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Arturo Raúl Cortés
Isaac Newton is the greatest of British astronomers, also
highlighted as a great physicist and mathematician. It was
actually a genius to which we owe the discovery of the Law
of Universal Gravitation, a cornerstone of modern science.
He was one of the inventors of the Differential and
Integral Calculus, and established the laws of mechanics.
He managed to build the first telescope and reflection are
also important contributions to the study of light.
Isaac Newton was born on Christmas day of the old Julian
calendar in 1642, corresponding to January 4 of 1643 of the
new Gregorian calendar, the year that Galileo died.
He was the posthumous son of a farmer, Isaac Newton, who
died of pneumonia three months before, and Anna Ayscough,
who came from a relatively wealthy family which had among
its members, professionals and clerics.
His birth was premature and for a while it seemed that
would not survive due to their physical weakness. At the
time of his birth Newton weighed only one kilogram and was
said to be so small as to fit in a one-liter jug, however,
was to become a robust and healthy boy.
His mother struggled to push the family farm in
Woolsthorpe, a hamlet about 150 miles north of London.
Times were difficult, as it had begun a bloody civil war
that would upset England for six years. The rebel armies of
Oliver Cromwell and the parliamentary realistic Carlos
Primero faced by the small villages.
When Isaac was two years, his mother married a wealthy
minister named Barnaby Smith, who did not feel any
affection for the small, which I had no intention of taking
charge. Reverend Smith was sent to live with his
grandmother and moved with his new wife to a neighboring
village. Consequently, Smith was very pleased not Isaac,
who confessed to 20 years, in a letter in which they weigh
their faults, have threatened his mother and the Reverend
Smith to burn them all home and not very good omen of
future that awaited the young man.
Isaac Newton's education began in two small schools near
the home of his grandmother Margery. His first years of
study did not give very good results, and putting little
emphasis on school activities and instead expressed a
marked interest by mechanical toys.
He grew shy and suspicious, with great difficulty
interacting with others, characteristics that, over time,
would be increasingly evident.
At the age of twelve, was sent to continue his studies at
King's College in Grantham, then populated it with two
thousand or three thousand inhabitants. There he studied
Latin and the Bible, but had little contact with science.
The children loved the books and taking notes of everything
that interested him, since filling thousands of pages of
notes, with a tiny point and orderly.
The village of Woolsthorpe twelve kilometers far, so Isaac
was established in Grantham throughout the school year,
boarding at home of Dr. William Clark, the local
pharmacist, whose wife was the mother of a friend of
Clark had an attic full of science books that she loved the
boy and read all sorts of chemicals to experiment with
them. Besides, I had a beautiful stepdaughter, with whom
Newton later had a teenage romance, the first and last of
Miss Storey was two years younger than Isaac, was educated
and grew up together and it seems that Newton fell in love
with her, although he was never declared. Always treated
with great courtesy and preferred to stay at home with her
to play with other children, who were too smart and weird.
Later, I was going to look each time was in the field, even
when she was already married and gave him a sum of money
when she needs it. So here the story of the only love of
The fast Newton's mind was occupied during the four years
he spent in Grantham. He could propel a cart turning around
a while he sat on it and designed a collapsible paper
lantern that used to illuminate the way to school in the
In those years, near the town began to operate a windmill.
As far as we know it is possible, that the young Mill
Newton studied with as much attention as a model for
replication in that it worked to perfection.
Captivated by the principle of the sundial, he learned not
only to calculate the time, but also the day of the month
and predict events such as solstices and equinoxes. Was
known for telling time by knowing the sun, but usually
forget to eat filed, a trait that persisted throughout his
Even the wind is fascinated. One day a great storm arose.
As people sought shelter from the wind wise, young Isaac
conducted what would later recall as his first scientific
experiment. First jumped with the wind, then against it.
Comparing the distances of the two jumps, he could estimate
the force of the gale.
When I was sixteen, his stepfather died and the boy
returned home to help his mother, widow and again with
three other children, in managing the family farm. Newton
felt no inclination for the life of the field and never put
your heart at work. Built a water mill on the stream -
complete with locks and dams - while their sheep without a
monitor invade maize fields neighbor.
When he sent to look after the cattle, he sat under a tree
and plunged deep into a book. The story goes that on one
occasion he returned to the farm deep in thought, holding a
rope which had tied ido a horse. The animal had escaped
without Isaac realized.
