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Chapter 13


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Chapter 13

  1. 1. 1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 13<br />The Age of the Great Cathedrals:<br />Gothic Art<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Europe About 1200<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the origins and spread of the Gothic style.
  4. 4. Understand the changes in European religious concepts that make Gothic art and architecture possible.
  5. 5. Understand the art, architecture and architectural decoration of the Gothic style in France.
  6. 6. Examine the variations of the Gothic Style in England, Germany and Italy.
  7. 7. Examine the development of sculpture, book arts, and other media in the Gothic era.
  8. 8. Name and identify important Gothic cathedrals. </li></li></ul><li>4<br />French Gothic<br /><ul><li>Examine architecture and architectural decoration in the Gothic style.
  9. 9. Examine the basic architectural elements of the Gothic style.
  10. 10. Understand the religious attitude that makes the Gothic style desirable.
  11. 11. Examine the great Gothic Cathedrals of France.
  12. 12. Explore the art media used to express religious concepts in the Gothic era.
  13. 13. Explore sculpture, book illustration and luxury arts.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Abbott Suger and the Gothic Style<br /><ul><li>Understand the origins and spread of the Gothic style.
  14. 14. Examine the basic architectural elements and decoration.
  15. 15. Understand the religious attitude of the Gothic era.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Figure 13-2 Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144 (after Sumner Crosby).<br />Figure 13-1 Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144.<br />
  16. 16. 7<br />
  17. 17. 8<br />Figure 13-3 Vaults of the ambulatory and radiating chapels of the choir, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144.<br />
  18. 18. 9<br />The Chartres Cathedral<br /><ul><li>Examine the sculpture at the Chartres Cathedral.</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Figure 13-4 Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), Chartres, France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194.<br />
  19. 19. 11<br />Figure 13-6 Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.<br />
  20. 20. 12<br />Great Gothic Cathedrals<br /><ul><li>Examine the Gothic Cathedrals of France.</li></li></ul><li>13<br />Figure 13-7 West facade of Laon Cathedral, Laon, France, begun ca. 1190.<br />
  21. 21. 14<br />Figure 13-8 Interior of Laon Cathedral (view facing northeast), Laon, France, begun ca. 1190.<br />
  22. 22. 15<br />Figure 13-9 Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis Grodecki): (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens.<br />
  23. 23. 16<br />Figure 13-10 Notre-Dame (view from the south), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca. 1180–1200; remodeled after 1225.<br />
  24. 24. 17<br />Figure 13-11 Plan of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after 1194 (after Paul Frankl).<br />
  25. 25. 18<br />French Stained Glass Windows<br /><ul><li>Examine the stained glass windows, the materials, techniques, and the Gothic spiritual attitude about the light of God.</li></li></ul><li>19<br />Figure 13-13 Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière), window in the choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170, with 13th century side panels. Stained glass, 16’ X 7’ X 8”.<br />
  26. 26. 20<br />Figure 13-14 Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter.<br />
  27. 27. 21<br />Figure 13-15 Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230.<br />
  28. 28. 22<br />Gothic Interiors and Heights<br /><ul><li>Examine the interior of Gothic structures, Gothic rib vaulting and the extension of height.</li></li></ul><li>23<br />Figure 13-17 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, interior of Amiens Cathedral (view facing east), Amiens, France, begun 1220.<br />
  29. 29. 24<br />Figure 13-19 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, west facade of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220.<br />
  30. 30. 25<br />High Gothic Architecture<br /><ul><li>Understand how the builders at Reims and in Sainte-Chapelle carried the High Gothic style further both architecturally and sculpturally.</li></li></ul><li>26<br />Figure 13-21 West facade of Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1225–1290.<br />
  31. 31. 27<br />Figure 13-23 Interior of the upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248.<br />
  32. 32. 28<br />High Gothic Sculpture<br /><ul><li>Examine the classicizing forms and suggestion of portraits in the sculpture at the Reims Cathedral and in free standing sculpture.</li></li></ul><li>29<br />Figure 13-22 Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230.<br />
  33. 33. 30<br />Figure 13-24 Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), Notre-Dame, Paris, France, early fourteenth century.<br />
  34. 34. 31<br />Figure 13-26 Aerial view of the fortified town of Carcassonne, France. Bastions and towers, 12th–13th centuries, restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century.<br />
  35. 35. 32<br />Figure 13-27 Hall of the cloth guild, Bruges, Netherlands, begun 1230.<br />
  36. 36. 33<br />Figure 13-28 House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges, France, 1443–1451.<br />
  37. 37. 34<br />Figure 13-35 Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  38. 38. 35<br />Book Illumination in the Gothic Era<br /><ul><li>Examine the art of illumination and book manufacture, especially the creation of prayer books and Bibles in the Gothic era.</li></li></ul><li>36<br />Figure 13-31 Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.<br />
  39. 39. 37<br />Figure 13-32 Abraham and the three angels, folio 7 verso of the Psalter of Saint Louis, from Paris, France, 1253–1270. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 5” X 3 1/2”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.<br />
  40. 40. 38<br />Figure 13-33 MASTER HONORÉ, David anointed by Samuel and battle of David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of the Breviary of Philippe le Bel, from Paris, France, 1296. Ink and tempera on vellum, 7 7/8” X 4 7/8”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.<br />
  41. 41. 39<br />Figure 13-34 JEAN PUCELLE, David before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2” X 6 3/4”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.<br />
  42. 42. 40<br />The Gothic Style in England<br /><ul><li>Understand the decorated and perpendicular variations of the Gothic style in England.
