BEST gr-bertool

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BEST gr-bertool

  1. 1. University of Messina - DIECII The gr-bertool Supervisors Candidate Prof. Salvatore Serrano Arturo Rinaldi Prof. Giuseppe Campobello Department of Electronics Engineering, Chemistry and Electrical Engineering BEST School - Messina, September 2013
  2. 2. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  3. 3. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  4. 4. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : ◦ Wired : AWGN 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  5. 5. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : ◦ Wired : AWGN ◦ Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  6. 6. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : ◦ Wired : AWGN ◦ Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician • Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  7. 7. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : ◦ Wired : AWGN ◦ Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician • Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) • Provide complementary tools to show how audio and video files are modified under the effect of the transmission channels 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  8. 8. Goal of the thesis work • The making of a learning tool for the analysis of the digital modulations in different communication channels • The simulated channels were : ◦ Wired : AWGN ◦ Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician • Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) • Provide complementary tools to show how audio and video files are modified under the effect of the transmission channels • The gr-bertool was built by using the open-source DSP platform GNU Radio 2 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  9. 9. GNU Radio • GNU Radio is an open-source software toolkit providing a huge library of blocks for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) written in C++ which can be combined together in order to build and develop radio applications Gnu Radio Companion (GRC), XML Python Flow Graph (Created using the processing blocks) SWIG (Port C++ blocks to Python) GNU Radio Signal Processing Blocks (C++) USB Interface / Gigabit Ethernet Generic RF Front End ( USRP / USRP 2 ) 3 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  10. 10. GNU Radio • GNU Radio is an open-source software toolkit providing a huge library of blocks for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) written in C++ which can be combined together in order to build and develop radio applications • It is provided with a graphical interface to ease its learning curve (GRC : GNU Radio Companion) Gnu Radio Companion (GRC), XML Python Flow Graph (Created using the processing blocks) SWIG (Port C++ blocks to Python) GNU Radio Signal Processing Blocks (C++) USB Interface / Gigabit Ethernet Generic RF Front End ( USRP / USRP 2 ) 3 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  11. 11. Software-Defined Radio : an introduction • GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems 4 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  12. 12. Software-Defined Radio : an introduction • GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems • A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware 4 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  13. 13. Software-Defined Radio : an introduction • GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems • A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware • So it’s possible to implement different software transmission standards by using only one device 4 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  14. 14. Software-Defined Radio : an introduction • GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems • A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware • So it’s possible to implement different software transmission standards by using only one device • An SDR sytem is also able to recognize and avoid possible interferences with other transmission channels 4 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  15. 15. A general overview on the main GNU Radio blocks 5 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  16. 16. Signal Source The block generates different kind of waveforms to be used as the main signal to transmit or as a reference one. The block is only not able to generate Sinusoidal or Costant kind of waveforms but also Square, Triangle and Saw Tooth ones. Type : complex, float, int, short 6 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  17. 17. Noise Source The block is able to generate noise according to the Uniform, Gaussian, Laplacian and Impulse models. Please also note that the Amplitude parameter fed to the Gaussian kind of noise is the standard deviation σ of the Gaussian Noise, given by : σ= N0 2 where N0 /2 is the power spectral density of white noise (i.e. its variance). Type : complex, float, int, short Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool 7 of 66
  18. 18. Operators These blocks perform the four basic arithmetical functions over the signal sources they are fed with (sum, subtraction, multiplication and division). Please also note that they perform the operation element by element (i.e. first element of the row first element of the column) so the rule of thumb is to feed the inputs with equal amounts of data. Type : complex, float, int, short 8 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  19. 19. Random Source 2 The block generates a random array of unsigned integer data with values spanning from 0 to 255 (we are working with 1-byte elements !). We use it because is a more reliable source of random data compared to the one provided with the GNU Radio platform. The only parameter fed to the block is the number of samples (i.e. the length of the generated list of elements). Type : complex, float, byte 9 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  20. 