Trading days to bribe a servant to handle purchases and
sales, in order to pass the time occupied with new gadgets
or reading. His curiosity was obviously a limit is not
extended to agriculture.
The Reverend William Ayscough, Uncle Isaac, he convinced
his mother that he sent to Cambridge to study. His teacher,
Mr. Stokes, who insisted that Newton's talents were being
wasted at the farm, offered to host it in your own home.
For 17 years, Newton returned to Grantham to prepare for
At that time, the university was a privilege and few young
people from the social Newton got to reach that level of
education. When he was admitted to the prestigious Trinity
College in Cambridge, was registered in the category of
poor students, who were paid surveys in various domestic
services, acting as porters, cooks or waiters and serving
We also got some benefits with the small amount he received
from his mother. None of these activities earned him many
friends. In Cambridge, Isaac filled his solitude with the
As in Grantham, was unable to hide their intelligence, and
it had a very puritanical attitude common in those days,
which most scholars had discovered the delights of the
cafes and brasseries. Not satisfied with not these
pleasures, Newton started a list of their sins, including
"thoughts, words, actions and dreams dirty."
The year was 1661. Copernicus did 120 years had shown that
the Sun was the center of the solar system and not the
Earth. Did 51 years that Galileo had announced that the
planet Jupiter had four satellites, including discoveries
made with his telescope. There was also a good number of
years that Kepler had discovered that the planets do not
move in circles around the sun, but in ellipses. But
universities are still teaching physics and astronomy of
Aristotle, which was already 2,000 years.
The young man teaching himself the new philosophy and
became an expert in astronomy and mathematics of his time.
Newton did not, in its first year of study at Cambridge.
But fortunately, had the valuable assistance of Isaac
Barrow, a distinguished professor of mathematics, who was
impressed with their skills and recommended him for a
The couple was preparing to start her graduate work when
England was hit by bubonic plague, which took thousands of
lives, especially in cities like London and Cambridge,
whose filthy and overcrowded slums provide an ideal
breeding ground for disease transmitted by rats.
The university temporarily closed while his students fled
to rural areas less affected.
Newton returned to Woolsthorpe, visiting Cambridge from
time to time to use your library. Quiet on the family farm,
began his powerful intellect to work in a wide range of
scientific and mathematical problems, laying the foundation
for a lifetime of achievement.
At Woolsthorpe, days passed slowly, with the regular rhythm
of country life. Issac Newton spent much time with her
mother, but otherwise I was alone. There was nobody there
with whom to discuss or exchange views and had very few
books available to them.
This phase of intellectual isolation, deprived of any kind
of distractions, helped him pick up the threads of many
thoughts and bring order to their ideas. Perhaps boredom
played a part in the incitement of Newton to focus, almost
obsessively, in some problems.
He built the first functional version of a new astronomical
instrument, the telescope of reflection, using a curved
mirror instead of lenses to focus light.
Developed a new and powerful branch of mathematics,
Differential and Integral Calculus, allowing infinitesimal
calculations to solve problems in physics and astronomy.
Performed the fundamental work of his Theory of Universal
Gravitation, which would describe in detail the movements
of the planets around the sun and made his famous laws of
Newton developed his theory in the summer of 1666, when 23
years was only after seeing an apple fall from a tree on
the family farm in the light of the moon.
The young scientist was asked: "Why does an apple fall was
always perpendicular to the ground? Why does not move
laterally or upwards, but always toward the center of the
Earth? Indeed, the reason is that the Earth attracts. If
the matter attracts matter, that must occur in proportion
to its quantity. Therefore attracts the apple to the Earth
as the Earth attracts the apple. And the Moon, is also
subject to that force? Does gravity extends throughout the
When the apple tree that Newton's thoughts directed towards
the idea of universal gravitation died in 1820, was cut in
pieces, which were carefully preserved.
If Newton had made known their discoveries would have been
considered the greatest mathematician in Europe, but did
not publish anything. Feared that the publication will give
fame and restrain their privacy.
Whether for that reason, inexperience or shyness, Newton
did not publish their results and not discussed with anyone
his discoveries. Two years later a report delivered to
Barrow, who have published only twenty years later.
Failure to promptly publish the results of their studies
revealed very soon as a practice that over the years caused
him discomfort and endless controversy.
