1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 7 <br />From Seven Hills to Three Continents:<b...
2<br />The Roman World<br />
3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to ...
Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.
Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
Understand what Roman portraiture says about Roman society.
Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the empero...
Examine changes in Roman art and architecture as a result of expansion of the Roman Empire and the incorporation of the co...
Discuss Roman architectural contributions, particularly concrete and the rounded arch.
Examine the ways in which Roman art is different from the classical art of the Greeks.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Roman Arch...
7<br />Figure 7-2  Temple of “Fortuna Virilis” (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE.<br />
8<br />Figure 7-3 Temple of Vesta (?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE.<br />
9<br />Figure 7-5  Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1 1/2...
10<br />Figure 7-6  Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE. Limestone, a...
11<br />Sculpture and Republican Verism<br /><ul><li>Examine the early funerary sculpture of the Roman culture.
Understand the form and purpose of Roman portraiture.</li></li></ul><li>12<br />Figure 7-7  Head of a Roman patrician, fro...
13<br />The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architec...
Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life.
Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant.
Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops.</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Rom...
Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant.</li></li></ul><li>15...
16<br />Figure 7-12  Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE. App...
17<br />Figure 7-13  Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE.<br />
18<br />Roman Wall Painting<br /><ul><li>Examine and compare the four styles of Roman wall painting.</li></li></ul><li>19<...
20<br />Figure 7-15  Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompei...
21<br />Figure 7-16  Second Style wall paintings (general view and detail of tholos) from Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publ...
22<br />Figure 7-17  Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30–20 BCE. A...
23<br />Figure 7-18  Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from Cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotreca...
24<br />Figure 7-20  Fourth Style wall paintings in Room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 ...
25<br />Figure 7-21  Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (Triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Ita...
26<br />Figure 7-22  Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, ...
27<br />Figure 7-23  Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Appro...
28<br />Figure 7-24  Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 C...
29<br />Pax Romana and Augustus<br /><ul><li>Understand the nature of sculpture in the Roman Empire under Augustus. </li><...
31<br />Figure 7-27  Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. (View from the southwest).<br />
32<br />Figure 7-28  Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, ...
33<br />Figure 7-29  Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy,...
34<br />Figure 7-30  Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1–10 CE.<br />
35<br />Figure 7-31  Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE.<br />
36<br />Figure 7-34a  Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.<br />
37<br />Figure 7-34b  Detail, outer wall<br />
38<br />Figure 7-35  Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.<...
39<br />Figure 7-36  Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1” high. Museo Capi...
40<br />Figure 7-37  Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.<br />
41<br />Figure 7-38  Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7...
42<br />Figure 7-39  Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1...
43<br />1<br />3<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />5<br />6<br />Figure 7-41  Apollodorus of Damascus, model of Forum of Trajan, R...
44<br />High Empire ( 96 – 192 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especiall...
Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon.
Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it developed in the high Empire in Rome and in the colonies.
Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting. </li></li></ul><li>45<br />Art under Trajan in Spain, Africa, Italy<b...
Examine artistic development and formal changes, especially issues of space and narration in the Column of Trajan.</li></l...
47<br />Figure 7-43  APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.<br />
48<br />Figure 7-44  APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.<...
49<br />Figure 7-45  Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114–118 CE.<br />
50<br />Figure 7-46  Funerary relief of a circus official, from Ostia, Italy, ca. 110–130 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 8” high. ...
51<br />Architecture of the High Empire<br /><ul><li>Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets...
Explore the luxuries of Hadrian!</li></li></ul><li>52<br />Figure 7-47  Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, from Tel Shal...
53<br />Figure 7-48  Aerial view of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
54<br />Figure 7-49  Longitudinal and lateral sections of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
55<br />Figure 7-50  Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
56<br />Figure 7-51  Canopus and Serapeum, Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 130–138 CE.<br />
57<br />Figure 7-53  Model of an insula, Ostia, Italy, second century CE. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />
58<br />Figure 7-54  Ceiling and wall paintings in Room IV of the Insula of the Painted Vaults, Ostia, Italy, early third ...