20. Random Source 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 from g n u r a d i o i m p o r t g r i m p o r t random d e f OnDataSource random ( s a m p l e s ) : src1 = [ ] f o r i in range ( samples ) : d a t a = random . r a n d i n t ( 0 , 2 5 5 ) s r c 1 . append ( d a t a ) return src1 c l a s s randomsource b ( gr . h i e r b l o c k 2 ) : def init ( s e l f , number samples ) : gr . h i e r b l o c k 2 . init ( s e l f , ” randomsource b ” , gr . i o s i g n a t u r e (0 , 0 , 0) , gr . i o s i g n a t u r e (1 , 1 , gr . s i z e o f c h a r ) ) d a t a s a m p l e s = OnDataSource random ( n u m b e r s a m p l e s ) s e l f . v e c t o r = g r . v e c t o r s o u r c e b ( d a t a s a m p l e s , True , 1 ) s e l f . connect ( s e l f . vector , s e l f ) 10 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  21. 21. Random Source - The easy way The block generates a random array of unsigned integer data. It is a more direct implementation compared to the one we have just seen. We feed it with the data list (of unsigned integer of course) and we also set to Yes the repeat option since we need a constant stream of data. Let’s see how to build the data array this time.... 11 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  22. 22. Random Source - The easy way 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from g n u r a d i o i m p o r t g r i m p o r t numpy d a t a = map ( i n t , numpy . random . r a n d i n t ( 0 , 2 5 6 , 6 e5 ) ) v e c t o r = g r . v e c t o r s o u r c e b ( d at a , True , 1 ) 12 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  23. 23. Packed to Unpacked The block returns sequences of packed bytes according to the integer number we set to the Bits per Chunk argument. It is possible to set the Endianness of the output sequences according to Big (MSB) or Little (LSB)a . So let’s assume we have this binary sequence 11100001. If we feed it to the block we’ll get four binary sequences, specifically : • • • • 00000011 00000010 00000000 00000001 Type : int, short, byte a Johathan Swift, “Gulliver’s Travels” 13 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  24. 24. Map We usually exploit this block every time we want to perform Gray Coding on the symbols of a digital modulation. For a 2-bit symbols modulation : • • Binary to Gray sequence : [0,1,3,2] Gray to Binary sequence : [0,1,3,2] For a 3-bit symbols modulation : • • Binary to Gray sequence : [0,1,3,2,7,6,4,5] Gray to Binary sequence : [0,1,3,2,6,7,5,4] Type : byte 14 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  25. 25. Constellation Decoder - 1 It could be seem strange feeding the same coding numeric sequence when un-gray a constellation. However, this is due to how GNU Radio works and in particular how the Constellation Decoder block operates over the signal points. So, once you have assigned the correct Symbol Value Out (i.e. for a QPSK constellation is [0,1,2,3]), you have to scramble the Symbol Position values again to perform a correct decoding. You can take care of this by using a cascading link to the Map block again and feeding it with the originary coding sequence. 15 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  26. 26. Constellation Decoder - 2 Please also note that all our work is based on the ”old” version of the gr constellation decoder block. In fact, the version we have just dealt with is the one taken from the GNU Radio 3.4.2 tarball and built again as a custom block with the cmake custom wrapper you can usually find inside a tarball1 . This however is nowadays considered an old-school method since the latest tarballs provide the “Swiss-army knife” tool called gr-modtool, which will generate the skeleton of your new custom package. 1 This is true for tarball version ranging from 3.5.0 to 3.6.5.1 16 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  27. 27. Chunks to Symbols Once we have set the coding on our binary sequences (the ones from the Packed to Unpacked block) we can assign the points of the constellation to them. So for example, if we want to build a BPSK constellation we will assign the points [-1,1] to the Symbols Table. Otherwise if we want to build a QPSK constellation we will assign these other points : [1+1j,-1+1j,-1-1j,1-1j] Input type : int, short, byte Output type : complex, float 17 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  28. 28. Throttle We usually use this block to limit the cpu load when operating with non-audio or non-usrp sources/sinks. This means that our system won’t freeze or be overloaded by the GNU Radio engine. If by any chance we forget it to put it in our flow graph, we will be warned about it runtime. Type : complex, float, int, short, byte 18 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  29. 29. WX GUI Slider It’s a simple slider making part of the GNU Radio GUIs. We can use to vary at runtime the value of certain variable we have previously set. We will mostly use this slider to set the Eb /N0 value in our simulations. We are also able to set the Default Value (it is usually a float one), and the number of steps between the Maximum and Minimum value of the variable itself. 19 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  30. 30. WX GUI Scope Sink The WX GUI Scope Sink is a simple graphical sink to show our generated waveforms or digital constellations as well. At runtime, you will notice that is provided with buttons to set the X and Y axis divisions and their offset as well. Be sure to set XY Mode to On when working with digital constellations or any complex stream of data to show both the orthogonal components in the correct way. Type : complex, float 20 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  31. 31. Unpacked to Packed Basically, this block exactly works in the reverse way of the Packed to Unpacked block we saw a couple of slides ago. Remembering the four binary sequences, which were “splitted” from the original one : • • • • 00000011 00000010 00000000 00000001 they will be reverted to the original transmitted binary sequence 11100001. Type : int, short, byte 21 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  32. 