Resumed his studies at Cambridge, obtaining the title of
Master of Arts in 1668. The following year, Professor
Barrow resigned the Chair of Mathematics Lucasi engaging in
Theology and recommended Newton as his successor.
In front of the chair, gave most of its optical and
mathematical discoveries, but almost no one attended. He
served this position for 26 years with great
responsibility. Only left Cambridge for a few weeks during
posted to the Royal Society for the analysis and
consequently was named the meantime, sent him to King
Charles the Second reflector telescope he had developed.
The King is a member in 1671.
The following year he sent a report to the Royal Society on
his study of light and colors. It received much criticism
and, therefore Newton is retrajo more about himself and
continued to delay for years the publication of the rest of
The young astronomer and mathematician Edmund Halley
visited Newton often, convincing them to publish their
discoveries. Finally, Newton wrote in Latin the
"Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", rich in
detail, with accurate tests based on classical geometry and
its findings surprisingly rare in philosophy, mathematics
In 1687, for 44 years, he published this work, known as the
"Principia", stating the results of its studies on
terrestrial and celestial mechanics. There are three laws
of motion that give rise to modern science of dynamics,
which combined with Kepler's laws enabled him to formulate
his famous Law of Gravitation.
Newton developed a mathematically quantified explanation of
gravity equal to that covered by terrestrial and celestial
Scientists of the time immediately recognized the
importance of the work and then it rained honors.
The publication of "Principia" wrapped him in his first
dispute over the true authorship of his theories. The
philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke, older, reported
that Newton had stolen the idea that bodies attract each
other with a force that varies inversely with the square of
The accusation was unfounded, although it was true that
Hooke and Newton had exchanged letters in the past. Hooke
had even pointed out an error in Newton, which he never
forgave him. The reaction to this accusation of plagiarism
was unstoppable fury.
Instead of posting a generous recognition of Hooke, which
could have anything, Newton took the revenge of the
manuscript book and deleted all reference to it was Robert
Hooke. Newton was shy, but it could be a fierce adversary.
During the same year of 1687, actively participated in the
defense of the University of Cambridge against the
intention of King James II of England into a Catholic
institution. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the
university selected him as one of their representatives to
the British Parliament.
It then became friends with the philosopher John Locke and
the two spent several hours discussing theological issues,
especially the Trinity. Besides his interest in science,
Newton also was attracted by the study of alchemy,
mysticism and theology, channeling their efforts on the
problems of Biblical chronology.
In 1693, when Newton was 50 years, forget a lit candle and
his dog did fall, causing a fire that destroyed their rooms
in their manuscripts. This was plunged into despair, she
had a nervous breakdown for some time and his mental
faculties were weakened. The following year had already
been recovered, but not again to engage in systematic
Soon after, Isaac Newton was named Director of the Mint of
England, a very well paid, so he resigned his professorship
at Cambridge. Although it was rather an honorary position,
Newton took it very seriously and made changes to the
English monetary system that were effective for 150 years.
If we exclude the two years of plague, had spent over
thirty years between the austere walls of the university,
strongly intense in regard to the study, but very poor at
the individual level. One wrote that his assistant never
saw Newton engaged in a recreation or pastime, and it was a
ride, a ride or a game, because I thought that every hour
devoted to the study was not a lost hours.
Little involved in the life of the university; rarely eaten
in the common room, and when he did, he could be with the
wrong shoes tied, the clothes and messy hair disheveled, as
if the other did not exist. Around it was only his
students, very few, a few colleagues and friends who once
came to Cambridge to meet him.
The rest of their personal relationships were by
correspondence. But even these friendships, enmities and of
course, closely linked to scientific environment and
referred to him in the intellectual level in the personal
Every so often went to Woolsthorpe, where he rediscovered
the places of their childhood, their relatives, and
especially to his mother when he died, in the summer of
1679, also happened to miss this point. With his death
disappeared from his life and his heart was the only woman
who managed to fill them.
Isaac Newton became president of the Royal Society in 1703
to 60 years, a position he occupied until his death. Based
in London, he devoted his life to fulfill their work at the
Mint and the Royal Society, their personal reading and
In 1705 he was knighted by Queen Anne, was the first
scientist who received this honor for his work.
At the same time, there was the dispute with the German
mathematician Gottfried von Leibnitz about the paternity of
the Calculus. Leibnitz had invented the calculation on
their own, ten years after Newton, but nobody knew because
he had not published anything, so the German did before.
