysinghe 15
  16. 16. Repetitive negative behavior to obtain power Unequal allocation of authority, ownership or control Unequal distribution of resources Different ideologies, religions and political views Arundathie Abeysinghe 16
  17. 17. Imbalanced economic development Division of socio-economic and political powers Lack of a multi-party political system Arundathie Abeysinghe 17
  18. 18. Primary - LRA, NRA, Acholi Tribe Secondary - Southern Ugandans, Sudanese Governments, South Sudanese Government, DRC, Tertiary - UN, USA and International Community Arundathie Abeysinghe 18
  19. 19. • LRA • Fear of government power • Hatred towards government, felt cheated by the government • Government of Uganda - Superiority over northerners, vengeance, not willing for a political solution, skeptical of international proposals Arundathie Abeysinghe 19
  20. 20. Government of Uganda Using military attacks instead of a political solution, killing/massacres, curtailing freedom of expression and association in the name of “the war against terrorism” Supporting monopoly of power and wealth of southerners Discrimination of Acholi Arundathie Abeysinghe 20
  21. 21. LRA Killing, attacking the villages, abduction of children, ensuring survival of the key characters of the LRA Arundathie Abeysinghe 21
  22. 22.  Conflict Management - Betty Bigombe Peace Talks (1993-1994), Juba Peace Talks – (2006-2008) - Ceasefire, Cessation of hostilities  Conflict Resolution - Discuss grievances, needs, IDP’s problem, issuing of ICC (International Criminal Court) warrants  Conflict Transformation - “Peace, Recovery and Development Plan for North Uganda”  Setting up of special courts linking National Justice and Traditional Mechanism, Agreement on DDR, agreeing to request a deferral of arrest warrants under several conditions Arundathie Abeysinghe 22
  23. 23. Local efforts to dialogue between Museveni and the LRA have consistently failed In early 2000, President Museveni signed a blanket amnesty At the same time, the U.S listed the LRA on its list of terrorist organizations Museveni and the government diverted funds from ministries to the military Arundathie Abeysinghe 23
  24. 24.  Put pressure on LRA Leadership to re-enter Peace Negotiations  Government should promote equal treatment for all tribes and expand the development projects to northern and eastern areas as well  Encourage UN Peace Keepers to force Sudanese Government to stop helping LRA  Introduce national propaganda to end the North-South Division in Uganda Arundathie Abeysinghe 24
  25. 25. Military Solution – Post-Conflict resolutions Major Rehabilitation Projects IDPs Child Soldiers Rape Victims War Victims Former LRA Carder  Find a Permanent Solution to the Root Causes to Prevent re-emergence      Arundathie Abeysinghe 25
  26. 26. 1500 - Bito dynasties of Buganda, Bunyoro and Ankole founded by Nilotic-speaking immigrants from present-day southeastern Sudan 1700 - Buganda begins to expand at the expense of Bunyoro 1800 - Buganda controls territory bordering Lake Victoria from the Victoria Nile to the Kagera River Arundathie Abeysinghe 26
  27. 27. 1840s - Muslim traders from the Indian Ocean coast exchange firearms, cloth and beads for the ivory and slaves of Buganda 1862 - British explorer John Hanning Speke becomes the first European to visit Buganda 1875 - Bugandan King Mutesa I allows Christian missionaries to enter his realm Arundathie Abeysinghe 27
  28. 28. 1877 - Members of the British Missionary Society arrive in Buganda 1879 - Members of the French Roman Catholic White Fathers arrive 1890 - Britain and Germany sign treaty giving Britain rights to what was to become Uganda Arundathie Abeysinghe 28
  29. 29. 1892 - Imperial British East Africa Company agent Frederick Lugard extends the company's control to southern Uganda and helps the Protestant missionaries to prevail over their Catholic counterparts in Buganda 1894 - Uganda becomes a British protectorate 1900 - Britain signs agreement with Buganda giving it autonomy and turning it into a constitutional monarchy controlled mainly by Protestant chiefs Arundathie Abeysinghe 29
  30. 30. 1902 - Eastern province of Uganda transferred to Kenya 1904 - Commercial cultivation of cotton begins 1921 - Uganda given a legislative council, but its first African member not admitted till 1945 Arundathie Abeysinghe 30
  31. 31. 1958 - Uganda given internal self-government 1962 - Uganda becomes independent with Milton Obote as prime minister 1963 - Uganda becomes a republic with Buganda's King Mutesa as president 1966 - Milton Obote ends Buganda's autonomy and promotes himself to the presidency 1967 - New constitution vests considerable power in the president Arundathie Abeysinghe 31
  32. 32. 1971 - Milton Obote toppled in coup led by Army chief Idi Amin 1972 - Amin orders Asians who were not Ugandan citizens - around 60,000 people - to leave the country 1972-73 - Uganda engages in border clashes with Tanzania 1976 - Idi Amin declares himself president for life and claims parts of Kenya 1978 - Uganda invades Tanzania with a view to annexing Kagera region Arundathie Abeysinghe 32
  33. 33. 1979 - Tanzania invades Uganda, unifying the various anti- Amin forces under the Uganda National Liberation Front and forcing Amin to flee the country; Yusufu Lule installed as president -quickly replaced by Godfrey Binaisa 1980 - Binaisa overthrown by the army Milton Obote becomes president after elections 1985 - Obote deposed in military coup - replaced by Tito Okello 1986 - National Resistance Army rebels take Kampala and install Yoweri Museveni as president Arundathie Abeysinghe 33