32. Import The Import block allows us to import the installed python libraries or even some custom code residing in your PYTHONPATH(s). Some common examples of imports into the block are : • Import: numpy • Import: scipy • Import: <my-code> and so on. 22 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  33. 33. WX GUI Number Sink The WX GUI Number Sink is a simple graphical sink to display the result of a numeric calculation of a GNU Radio flow graph. We also might feed it,for example, with a constant source (depending on a variable) to have a numeric reference to compare with a real-time result. You can also set the number of the decimal digits so to get more accuracy in the displayed result. Type : complex, float 23 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  34. 34. BER and SER calculation These ones are the blocks for the BER and SER calculation of the digital modulation. We usually feed their inputs with the reference and the decoded stream of data. Please note that we have only to specify the number of Bits per Symbol only in the BER block. It is also recommended to set number of samples of Window Size to 600k or 1M (and of the input data streams as well) to get an accurate measure of the error rates. Input type : byte Output Type : float 24 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  35. 35. Now let’s build a QPSK constellation together ! ! ! 25 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  36. 36. Click on the GRC icon in your menu bar or just type from your local shell : $ gnuradio-companion & 26 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  37. 37. map(int, numpy.random.randint(0, 256, 6e5)) 1+1j, -1+1j, -1-1j, 1-1j Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool 27 of 66
  38. 38. The developed tool : gr-bertool 28 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  39. 39. The developed tool : gr-bertool • The tool main GUI 29 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  40. 40. The developed tool : gr-bertool • BER experimental verification 30 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  41. 41. The developed tool : gr-bertool • Real-Time BER experimental verification 31 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  42. 42. The developed tool : gr-bertool • Complementary tools 32 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  43. 43. The BER Calculation 33 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  44. 44. BER experimental verification • The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval 34 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  45. 45. BER experimental verification • The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval • Let’s verify the BER theoretical values with the experimental ones by varying the signal-to-noise ratio Eb /N0 34 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  46. 46. BER experimental verification • The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval • Let’s verify the BER theoretical values with the experimental ones by varying the signal-to-noise ratio Eb /N0 • From digital communications theory is well known that for a Q-PSK modulation the Bit Error Rate is given by : Pb = Q 2Eb N0 34 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  47. 47. BER experimental verification • This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size 35 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  48. 48. BER experimental verification • This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size • We can enable or disable the Gray Coding 35 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  49. 49. BER experimental verification • This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size • We can enable or disable the Gray Coding • By clicking on the Plot button the BER curves are showed in a simple BER vs Eb /N0 diagram 35 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  50. 50. BER experimental verification We can see a perfect agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones : (a) BER AWGN BPSK (b) BER AWGN Q-PSK (c) BER AWGN 8-PSK 36 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  51. 51. BER experimental verification Let’s try it together ! ! ! 37 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  52. 52. The Real-Time BER Calculation 38 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  53. 53. Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution • This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels 39 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  54. 54. Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution • This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels • In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB 39 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  55. 55. Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution • This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels • In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB • Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 39 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  56. 56. Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution • This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels • In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB • Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 • Ch1 Experimental Value ; Ch2 Theoretical Value 39 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  57. 57. Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution • This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels • In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB • Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 • Ch1 Experimental Value ; Ch2 Theoretical Value • Let’s see the evolution.... Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool 39 of 66