The dispute over the paternity of that branch of
mathematics was ugly. Newton and Leibniz spared no low
blows, but Newton was the worst. All articles appearing in
defending the priority of Newton himself wrote, signed with
the names of his followers.
Newton used his position as president of the Royal Society
to appoint a commission "fair" to investigate the case. The
official report of it, accusing Leibniz of plagiarism, was
written in secret by himself. Not the death of Leibniz
settles: Newton continued to launch attacks against his
opponent at every opportunity until his own death.
Towards the end of his life, Sir Isaac Newton was still
attending meetings of Parliament, but often fell asleep. On
one occasion, got up as if to speak. It was a profound
silence. Attendees look forward to the words of the famous
scientist, who took the floor for the first time, but only
Newton asked to close the window because he was cold.
For 82 years, due to health problems, he left London and
moved to Kensington, where he spent his years of aging in
the care of a niece, Catherine Barton, the daughter of a
Newton never married. His character Arisco, pedantic, and
extremely religious was not made to attract female
attention, and also never interested in women in
particular. His biographers say he died a virgin. Its
obvious misogyny, combined with an extreme puritanism, she
could not even go to brothels.
Isaac Newton died on March 31 of 1727, to 84 years,
following a sharp deterioration of renal disease. His
remains rest in Westminster Abbey.
His scientific works are still influential today, almost
three centuries later. Even today, when the Newtonian
dynamics is seen as only part of the larger canvas painted
by the Relativity of Albert Einstein, most of us still
think in Newtonian terms, and Newton's laws are effective
in guiding the spacecraft to the Moon and planets.
When the son of astronaut William Anders asked him who
drove the Apollo 8 spacecraft to bring it to the Moon, his
response was: "I think Isaac Newton performed much of the
The importance of Newton for the Western scientific thought
is considerable. He is considered the father of classical
physics, not in vain and his two major works, Philosophiae
Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) and Opticks (1707)
are taken as examples of Kuhn on scientific paradigms, as
complete systems with components that were interpreted
scientists' work further.
Of note is his greatest contribution as the introduction of
a method: the laws are obtained by generalization through
induction and mathematical analysis of the phenomena or
systematic experiments, and are the only reliable basis of
knowledge. Thus, the mechanics of Newton is the birth of
modern physics, the apotheosis of the cause-effect
relationship, which perfectly expressed by the phrase non
Hypothesis Finger (no build scenario). Also noteworthy is
the definition of space and time as absolute concepts,
which are not plausible, nor defined by any physical
process (which was an important part of their discussions
with Leibniz), the design that prevailed in physics until
the arrival of the Theory of Relativity.
We include the definition in the dictionary of the
(Del lat. Scientia).
1. f. Body of knowledge obtained through observation and
reasoning, systematically structured and those deduced
general principles and laws.
2. f. Knowledge or erudition. Have much or little science.
Well be a science. Man of science and virtue.
3. f. Skill, expertise, body of knowledge on anything. The
science of thief, the palace of man vividor.
4. f. pl. Body of knowledge concerning the sciences,
chemical and natural. Faculty of Science, unlike the
Faculty of Arts.
(Del lat. Tempus).
1. m. Duration of the things subject to removal.
2. m. Physical quantity that sorts the sequence of events,
establishing a past, a present and a future. His unit in
the International System is the second.
3. m. Part of this sequence.
(Del ant. Part. Cur. Entered; lat. Constans,-antis).
1. adj. Consisting.
2. adj. That is consistency.
3. adj. In one thing: Persistent, durable.
4. adj. Continuously repeated. U. t. c. s. f. The irony is
a constant in his work.
5. f. Mat. Quantities that have a fixed value in a given
process, calculation, etc.
(Del lat. Absolūtus).
1. adj. Independent, unlimited, which excludes any
2. adj. In one view, a view, etc.., Or a desire and its
manifestations: forthright, decisive, unequivocal.
3. adj. Whole, total, complete. Silence, absolute oblivion
4. adj. That exists by itself unconditioned. U. t. c. s. m.
5. adj. coloq. Or dominant imperative of genius.
6. adj. Fís. Such a magnitude: that is measured from a zero
value actually corresponds to the absence of the scale in
question. Absolute temperature
7. adj. Gram. In a numeral adjective: cardinal.
8. adj. Quím. In a chemical liquid that contains no water
9. f. Assertion in the general tone of safety and teaching.