59<br />Figure 7-55  Neptune and creatures of the sea, floor mosaic in the Baths of Neptune, Ostia, Italy, ca. 140 CE.<br />
60<br />Figure 7-56  Funerary reliefs of a vegetable vendor (left) and a midwife (right), from Ostia, Italy, second half o...
61<br />Figure 7-57  Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca....
62<br />Figure 7-58  Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 1 1/2...
63<br />Late Roman Sculpture and Painting<br /><ul><li>Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it devel...
Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting. </li></li></ul><li>64<br />Figure 7-60  Portrait of Marcus Aurelius, ...
65<br />Figure 7-61  Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, ca. 140–150 CE. Marble, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Cleveland Museum of Art...
66<br />Figure 7-63  Mummy portrait of a man, from Faiyum, Egypt, ca. 160–170 CE. Encaustic on wood, approx. 1’ 2” high. A...
67<br />Late Empire  (192-337 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art ...
Relate aspects of Roman culture and their influence in today's life.
Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire.
Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine.
Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds. </li></li></ul><li>68<br />Figur...
69<br />Figure 7-66  Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Lib...
70<br />Figure 7-70  Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, approx. 7’ 11” high. Met...
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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. 1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 7 <br />From Seven Hills to Three Continents:<br />The Art of Ancient Rome<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />The Roman World<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to the expanse of the Roman Empire.
  4. 4. Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.
  5. 5. Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
  6. 6. Understand what Roman portraiture says about Roman society.
  7. 7. Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.
  8. 8. Examine changes in Roman art and architecture as a result of expansion of the Roman Empire and the incorporation of the conquered cultures. </li></li></ul><li>4<br />The Republic (509-27 B.C.)<br /><ul><li>Understand the great innovations of Roman architecture and how these innovations contributed to the expanse of the Roman Empire.
  9. 9. Discuss Roman architectural contributions, particularly concrete and the rounded arch.
  10. 10. Examine the ways in which Roman art is different from the classical art of the Greeks.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Roman Architectural Innovations<br /><ul><li>Examine the contributions of the Romans in architecture. Consider structural elements as well as materials.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Figure 7-1 Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE. Rome, Museo della Civiltà Romana. 1) Temple of Fortuna Virilis, 2) Circus Maximus. 3) Palatine Hill, 4) Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 5) Pantheon, 6) Column of Trajan, 7) Forum of Trajan, 8) Market of Trajan, 9) Forum of Julius Ceasar, 10) Forum of Augustus, 11) Forum Romanum, 12) Basilica Nova, 13) Arch of Titus, 14) Temple of Venus and Roma, 15) Arch of Constantine, 16) Colossus of Nero, 17) Colosseum.<br />
  11. 11. 7<br />Figure 7-2 Temple of “Fortuna Virilis” (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE.<br />
  12. 12. 8<br />Figure 7-3 Temple of Vesta (?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE.<br />
  13. 13. 9<br />Figure 7-5 Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.<br />
  14. 14. 10<br />Figure 7-6 Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE. Limestone, approx. 2’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila.<br />
  15. 15. 11<br />Sculpture and Republican Verism<br /><ul><li>Examine the early funerary sculpture of the Roman culture.
  16. 16. Understand the form and purpose of Roman portraiture.</li></li></ul><li>12<br />Figure 7-7 Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Museo Torlonia, Rome.<br />
  17. 17. 13<br />The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture.
  18. 18. Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life.
  19. 19. Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant.
  20. 20. Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting.
  21. 21. Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops.</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Roman Architecture in Pompeii<br /><ul><li>Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life.
