Clerking of a perio patient


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examination of the periodontium
periodontal examination

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Clerking of a perio patient

  2. 2. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • CASE HISTORY Personal details Chief Complaint History of Presenting Complaint Past Medical History Past Dental History Family History Social History Personal Habit
  3. 3. OUTLINE • CLINICAL EXAMINATION General Examination Extraoral Examination Intraoral Examination(soft tissues, hard tissues, periodontium) • PERIODONTAL SCREENING AND RECORDING SYSTEM • CONCLUSION • REFERENCES
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Treatment is secondary, the primary task for the clinician is to identify the problem and find its etiology. • Periodontal diagnosis should first determine whether dx is present; then identify its type;, extent, distribution, and severity; and finally provide an understanding of the underlying pathologic processes and its cause. • Hence, the case history and clinical examination are essential in diagnosing the periodontal diseases.
  5. 5. CASE HISTORY • Case history is the information gathered from the patient and/or parent and/or guardian to aid in the overall diagnosis of the case. • It includes certain personal details, the chief complaint, past and present dental and medical history and any associated family history.
  6. 6. Personal Details • Name • Age/ Date of Birth • Sex • Marital status • address & occupation • Race/ ethnicity
  7. 7. Chief Complaint • The patient's chief complaint should be recorded in his or her own words. • It should mention the condi-tions the patient feels he / she is suffering from. • E.g i have a swelling in my mouth,my gum is paining me,I feel pain in my tooth when I eat.
  8. 8. History of the Presenting Complaint Symptoms: Are subjective information reported by the patient. A report of patient’s own sensory experience. These are usually the 1st aspects of history to be recorded. • Onset of complaint. • Character of onset. • Severity of the complaint. • Course of complaint. • Duration. • Location of complaint. • Distribution
  9. 9. • Prior occurrence. • Exacerbating factors . • Relieving factors . • Associated phenomenon. Fever, bleeding, bad odour Etiology Complication: consider whether speech, mastication, sleep or any other function have been affected. Treatment: Consider any previous treatment and their effectiveness.
  10. 10. Past Medical History • Medical history puts physical examination into perspective by supplying information that should alert the examiner to suspected abnormalities. • Even in a life-threatening situation, once the immediate threat has been contained, a history should be obtained from the patient. • Recent hospitalization • Endocrine disorder • Gastrointestinal complaints • Last blood glucose study • fit/faint • Blood disorder
  11. 11. • Pregnancy • Infection including HIV status • Allergy • Drug therapy
  12. 12. Past Dental History • Frequency of visiting dentist and purpose of visit. • Assessment of past caries experience, restorative dental procedures. Administration of local anesthesia. • Past oral surgical procedures, bleeding & healing process. • Previous orthodontic treatment. • Periodontal disease & previous periodontal treatment. • History of denture wearing, cause of loss of teeth.
  13. 13. Family History • Family history is taken to determine if there is a familial predisposition to diseases or if there are diseases in which inheritance is an important factor. • The dentist should inquire specifically about a family history of diabetes, cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, seizure disorders, mental disorders, and other diseases that may be familial.
  14. 14. Social History • Social history help explain untoward reactions to health problems and to the therapeutic recommendations. • For example, the alcoholic patient may be unwilling to follow recommendations about diet and oral hygiene. • Social history is therefore important in assessing whether a patient is in a high-risk group, for example, those with alcoholism, drug addiction, or contagious infections such as herpes, hepatitis, tuberculosis, or AIDS.
  15. 15. Personal Habit • Oral hygiene habits: frequency & technique of tooth brushing & flossing. • Habits as nail biting, thumb sucking. • Parafunctional habits as bruxism, clenching & tapping. • Smoking habit • Consumption of CHO food:form,frequency
  16. 16. CLINICAL EXAMINATION • Clinical examination consists of 3 main stages: 1. Observation of the patient’s general health and appearance. 2. Extraoral examination of the head and neck. 3. Examination of the intraoral tissues.