10. f. coloq. Mil.) +
(Del lat. Hypothesis, and it's gr. Ὑπόθεσις).
1. f. Assuming something possible or impossible to get a
1. f. Which sets as a basis for an investigation that could
confirm or deny the validity of that.
(Del gr. Θεωρία).
1. f. Speculative knowledge considered independently of any
2. f. Series of laws that serve to link specific order of
3. f. Assumptions whose consequences are applicable to any
science or a very important part of it.
4. f. Among the ancient Greeks, religious procession.
1. loc. adv. Without having tested in practice.
1. f. Action experience.
2. f. Scientific method of inquiry based on provocation and
study of the phenomena.
(Del lat. Lex, legis).
1. f. Rules and regulations constantly change and of
things, first born of the cause or the qualities and
2. f. Each of the relationships between the various
elements involved in a phenomenon.
(Del lat. Relatīvus).
1. adj. Which is related to someone or something.
2. adj. That is not absolute.
3. adj. Not much, in small quantities or intensity. That
case gave a relative importance.
4. adj. Arguably, could be called into question. Your
opinion is very relative.
(Del lat. Magnitude).
1. f. Size of a body.
2. f. Greatness, excellence or importance of something.
3. f. Astr. Logarithmic measure of the relative brightness
of celestial objects, which is greater the lower is its
4. f. Fís. Physical property that can be measured; p. ej.,
temperature, weight, etc..
(Del lat. Dimensions,-onis).
1. f. Aspect or facet of something.
2. f. Length, area or volume of a line, or a body surface,
respectively. U. t. sent on. Fig. A big scandal.
3. f. Fís. Each of the magnitudes of a set used to define a
phenomenon. The space of four dimensions of the theory of
4. f. Fís. Expression of magnitude as the product of powers
of the fundamental.
5. f. Mus. Measurement of the bars.
1. f. Action and effect to prove.
2. f. Reason, argument, instrument or other means with
which to show and demonstrate the truth or falsity of
3. f. Sign, signal or shows that there is something.
4. f. Test or experiment that is something, how to be in
its final form.
5. f. Medical analysis.
Time is an article of analysis in terms of
physical, written and designed for all people, with or
without knowledge in this field, can understand in a simple
manner without mathematical formulas, the reality of this
magnitude and with This article be split into two groups,
practitioners of physics, the first and the most
interesting and genuine that call, scientists, and the
second, the physical blackboard, they are those who have a
university degree in such material, subtly usurping the
place of science, they do this in a very simple, all you
need is a gis a blackboard, a nonsense, and of course some
mathematical formula, science uses mathematics, just as a
tool to explain the facts of a real issue in this area,
precisely because this is a discovery, or to validate any
theory, either through mental exercises or experimentation.
At the beginning of this article, we saw an
account of Isaac Newton, and we did to this man as an
example, and there is no better example that, without fear
of mistakes, I can say that, it is considered the greatest
scientist of all times.
Science, the dictionary describes as the body of
knowledge obtained by observation and reasoning, we could
add, common sense and experimentation. Hypotheses and
theories are not science, math is a very effective tool
used in science, theories can be said that these ideas are
derived from conclusions, many of the great times, and
other ideas are just not that vain deserve to be taken into
account, individuals in particular, that the complexity of
those ideas are usually made by scientists, such theories
are a challenge for science, able, or disposable, this
word, science has ido evolve, it is now in danger of being
used again as a possibility, and be interpreted, science is
not a possibility and can not be interpreted, that is not
science, Isaac Newton, for example I never scenarios, and
this is due that the scientist was a genuine, and showed
that position, even to us at present, the example of what a
scientist. One hypothesis the dictionary defines it as
something possible assumption to make this a consequence,
the hypothesis or theory to use as a basis for determining
truth, not scientific, but it now seems, a scientific
account of this fact is So who say that science is at risk
again, because again, this already happened in the
evolution of science, many times, but just put an example,
and this in the past, that the word science was misused. In
the mean age at the time of the December 14 in 1503, was
born in the Province of Saint-Remy in Provence, Michel de
Notredame, who became better known as Doctor insigne
Nostradamus, who became a brilliant and outstanding, this
spoke Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and was remarkably
brilliant in mathematics, creator of cosmetics and
chemicals to preserve the fruit in the time of the
Renaissance in France, when bubonic plague struck, this
doctor says that with their ointments and save thousands of
life science, unfortunately plague ended the lives of his
family after that and almost certainly due to this
catastrophe family, his analytical mind and his sanity
somewhat scientific, were diverted by changing true
science, for a false science, creating horoscopes,
divinations, prophecies, and things that have nothing to do
with science, which became popular to such an extent that
even today, many read your horoscope, trying to guess what
happen tomorrow. This brought him great popularity
especially among the wealthy of his era, and with it
material benefits, was the grandson of the King's doctors
and his son Renato Duke Calabria and Lorraine.
