Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

  1. 1. 1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 8<br />Pagans, Christians, and Jews:<br />The Art of Late Antiquity<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Europe and the Near East in Late Antiquity<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the influence of religion in the art of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity.
  4. 4. Examine the art forms and architecture of Late Antiquity.
  5. 5. Understand the concept of “synchonism” in early Christian art.
  6. 6. Understand the different media used to create early Christian art.
  7. 7. Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period.  </li></li></ul><li>4<br />The Art of Late Antiquity<br /><ul><li>Understand the influence of religion in the art of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity.
  8. 8. Understand how Roman art and architecture is changed as a result of Christianity and the decisions of Constantine.
  9. 9. Relate influences of specific images of Christ.
  10. 10. Understand the different media used to create early Christian art, particularly frescoes.
  11. 11. Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />“Late Antique Pagan” Roman Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the influence of religion in the art of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity.
  12. 12. Understand how Roman art and architecture is changed as a result of Christianity and the decisions of Constantine.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Figure 8-2 Reconstruction of the Christian community house at Dura-Europos, Syria, ca. 240–256.<br />
  13. 13. 7<br />Figure 8-1 Interior of the synagogue at Dura-Europos, Syria, with wall-paintings of Old Testament themes, ca. 245–256. Tempera on plaster. Reconstruction in National Museum, Damascus.<br />
  14. 14. 8<br />
  15. 15. 9<br />Early Christian Images<br /><ul><li>Relate influences of specific images of Christ.
  16. 16. Understand the different media used to create early Christian art, particularly frescoes.</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Loculi<br />cubicula<br />
  17. 17. 11<br />Figure 8-3 The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century.<br />
  18. 18. 12<br />Figure 8-4 Sarcophagus with philosopher, orant, and Old and New Testament scenes, Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome, Italy, ca. 270. Marble, 1’ 11 1/4” X 7’ 2”.<br />
  19. 19. 13<br />Figure 8-5 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, from Rome, Italy, ca. 359. Marble, 3’ 10 1/2” X 8’. Museo Storico del Tesoro della Basilica di San Pietro, Rome.<br />
  20. 20. 14<br />Artistic Changes and Constantine<br /><ul><li>Understand how and why religious ideas are expressed in art of the Early Christian period.
  21. 21. Understand the origins and development of specific images of Christ.
  22. 22. Cite illustrations of religious architecture and their origins, particularly the basilica.
  23. 23. Understand the media, methods and techniques used to create art, especially mosaics, in the Early Christian period.
  24. 24. Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period </li></li></ul><li>15<br />The Expression of Religious Ideas<br /><ul><li>Understand how and why religious ideas are expressed in art of the Early Christian period.
  25. 25. Understand the origins and development of specific images of Christ.</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Figure 8-6 Christ seated, from Civita Latina, Italy, ca. 350–375. Marble, approx. 2’ 4 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.<br />
  26. 26. 17<br />Figure 8-7 Restored view (a), plan (b), and section (c) of Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, Italy, begun ca. 320. (The restoration of the forecourt is conjectural.)<br />
  27. 27. 18<br />Figure 8-8 Interior of Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy, 422–432.<br />
  28. 28. 19<br />Early Religious Architecture<br /><ul><li>Cite illustrations of religious architecture and their origins, particularly the basilica.
  29. 29. Examine the ‘basilica plan’ and ‘central plan’ developments of early church architecture.</li></li></ul><li>20<br />Figure 8-9 Interior of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, ca. 337–351.<br />
  30. 30. 21<br />Figure 8-10 Longitudinal section (top) and plan (bottom) of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, ca. 337–351.<br />
  31. 31. 22<br />Figure 8-11 Detail of vault mosaic in the ambulatory of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, ca. 337–351.<br />
  32. 32. 23<br />Figure 8-12 Christ as Sol Invictus, detail of a vault mosaic in the Mausoleum of the Julii, Rome, Italy, late third century.<br />
  33. 33. 24<br />Media, Methods and Techniques<br /><ul><li>Understand the media, methods and techniques used to create art, especially mosaics, in the Early Christian period.
  34. 34. Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period </li></li></ul><li>25<br />Figure 8-13 The parting of Lot and Abraham, mosaic in the nave of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, Italy, 432–440.<br />
  35. 35. 26<br />Figure 8-14 Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425.<br />
  36. 36. 27<br />Rome and Ravenna<br /><ul><li>Examine the enduring influence of the classical pagan world in the Christian art of Rome.
  37. 37. Cite illustrations of early Church architecture, their origins and development, particularly in Ravenna
  38. 38. Understand the new aesthetic informing the art and how it is different from the art of the classical period.
  39. 39. Understand the different media and forms used to create early Christian art, particularly illuminated manuscripts.
  40. 40. Know and cite artistic and architectural terminology from the period</li></li></ul><li>28<br />Changes in Rome and Ravenna<br /><ul><li>Examine the enduring influence of the classical pagan world in the Christian art of Rome.
  41. 41. Cite illustrations of early Church architecture, their origins and development, particularly in Ravenna</li></li></ul><li>29<br />Figure 8-15 Christ as the Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425.<br />
  42. 42. 30<br />Figure 8-16 Interior of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, dedicated 504.<br />
  43. 43. 31<br />Figure 8-17 Miracle of the loaves and fishes, mosaic from the top register of the nave wall (above the clerestory windows) of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 504.<br />
  44. 44. 32<br />New Aesthetics and Media<br /><ul><li>Understand the new aesthetic informing the art and how it is different from the art of the classical period.
  45. 45. Understand the different media and forms used to create early Christian art, particularly illuminated manuscripts.</li></li></ul><li>33<br />Figure 8-19 Rebecca and Eliezer at the well, folio 7 recto of the Vienna Genesis, early sixth century. Tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum, approx. 1’ 1/4” X 9 1/4”. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.<br />
  46. 46. 34<br />Figure 8-20 Christ before Pilate, folio 8 verso of the Rossano Gospels, early sixth century. Tempera on purple vellum, approx. 11” X 10 1/4”. Diocesan Museum, Archepiscopal Palace, Rossano.<br />
  47. 47. 35<br />Figure 8-22 Woman sacrificing at an altar, right leaf of the Diptych of the Nicomachi and the Symmachi, ca. 400. Ivory, 11 3/4” X 5 1/2”. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.<br />
  48. 48. 36<br />Figure 8-21 Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion of Christ, plaque from a box, ca. 420. Ivory, 3” X 3 7/8”. British Museum, London.<br />
  49. 49. 37<br />Discussion Questions<br /><ul><li>Why are the wall paintings at Dura Europos important to understanding the art of the Late Antique (Roman) and Early Christian time periods?
  50. 50. What visual characteristics of earlier pagan funerary art are seen in Christian art from this period? Does the context change?
  51. 51. What might one speculate as reasons for the absence of a crucified Christ in Early Christian art?</li>

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