Self-Assembling Materials.


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Self-Assembling Materials.

  1. 1. Self-Assembling Materials: REvolutionizing the world around us. Presented by: Arturo Pelayo April 26th, 2004 Western Illinois University. Macomb, IL
  2. 2. Overview: • Introduction. • Applications. • Future of the Technology. • Challenges. •
  3. 3. For thousands of years people had to make do with the materials that nature provided them with things like wood and stone, and metals such as gold, lead and copper. Even after the advent of iron forging, clay furnaces and glass-making, it was nearly two thousand years before any great leap in materials science occurred.
  4. 4. This situation has changed dramatically, our knowledge of materials has exploded over the last two decades. Researchers in the past refined known materials for use with new applications, today's materials scientists, chemists, physicists and even biologists and computer scientists create customized new materials. And the future will bring further advances. We're on the verge of a new era -- an age of intelligent materials
  5. 5. The buzzwords of the future will be nanotechnology, bioengineering and adaptronics. Researchers in the latter field are attempting to create materials that can adapt to various environmental conditions—for example, construction support materials that can dampen oscillations by themselves Biomaterials include biopolymers, artificial spider-silk fibers, biomorphic ceramics made from materials such as cardboard that maintain the source material's basic structures, and materials for medical applications, such as artificial tissue elements.
  6. 6. Nanotechnology ultimately focuses on individual atoms that are maneuvered piece by piece in a completely controlled manner to create a material. According to a study conducted by t h e E l e c t r o n i c Te c h n o l o g y Association (VDE), microsystems technology and nanotechnology have the greatest innovation potential, ahead of even information technology and biotechnology.
  7. 7. Adaptronics the marriage of quot;adaptationquot; and quot;electronics.quot;
  8. 8. Adaptronics – bringing materials to life fibers ment in Hum-free refrigerators, noiseless car interiors, whisper- aterials. ing helicopters, ambulances that ride smoothly over r potholes – all these things are enabled by adaptronics, a relatively new science that brings materials to life. The components adapt automatically to their sur- roundings, dampen vibrations, suppress noise and warn of structural failure even before the first cracks have appeared.
  9. 9. Hard drive vs. organic molecules: A layer of organic molecules can store 1,000 times more data per square centimeter than a hard drive
  10. 10. Foamed Metal. Even without nanotechnology, however, the ability to combine known materials with new production methods means that the amount of materials used in industry will continue to increase. Foamed lightweight metals, for example, could be transformed into especially light, yet stable components for aerospace or automotive applications. Such materials are very rigid while weighing relatively little. Similar properties are exhibited by composite materials containing fibers made of high- strength or very rigid materials, such as glass or carbon, which are incorporated into plastics.
  11. 11. Light bulbs vs. LEDs: Red LEDs are three times more efficient than conventional incandescent light bulbs
  12. 12. • tv-service/polymere_lq_040901.htm
  13. 13. • mms://
  14. 14. Harness the potential to develop materials or components that are so smart they can automatically adapt to their surroundings. Under ideal circumstances, these materials combine sensors, regulators and actuators in a highly compact space.
  15. 15. Copper vs. nanotubes: Inch for inch, a wire made of nanotubes conducts electricity 1,000 times better
  16. 16. Applications
  17. 17. These materials are multifunctional. That is, they can register alterations in their surroundings—for example, changes of temperature—and respond immediately. Memory metals are excellent examples of adaptronics: If they are heated or subjected to a voltage, they change shape. They do this by means of a simple, temperature- dependent alteration of their atomic lattice structure—no complex electronic manipulation is required.
  18. 18. Applications. Existing Technology How it Works Market Potential Applications Mechanical stress is Actuators for injection Very high; many Piezofibers, converted into an pumps and valves, applications in the near polymers, patches electrical voltage and compact electric future vice versa motors Damping vibrations in components (car bodies, MR equipment, etc.); Possible active changes in sections of rotor blades and wings to cut noise and save Applications energy; increase in component strength (active prevention of deformation); monitoring of component status when used as a sensor
  19. 19. Applications • Technology • Memory metals • How it Works • Electric current or an increase in temperature give rise to a change in shapePossible • Applications • Actuators for valves or interlocks; damping vibrations; components: memory metal contact pads as microchip mounts that can be released by a change in temperature • Existing Applications • Interlocks and valves made of memory-metal wires, strips or springs (e.g. dishwasher sensor); medical instruments for microsurgical procedures • Market Potential • Increased degree of integration in complex electrical and electronic systems in the next few years; further use in surgery
  20. 20. Applications • Technology • Electrorheological and magneto-rheological materials • How it Works • An electrical voltage or magnetic field causes the reversible solidification of liquids by making microscopic particles in the liquid link up • Possible Applications • Exact adjustment of shock absorbers to road surfaces; hydraulic valves; control using tactile joysticks (force feedback); movement control of knee and joint prostheses • Existing Applications • Introduction of the first products in the next months • Market Potential Growing potential in the next few years
  21. 21. Applications • Technology • Magnetostrictive materials • How it Works • React with an increase in length even at weak magnetic fields (similar to piezo) • Possible Applications Use as actuators, sensors, vibration dampers • Existing Applications Sensor for shop security • Market Potential Mass- produced articles in a few areas
  22. 22. Applications • Technology Photo/ thermo/ electrochromic materials • How it Works Materials that change their color or transparency according to the effect of light, heat, or electric fields • Possible Applications Climate-controlling windows that control the sunlight coming into a building or a car; changing the light-absorbing properties of photovoltaic facilities • Existing Applications Prototype climate- controlling windows and photovoltaic glass • Market Potential Increasing importance, especially in the area of energy optimization for buildings
  23. 23. Applications • Technology Glass fiber sensors • How it Works External influences change the propagation of light in the fiber • Possible Applications Detection of temperature variations, pressure, mechanical stresses, vibrations, accelerations, magnetic fields • Existing Applications Various prototypes • Market Potential First applications in coming years
  24. 24. Applications • Technology Hollow fibers and microcapsules • How it Works Hollow fibers or capsules in a material release fluid/active ingredients when they are destroyed • Possible Applications Emergency lubricants in cutting or grinding tools; plastics that heal themselves by releasing liquid adhesive in hairline cracks • Existing Applications S e l f- h e a l i n g materials; capsules with emergency lubricants; wax-filled capsules with a heat- insulating effect; corrosion prevention • Market Potential Established mass- produced item; a large number of new products and applications in the next few years
  25. 25. Fluorescent light-emitting materials November 2, 2003 | Siemens researcher Wolfgang Rossner studies new fluorescent light-emitting materials. Development of the materials has been accelerated thanks to the use of simulation and automated robotic testing. These technologies have made it possible to test some 150,000 material combinations in only two years. Until recently, two decades would have been required to achieve the same result.