The fact that the fear of genuine science, take a spin in
the middle ages is not unfounded, as many of the features
to make this happen, are a feature, the main entrance is on
the scene in the scientific area, the brilliant minds of
men, with complex theories, backed up with mathematical
formulas, which influenced the scientific community, so
that even without these scientifically tested, are
currently generating additional theories, based on theories
This is absolutely incredible, the scientific community by
universities worldwide, lessons are taught as if they were
facts and scientifically validated. One of the most
important is the theory of relativity, Dr. Albert
Einstein's work undoubtedly possessing a brilliant mind and
many of their predictions and ideas have been tested
scientifically, it must be remembered that of the above, it
is not an infallible man, and his job is not all his ideas
We have two positions in relation to the time the first of
Isaac Newton, which led to the classical physics, to
determine which time is absolute, and goes the same for all
observers, making time a different dimension of space. And
the second that of Albert Einstein, where time is relative,
and not place the same for all observers, and where time is
a dimension equal to the space, turning it into a
coordinate tetradimensional, where time passes more slowly
when the speed is greater.
Consider what is the time, and based on that analysis to
express an opinion and assume a position of time.
The time is (time to time we may classify as an entity), of
course not, because time is not, nor life, time is the
sequence of events, which we measure, and that measurement
system is a human invention, the problem arises when the
time is confused and is labeled as an entity, this is how
we discover the time, as this gives the false impression of
being, as time was discovered, and came to light, with
references, without these we could not be conscious of
time, for example, if our planet is in another location in
the universe, near where it was always lit by the two
sides, in full, would not know night, the day would ever
for us, and for this reason that we would not always
enlightened knowledge of the stars and planets, since we
could not see them, our days would be a constant, and our
concept of time would not be the same, if not maybe we were
not even aware of the time, perhaps not even measured, or
perhaps measured in a very different, a result that would
not have time or we could speak of different eras Our story
would be very different, and also our knowledge, the
universe as we know, not in our repertoire of knowledge,
there would be no field of astronomy, we would not be aware
of the rotation of our planet, in the end, another would be
the history and evolution of human knowledge. But this is
not the case, we find the time, thanks to the current
position of our planet, thanks to which we refer to the day
and night, the moon, the stars and planets, and thanks to
these benchmarks, we developed a system with which we can
measure in the past our ancestors as measured in different
ways, with sand clocks, solar clocks, and some other forms,
in our era, we started measuring it in the form of
mechanical pendulum clocks, and more recently with digital
atomic clocks, and for this reason that the time can be
measured, we can classify as a magnitude, the magnitude,
officially use the second measure, (s), because these
measures also invented a way to separate the time between
incidents, names and events that occurred as past events
that are happening like this, and facts that have not
happened, but we anticipate that future will come as it is
considered that this is made 20 seconds prior to this past
and is considered as a future after these.
Well as we discover the time and magnitude as scheduled, we
invent a way to measure it, and determined as the second
official action, past and present and future, as a division
between facts, thus we conclude that the time is a measure,
as a summary we can say that such a measure, designated as
magnitude, is an absolute constant. Now analyzing the
division of facts, we find that past events are made, are
absolute in nature that can not be changed, which are
behind, we can not go back in time and change, I have
absolute facts are immutable, this has a different nature,
which may change everything we do in this will have
implications for the future and determine what is said in
the past, which we know as history, the future, we can say
that to some degree, we can predict but partially, and this
can not be absolute because we can only vaguely predict
will happen, so we can tell the future, and that if any
certainty, an absolute, is that the future does not exist
is non-existent. From this simple analysis we can determine
that termination of Isaac Newton is right, because time is
absolute, and that time is a human invention, and that the
organization of things and ideas, and this only, as for
human power to give meaning and direction to our lives. So
far this analysis only considers the common sense of what
it is, the time, but it can provide scientific evidence to
prove that time is absolute, not relative, there are some
which will explain in the form of mental exercise, below.