  22. 22. Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant.</li></li></ul><li>15<br />Figure 7-11 Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE.<br />
  23. 23. 16<br />Figure 7-12 Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE. Approx. 5’ 7” x 6’ 1”. Museo Nazionale, Naples.<br />
  24. 24. 17<br />Figure 7-13 Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE.<br />
  25. 25. 18<br />Roman Wall Painting<br /><ul><li>Examine and compare the four styles of Roman wall painting.</li></li></ul><li>19<br />Figure 7-14 First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE.<br />
  26. 26. 20<br />Figure 7-15 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Frieze approx. 5’ 4” high.<br />
  27. 27. 21<br />Figure 7-16 Second Style wall paintings (general view and detail of tholos) from Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Approx. 8’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.<br />
  28. 28. 22<br />Figure 7-17 Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30–20 BCE. Approx. 6’ 7” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.<br />
  29. 29. 23<br />Figure 7-18 Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from Cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Approx. 7’ 8” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.<br />
  30. 30. 24<br />Figure 7-20 Fourth Style wall paintings in Room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE.<br />
  31. 31. 25<br />Figure 7-21 Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (Triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE.<br />
  32. 32. 26<br />Figure 7-22 Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE.<br />
  33. 33. 27<br />Figure 7-23 Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Approx. 1’ 11” x 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Nazionale, Naples.<br />
  34. 34. 28<br />Figure 7-24 Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Approx. 1’ 2” x 1’ 1 1/2”. Museo Nazionale, Naples.<br />
  35. 35. 29<br />Pax Romana and Augustus<br /><ul><li>Understand the nature of sculpture in the Roman Empire under Augustus. </li></li></ul><li>30<br />Figure 7-25 Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.<br />
  36. 36. 31<br />Figure 7-27 Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. (View from the southwest).<br />
  37. 37. 32<br />Figure 7-28 Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high.<br />
  38. 38. 33<br />Figure 7-29 Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high.<br />
  39. 39. 34<br />Figure 7-30 Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1–10 CE.<br />
  40. 40. 35<br />Figure 7-31 Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE.<br />
  41. 41. 36<br />Figure 7-34a Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.<br />
  42. 42. 37<br />Figure 7-34b Detail, outer wall<br />
  43. 43. 38<br />Figure 7-35 Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.<br />
  44. 44. 39<br />Figure 7-36 Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.<br />
  45. 45. 40<br />Figure 7-37 Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.<br />
  46. 46. 41<br />Figure 7-38 Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7’ 10” high.<br />
  47. 47. 42<br />Figure 7-39 Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7’ 10” high.<br />
  48. 48. 43<br />1<br />3<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />5<br />6<br />Figure 7-41 Apollodorus of Damascus, model of Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. Reconstruction by James E. Packer and John Burge. 1) Temple of Trajan, 2) Column of Trajan, 3) Libraries, 4) Basilica Ulpia, 5) Forum, 6) Equestrian statue of Trajan.<br />
  49. 49. 44<br />High Empire ( 96 – 192 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.
  50. 50. Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon.
  51. 51. Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it developed in the high Empire in Rome and in the colonies.
  52. 52. Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting. </li></li></ul><li>45<br />Art under Trajan in Spain, Africa, Italy<br /><ul><li>Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire.
  53. 53. Examine artistic development and formal changes, especially issues of space and narration in the Column of Trajan.</li></li></ul><li>46<br />Figure 7-42 Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.<br />
  54. 54. 47<br />Figure 7-43 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.<br />
  55. 55. 48<br />Figure 7-44 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.<br />
  56. 56. 49<br />Figure 7-45 Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114–118 CE.<br />
  57. 57. 50<br />Figure 7-46 Funerary relief of a circus official, from Ostia, Italy, ca. 110–130 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.<br />
  58. 58. 51<br />Architecture of the High Empire<br /><ul><li>Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon.