  43. 43. Examine the complex tombs of royalty and other art forms in Gothic England.</li></li></ul><li>41<br />The Gothic Cathedral in England<br /><ul><li>Examine the decorated and perpendicular qualities of the English cathedrals.</li></li></ul><li>42<br />Figure 13-38 Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.<br />
  44. 44. 43<br />Figure 13-39 Interior of Salisbury Cathedral (view facing east), Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.Compare with Laon, above<br />
  45. 45. 44<br />Figure 13-41 ROBERT and WILLIAM VERTUE, Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London, England, 1503–1519.<br />
  46. 46. 45<br />The Gothic Tomb in England<br /><ul><li>Examine the distinctive and complex sculpture displayed in the tomb of Edward II. </li></li></ul><li>46<br />Figure 13-42 Tomb of Edward II, Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England, ca. 1330–1335.<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />The Gothic Style in Germany<br /><ul><li>Understand the building of the Cologne Cathedral and its emphasis on height.
  48. 48. Examine the structure and origins of the German Hallenkirke and why it differs from the French-influenced Gothic.
  49. 49. Examine the emotional expression and drama of the German Gothic sculpture.
  50. 50. Explore the complex altars, shrines, and reliquaries of the German Gothic.</li></li></ul><li>48<br />The Cologne Cathedral<br /><ul><li>Examine the Gothic architectural elements of the Cologne Cathedral.</li></li></ul><li>49<br />Figure 13-44 Gerhard of Cologne, aerial view of Cologne Cathedral (from the south), Cologne, Germany, begun 1248; nave, facade, and towers completed 1880.<br />
  51. 51. 50<br />Figure 13-45 GERHARD OF COLOGNE, Choir of Cologne Cathedral (view facing east), Cologne, Germany, completed 1322.<br />
  52. 52. 51<br />Figure 13-47 Interior of Saint Elizabeth (view facing west), Marburg, Germany, 1235–1283.<br />
  53. 53. 52<br />Figure 13-48 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France, ca. 1230.<br />
  54. 54. 53<br />German Gothic Sculpture<br /><ul><li>Examine the humanizing trend in German Gothic sculpture, as well as the dramatic poses and gestures. </li></li></ul><li>54<br />Figure 13-49 Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany, ca. 1249–1255. Painted limestone, approx. 6’ 2” high.<br />
  55. 55. 55<br />Figure 13-50 Equestrian portrait (Bamberg Rider), statue in the east choir, Bamberg Cathedral, Germany, ca. 1235–1240. Sandstone, 7’ 9” high.<br />
  56. 56. 56<br />Figure 13-51 Virgin with the Dead Christ (Röttgen Pietà), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300–1325. Painted wood, 2’ 10 1/2” high. Rheinisches Landemuseum, Bonn.<br />
  57. 57. 57<br />Figure 13-52 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 3’ 6 3/4” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg.<br />
  58. 58. 58<br />Figure 13-53 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, Sacrifice of Isaac, detail of the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 5 1/2” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg.<br />
  59. 59. 59<br />Figure 13-54 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, Shrine of the Three Kings, from Cologne Cathedral, Cologne, Germany, begun ca. 1190. Silver, bronze, enamel, and gemstones, 5’ 8” X 6’ X 3’ 8”. Cathedral Treasury, Cologne.<br />
  60. 60. 60<br />The Gothic Style in Italy<br /><ul><li>Understand reasons for the regional diversity of the Gothic style in Italy.
  61. 61. Understand the relationship of the Gothic style to earlier Romanesque, Early Christian, and Classical styles.
  62. 62. Examine the horizontality and surface decorations of the Italian Gothic cathedrals.</li></li></ul><li>61<br />Gothic Variations in Italy<br /><ul><li>Examine the regional variations of the Gothic style which developed in Italy, especially in the Orvieto and Milan cathedrals.</li></li></ul><li>62<br />Figure 13-55 LORENZO MAITANI, west facade of Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, begun 1310.<br />
  63. 63. 63<br />Figure 13-57 Milan Cathedral (view from the southwest), Milan, Italy, begun 1386.<br />
  64. 64. 64<br />Discussion Questions<br /><ul><li>What are the key architectural and decorative elements of the Gothic cathedrals?
  65. 65. How would you compare sculpture in the Gothic era to the earlier Romanesque sculpture? What are the reasons for the differences?
  66. 66. Consider a person’s reaction in 14th-century upon viewing a Gothic cathedral for the first time. What might the reaction be to viewing an enormous building supported by glass walls?</li>