Speed, this magnitude to be introduced in time, I think
the confusion, and suggested that time is relative, a kind
of elastic time, this idea is only a subtle intellectual
trap, designed to fully aware and informed consent by Dr.
Albert Einstein, in a cunning and daring, this theory was
formulated, and well received, thanks to the great
reputation he had at the time of submission, as the weather
can vary in its measurement, characteristics as we measure
time, this makes it possible, as this measurement of time
is a human invention, but that it considered a discredit to
increase his genius, in the form of ideas, because the
relativity of time, the manner in which the theory says
that happens, it is impossible, as we shall see below.
The speed of light, so we know that speed is constant,
unlike for example the speed of sound in the same way, the
passage of time is constant, but in time, this magnitude,
we can modify it cunningly with merely to suggest,
relativity, and modification time, it happens as a result.
This is where common sense must distinguish between a
genuine relativity, and a fictitious, false or better.
Example, you do the following experiment with a person,
this person will get you the name of Time, although the
experiment is to this man in different planets, we know the
weight is the measure kilo (k), the weight of the subject
is changed in relation to the place where it is heavy, for
example if a person is heavy here on earth, could be worth,
say you weigh 100 pounds, and if the same individual is
heavy on another planet, for example on the planet Mars,
its weight will be different from that obtained here on
earth, this is due to the amount of mass and size of each
planet in particular, and the gravitational force exerted
on the weight of the same so if the same individual, time
is called, is heavy on Jupiter for example, we get a
different value to the first two measurements, here is a
prime example of a true relativity. This example of genuine
relativity is the best example to show how irrational is
the fact a mistake with a real physical fact virtual, and
totally false, the reason for the difference in measuring
the weight of this man, time, are well known to science,
but for some reason assume that Isaac Newton never existed,
and we do not know why a person weighs differently in the
three planets on which we tested, this opens the
possibility of a scientific genius, present the theory of
relativity of matter in this theory the scientist presented
his findings which stated that for some unknown reason the
body does not weigh the same at different locations in
space, and the amount of mass change as far from land. This
would be an interesting theory to science, and would be
very popular, but the reality of things that the person
would call time, records a different weight in the three
planets, but the amount of mass and structure is not
modified in this Absolutely, because the reason for the
difference in weight that is not in the same way that time
is relative and can difference between measurements, for
example watches, some on land and others in the space,
different speeds, so the speed or severity of interference
in any way is the true value of time, although at first
glance this paresca otherwise.
Here is a test that is supposed to test some of the
relativity of time, this test is done J. C. Hafele and R.
Keating, in the year 1971, the test consisted of several
climb cesium atomic clocks on commercial aircraft, which
flew for 40 hours and returned to the starting point, these
various tests were traveling somewhere to the west and
further eastwards, to return found that the clocks were not
synchronized in a few hundredths of a difference by
thousandths of millionths of a second, and as such, Hafele
and Keating, the only possible explanation was the theory
of relativity of Einstein, the results of these tests were
published by the journal Science in 1972. What can we say
about these tests and for sure is that the atomic clocks do
not operate in a synchronized fashion, under different
circumstances, causes lack of synchronization at the end of
this test are, altitude, speed, field terrestrial magnetic,
differential pressure, temperature difference, or the
combination of all these, that's the only thing you can try
this test with any certainty. We reiterate the seriousness
and speed can change the readings of the clocks, but can
not modify the measure of time, because time is not an
entity, has no life or existence itself, so the findings of
these men to their evidence is misleading, because in the
same way that the magnitude of the field was discovered by
us, I have invented a way to weigh, so the time was
discovered and cataloged in the same way as size, and like
the subject, Time will invent a way to measure it. Unlike
the matter can be considered an entity and not the time,
but in neither case means that their real differences for
change in their measurements, whether the force of gravity
or the speed.
Here, the paradox of the twins of Albert Einstein, this
paradox is that two twins, one is left in the ground, while
the other travels in space, the result of this paradox is
that the twin on earth ages over this, In comparison to
traveling through space, mathematically that is the result.