  58. 58. Real-Time BER evolution 40 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  59. 59. Real-Time BER evolution 41 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  60. 60. Real-Time BER evolution 42 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  61. 61. Real-Time BER evolution 43 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  62. 62. Real-Time BER evolution 44 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  63. 63. Real-Time BER evolution 45 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  64. 64. The signal constellation • Let’s consider a generic transmission scheme for a TLC system. m(t) S s(t) Tx r(t) Tx Channel d(t) Rx D Figure : Generic block diagram for a TLC system 46 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  65. 65. The signal constellation • Let’s consider a generic transmission scheme for a TLC system. m(t) S s(t) r(t) Tx d(t) Rx Tx Channel D Figure : Generic block diagram for a TLC system • In the absence fo any noise in the channel the generci transmitted symbol si will be correctly received. The plot of the received symbols is ¯ knows as “Constellation” of the digital modulation. ℑ s3 (‘01’) ¯ s0 (‘11’) ¯ ℜ s2 (‘00’) ¯ s1 (‘10’) ¯ Figure : Constellation of a QPSK modulation 46 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  66. 66. The signal constellation • The presence of noise in the channel modifies phase and amplitude of the transmitted symbols and so the received symbol ri is not one ¯ belonging to the constellation showed before ℑ s3 (‘01’) ¯ s0 (‘11’) ¯ The transmitted si symbol is not ¯ correctly received ri ¯ ℜ s2 (‘00’) ¯ s1 (‘10’) ¯ 47 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  67. 67. Evolution of the Signal Constellation 48 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  68. 68. Evolution of the Signal Constellation 49 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  69. 69. Evolution of the Signal Constellation 50 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  70. 70. Evolution of the Signal Constellation 51 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  71. 71. Evolution of the Signal Constellation 52 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  72. 72. Real-Time BER Evolution Let’s try it together ! ! ! 53 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  73. 73. Image Transmission 54 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  74. 74. Image Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations 55 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  75. 75. Image Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations • We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 0 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation for a Jpeg image 55 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  76. 76. Image Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations • We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 0 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation for a Jpeg image • Let’s see the results...... 55 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  77. 77. Image Transmission : AWGN Channel (a) Original (b) AWGN 56 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  78. 78. Image Transmission : Rician Channel (c) Original (d) Rician 57 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  79. 79. Image Transmission : Rayleigh Channel (e) Original (f) Rayleigh 58 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  80. 80. Image Transmission Let’s try it together ! ! ! 59 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  81. 81. Audio Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations 60 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  82. 82. Audio Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations • We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 10 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation 60 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  83. 83. Audio Transmission • This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations • We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 10 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation • We took as sample the wav file play it sam.wav with the following specifications : 60 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  84. 84. Audio Transmission Specifications of the sample file play_it_sam.wav : File Size: 1.76M Bit Rate: 1.41M Encoding: Signed PCM Channels: 2 @ 16-bit Samplerate: 44100Hz Replaygain: off Duration: 00:00:10.00 • Let’s see the results.... 61 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  85. 85. Audio Transmission (g) Original (h) AWGN Channel 62 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  86. 86. Audio Transmission (i) Rician (j) Rayleigh 63 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  87. 87. Conclusions 64 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  88. 88. Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses 65 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  89. 89. Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes 65 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  90. 90. Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes It has an ”user-friendly” GUI 65 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  91. 91. Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes It has an ”user-friendly” GUI It’s open-source ! 65 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool
  92. 92. Contact Information Arturo Rinaldi Freelance Collaborator @ DIECII Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) E-mail : arty.net2@gmail.com Fixed : +39-090-3977376 ; Mobile : +39-340-5795584 (Whatsapp) Skype : arty.net ; Facebook : arty.net Twitter : artynet2 ; LinkedIn : Arturo Rinaldi Prof. Giuseppe Campobello, Ph.D. Researcher in Telecommmunications Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) - Room: 636 (block B, 6th floor) E-mail : gcampobello@unime.it Fixed : +39-090-3977378 Prof. Salvatore Serrano, Ph.D. Researcher in Telecommmunications Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) E-mail : sserrano@unime.it Fixed : +39-090-3977522 66 of 66 Arturo Rinaldi - The gr-bertool

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