  34. 34. 1993 - Museveni restores traditional kings, but without political power 1995 - New constitution legalizes political parties but maintains the ban on political activity 1996 - Museveni returned to office in Uganda's first direct presidential election 1997 - Ugandan troops help depose Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire - replaced by Laurent Kabila 1998 - Ugandan troops intervene in the Democratic Republic of Congo to overthrow Kabila Arundathie Abeysinghe 34
  35. 35. 2002 March - Sudan, Uganda sign agreement aimed at containing Ugandan rebel group - Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) 2002 October - Army evacuates more than 400,000 civilians caught up in fight against LRA’s brutal attacks on villages 2002 December - Peace deal signed with Uganda National Rescue Front (UNRF) after more than 5 years of negotiations 2003 May - Uganda pulls out troops from eastern DR Congo Over 10,000 DR Congo civilians seek asylum in Uganda 2004 February - LRA rebels slaughter more than 200IDPs Arundathie Abeysinghe 35
  36. 36. 2004 December - Government and LRA rebels hold face-to- face talks - no breakthrough to end the insurgency 2005 April - Uganda rejects accusations made by DR Congo at the International Court in The Hague Multi-party politics 2005 July - Parliament approves a constitutional amendment which scraps presidential term limits Voters in a referendum back a return to multi-party politics Arundathie Abeysinghe 36
  37. 37. 2005  October - International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for five LRA commanders, including leader Joseph Kony 2005 November - Main opposition leader Kizza Besigye is imprisoned after returning from exile after a trial in a military court 2005 December - International Court in the Hague rules that Uganda must compensate DR Congo for rights abuses and the plundering of resources in the five years leading to 2003 2006 February - President Museveni wins multi-party elections Arundathie Abeysinghe 37
  38. 38. 2006 August - The government and the LRA sign a truce  aimed at ending their long-running conflict  2006 November - Government rejects a United Nations report accusing the army of using indiscriminate and excessive force in its campaign to disarm tribal warriors in the lawless northeastern region of Karamoja Somalia role 2007 March - Ugandan peacekeepers deploy in Somalia as part of an African Union mission to help stabilize the  country Arundathie Abeysinghe 38
  39. 39.  2007 April - Protests over a rain forest explode into racial violence in Kampala  2007 August - Uganda and DR Congo agree to try defusing a  border dispute  2007 September - State of emergency imposed after severe floods cause widespread devastation  2008 February - Government and the LRA sign for ceasefire at  talks in Juba, Sudan  2008 November – LRA leader, Joseph Kony, fails to turn up to sign  a peace agreement. Ugandan, South Sudanese and DR Congo  armies launch offensive against LRA bases Arundathie Abeysinghe 39
  40. 40. 2009 January – LRA appeals for ceasefire 2009 March - Ugandan army begins to withdraw from DR Congo, where it had pursued LRA rebels 2009 October - Somali Islamists threaten to target Uganda and Burundi after action by African peacekeepers in Somalia kills several civilians 2009 December - Parliament votes to ban female  circumcision Anyone convicted of the practice will face 10 years in jail or a life sentence if a victim dies Arundathie Abeysinghe 40
  41. 41. 2010 January - President Museveni distances himself from the anti-homosexuality Bill 2010 June - Public prosecutor opens corruption  investigation against Vice-President Gilbert Bukenya, Foreign Minister Sam Kutesa and several other ministers  and officials over the alleged theft of $25m 2010 June-August - Operation Rwenzori against ADFNALU rebels striving for an Islamic state in Uganda prompts 90,000 to flee in North Kivu province of neighboring DR Congo Arundathie Abeysinghe 41
  42. 42. 2010 July - Two bomb attacks on people watching World  Cup finals at a restaurant and a rugby club in Kampala kill at least 74 people Somali Islamist group Al-Shabab says it was behind the blasts 2010 August - National Resistance Movement primary elections for parliamentary and local candidates suspended  amid irregularities, violence Arundathie Abeysinghe 42
  43. 43. 2010 October - UN report into killing of Hutus in DR Congo between 1993 and 2003 2010 October - Constitutional Court quashes treason charges against opposition leader Kizza Besigye 2011 February - Museveni wins his fourth presidential  election 2011 April - Kizza Besigye arrested several times over ''walk-to-work'' protests against rising prices 2011 July - US deploys special forces personnel to help Uganda combat LRA rebels Arundathie Abeysinghe 43
  44. 44. 2011 September - Court orders release of LRA commander Thomas Kwoyelo 2012 May - Ugandan Army captures senior LRA  commander Caesar Achellam in a clash in the Central African Republic Tens of thousands of refugees cross into Uganda, fleeing  fighting in DR Congo 2012 July - UN accuses Uganda of sending troops into DR Congo to fight alongside the M23 rebel movement, a charge  Uganda denies Arundathie Abeysinghe 44
  45. 45. 2012 November - Uganda announces its intention to withdraw from UN-backed international peacekeeping missions 2013 February - Eleven countries, including Uganda, sign a UN-mediated agreement pledging not to interfere in DR Congo 2013 March - Uganda is grouped among the worst offenders in  the illegal ivory trade at a meeting of CITES, the body  regulating wildlife trade 2013 May - Government temporarily shuts two newspapers after they published a letter suggesting President Museveni was grooming his son for power   Arundathie Abeysinghe 45
  46. 46. Thank you! Arundathie Abeysinghe 46

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