What can we say about this mental game, or find that
looking at the concept of time of Albert Einstein, this
paradox is related to organic matter and living things,
suppose that the twin paradox that makes the trip was in
mind of Einstein, and the result is that in effect is
predicted mathematically, this is not evidence that time
flows at different speeds, as we return to the same place
in the beginning, the time is not an entity that enters in
the category of quantity, because we can measure it, and
the system with which it is measured, is a system of human
invention. The likely explanation to the child's age that
are traveling, be closely related to how the living organic
matter, under these circumstances weightless and super
speed, but it is absurd to reach the conclusion that time
can be elastic or relative. Of note in our species the
human race behaves with a personality, and this is
characteristic of us, whatever our academic preparation,
with very limited knowledge, as may be illiterate or with a
PhD in Physical Science, as to such personalities, we are
able to put aside common sense, the truths of science,
cancel our analytical mind and continue to play such a
As we said, used the past present and future, to make the
difference between events through time, in this twin
paradox where the ground is aging more than travel, the
relativity of Einstein opened the door to the possibility
to travel into the future, the most interesting part of
this nonsense, something that no one stopped to think that
the future does not exist in time, as the future in the
imaginary time is a sequence of events exist in the present
tense, and because we say that Dr. Albert Einstein, I
present this theory in a premeditated manner, fully aware,
this is the fact that in this theory, past and future as a
persistent illusion, he was a genius and such reason it is
not possible to overlook the fact that the future does not
exist, like the last, unlike in the past that we can
consider as the true facts of history, which were recorded,
but as I said before we are in a time where everything is
acceptable and above all things extravagant, as the king's
clothes and fabrics vain invisible, this brilliant set the
precedent that anything is possible in physics, which
sparked an uproar of theories, radicals, as is the
antiparticle or the dark energy, there is a popular saying
that says that things fall under its own weight, as in the
field of physics, the space is not so, things in space
instead of falling, thanks to the force of gravity
The speed, like the time and energy, are not entities,
they have no life of their own, these are subject to the
movement of matter, but listed as magnitude, because we can
measure them, and as time discovered by the references
visible, and the unit to measure, is a human invention,
almost all things visible and moving, are likely candidates
to measure their speed, such as earth rotation on its axis,
the shifting of the earth around the sun, the speed is
imperceptible in its path when there are no sudden
movements, that is why until recently accepted that the
earth is not the center of our solar system, according to
the theory of relativity, time is relative, and in this
case change in the measurement of time is directly related
to another magnitude, speed, as a summary we can say that
this theory assumes that the more speed less time,
presumably believing that the maximum speed in universe is
the speed of light, which we know as of about 300.000
kilometers per second, something we do not know is the
speed of transfer of the universe, as this can not be
measured because we do not have references, which are
outside our universe, the fact that we do not know the
speed of our universe as a whole does not mean he does not
move, maybe not just movement but may also shift rotation
to a parallel universe and more, and this in turn movement
is translatory. The speed of translation of our planet is
29.5 with the amount of speed we 2'544, 000 km in one day,
a rate much lower than the speed of light, it is difficult
to determine the exact age of our planet but we know that
there is at least billions of years, or to determine the
age of fossil organic matter is used to test carbon
fourteen samples in no more than 60.000 years, this test is
considered the safest and reliable to determine the age of
something organic that has ceased to live, this way of
calculating the time explain without going into too many
details, but this way of determining the time, we can say
that carbon Fourteen will cut to 6.000 years half, then the
count is lower, or assume that our universe is moving and
this is the translation speed of 3,000 kilometers per
second, then our proof of carbon-14 that currently applied
to date fossils, based on this speed is a translation of
our planet around the sun, as he told of 2'544, 000
Kilometers per day, and the movement of translation of our
universe as a whole is 3,000 kilometers per second, well,
that will happen if we change speed translation of the
universe, to 30,000 kilometers per second, common sense
tells us that nothing, as the evidence of carbon fourteen
give the same results as the way in which carbon is
disappearing from the fossil is not nothing to do with the
speed pass land, or the speed of translation of our
universe as a whole, the disappearance of carbon from
fossil disappear in the same way in both cases.
Already made laws such as the laws of
thermodynamics, but there was a law of the time, but we can
say that the statements of Isaac Newton, in classical
physics, on time, meet all the requirements for making a
law, what is surprising is not yet done.
All the major problems in physics have emerged, to catalog
the things that are not anything like some of these are
These three, which are not, it's entities.
Arturo Raúl Cortés
www.myspace.com / laboratoriokazumi
The king is naked. The king is naked.