  59. 59. Explore the luxuries of Hadrian!</li></li></ul><li>52<br />Figure 7-47 Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, from Tel Shalem, Israel, ca. 130–138 CE. Bronze, approx. 2’ 11” high. Israel Museum, Jerusalem.<br />
  60. 60. 53<br />Figure 7-48 Aerial view of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
  61. 61. 54<br />Figure 7-49 Longitudinal and lateral sections of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
  62. 62. 55<br />Figure 7-50 Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.<br />
  63. 63. 56<br />Figure 7-51 Canopus and Serapeum, Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 130–138 CE.<br />
  64. 64. 57<br />Figure 7-53 Model of an insula, Ostia, Italy, second century CE. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />
  65. 65. 58<br />Figure 7-54 Ceiling and wall paintings in Room IV of the Insula of the Painted Vaults, Ostia, Italy, early third century CE.<br />
  66. 66. 59<br />Figure 7-55 Neptune and creatures of the sea, floor mosaic in the Baths of Neptune, Ostia, Italy, ca. 140 CE.<br />
  67. 67. 60<br />Figure 7-56 Funerary reliefs of a vegetable vendor (left) and a midwife (right), from Ostia, Italy, second half of second century CE. Painted terracotta, approx. 1’ 5” and 11” high, respectively. Museo Ostiense, Ostia.<br />
  68. 68. 61<br />Figure 7-57 Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 1 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.<br />
  69. 69. 62<br />Figure 7-58 Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 1 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.<br />
  70. 70. 63<br />Late Roman Sculpture and Painting<br /><ul><li>Examine Roman portrait, memorial and funerary sculpture as it developed in the High Empire in Rome and in the colonies.
  71. 71. Understand the influences on Roman ‘mummy’ painting. </li></li></ul><li>64<br />Figure 7-60 Portrait of Marcus Aurelius, detail of a relief from a lost arch, Rome, Italy, ca. 175–180 CE. Marble, approx. life-size. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.<br />Figure 7-59 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, approx. 11’ 6” high. MuseiCapitolini, Rome.<br />
  72. 72. 65<br />Figure 7-61 Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, ca. 140–150 CE. Marble, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland.<br />
  73. 73. 66<br />Figure 7-63 Mummy portrait of a man, from Faiyum, Egypt, ca. 160–170 CE. Encaustic on wood, approx. 1’ 2” high. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo.<br />
  74. 74. 67<br />Late Empire (192-337 A.D.)<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art and architecture in the Late Empire period.
  75. 75. Relate aspects of Roman culture and their influence in today's life.
  76. 76. Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire.
  77. 77. Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine.
  78. 78. Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds. </li></li></ul><li>68<br />Figure 7-65 Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.<br />
  79. 79. 69<br />Figure 7-66 Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, approx. 5’ 6” high. Castle Museum, Tripoli.<br />
  80. 80. 70<br />Figure 7-70 Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, approx. 7’ 11” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.<br />
  81. 81. 71<br />Figure 7-71 Battle of Romans and barbarians (Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, approx. 5’ high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome.<br />
  82. 82. 72<br />Figure 7-72 Sarcophagus of a philosopher, ca. 270–280 CE. Marble, approx. 4’ 11” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.<br />
  83. 83. 73<br />Figure 7-74 Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, approx. 4’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice.<br />
  84. 84. 74<br />Figure 7-76 Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE (south side).<br />
  85. 85. 75<br />Figure 7-77 Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, approx. 3’ 4” high.<br />
  86. 86. 76<br />Changes in the Late Empire<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art and architecture in the Late Empire period.
  87. 87. Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire. </li></ul>From Constantine to the Modern World<br /><ul><li>Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine.
  88. 88. Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds.</li></li></ul><li>77<br />Figure 7-78 Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 6” high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.<br />
  89. 89. 78<br />Figure 7-79 Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Italy, ca. 306–312 CE.<br />
  90. 90. 79<br />Figure 7-81 Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (interior).<br />
  91. 91. 80<br />Discussion Questions<br /><ul><li>What are some of the unique elements of Roman art and architecture that distinguish it from Greek and other art of the same time period?
  92. 92. In what ways does Roman art and architecture incorporate the arts of conquered peoples from England to Egypt?
  93. 93. What does the presence of veristic portrait art of the Romans say about Roman culture?
  94. 94. Why does the art under Constantine begin to move away from the verism of the High Empire?</li>

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