  17. 17. General Observation • Note problems such as: 1. Body weight/ fit of clothes 2. Breathlessness 3. Complexion 4. Exposed skin areas 5. Facial scarring
  18. 18. Extra-Oral Examination • Examine the face for facial assymetry. • Check for bony discontinuity. • TMJ examination for TMJ disorder • Examine the submandibular lymph for lymphadenopathy. • Examine the lip for competence,angular chelitis etc • Examine for nerve dysfunction
  19. 19. Intra-Oral Examination • The entire oral cavity should be carefully examined. • Soft tissue Examination: examine the mucosa of the lip, cheek, floor of the mouth, tongue, gingiva and palate for: Discoloration Swelling Discharge Ulceration Tenderness Numbness Recession
  20. 20. • Hard tissue Examination: the teeth are examined for: • caries • developmental defect • anomalies of tooth form & number • Wasting • Dental stains • Hypersensitivity • Proximal contact relationship. • Mobility(physiologic or pathologic)
  21. 21. • Sensitivity to percussion • Dentition with the jaw closed
  22. 22. Examination of the Periodontium • The periodontal examination should be systematic, starting in the molar region in either the maxilla or the mandible and proceeding around each arch. Plaque and calculus: the presence of supragingival plaque and calculus can be directly observed and the amount measured with a calibrated probe. For the detection of subgingival calculus , each tooth surface is carefully checked to the level of the gingival attachment with a sharp no.17 explorer.
  23. 23. Gingiva: consider the colour, size, contour, consistency, surface texture, position, ease of bleeding, and pain. The distribution of gingival disease and its acuteness or chronicity should also be noted. Periodontal pockets: presence and distribution on each tooth surface, pocket depth, level of attachment on the root, and type of pocket(suprabony/ intrabony) must be considered. Probing technique-the probe should be inserted paprallel to the vertical axis of the tooth and ‘walked’ circumferentially around each surface of each tooth to detect the area of deepest penetration.
  24. 24. Level of attachment vs pocket depth • Pocket depth is the distance between the base of the pocket and the gingival margin while level of attachment is the distance btw the base of the pocket and a fixed point on the crown e.g. CEJ • Pocket depth may be unrelated to the existing attachment of the tooth while changes in level of attachment can be due only to gain or loss of attachment and afford a better indication of periodontal destruction. • Shallow pockets attached at the level of the apical 3rd of the root connote more severe destruction than deep pockets attached at the coronal 3rd of the roots.
  25. 25. Degree of gingival recession: the measurement is taken with a periodontal probe from the CEJ to the gingival crest.
  26. 26. The Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) System • The PSR system is designed for easier & faster recording of the periodontal status of a patient by a GP or a dental hygienist. • It uses a specially designed probe that has a 0.5mm ball tip and is colour coded from 3.5- 5.5mm. • Patient mouth is divided into 6 sextants. • Each tooth is probed, with the clinician walking the probe around the tooth: MB, midB, DB, & the corresponding lingual/palatal areas. • The deepest finding is recorded in each sextant along with other findings, according to the following code:
  27. 27. • Code 0: No pockets >3.5 mm, no calculus/overhangs, no bleeding after probing (black band completely visible) • Code 1: No pockets >3.5 mm, no calculus/overhangs, but bleeding after probing (black band completely visible) • Code 2: No pockets >3.5 mm, but supra- or subgingival calculus/overhangs (black band completely visible) • Code 3: Probing depth 3.5-5.5 mm (black band partially visible, indicating pocket of 4-5 mm) • Code 4: Probing depth >5.5 mm (black band entirely within the pocket, indicating pocket of 6 mm or more) • Code *: Furcation involvement , tooth mobility, or gingival recession extending to the colored band of the probe.
  28. 28. • Both the number and the * should be recorded if a furcation/mobility/g. recession is detected - e.g. the score for a sextant could be 3* (e.g. indicating probing depth 3.5-5.5 mm PLUS furcation involvement in the sextant).
  29. 29. CONCLUSION • The interest should be in the patient who has the disease and not simply in the disease itself. • Diagnosis must therefore include a general evaluation of the patient and consideration of the oral cavity.
  30. 30. References • Caranza’s Clinical Periodontology 9th edition • Periodontal Medicine by Rose et al • Article on BPE by British Society of Periodontology 2011 • Oral Diagnosis by Warren Birnbaum & Stephen Dunne
  31. 31. THANK YOU