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A Whole New Mind
Utility and Significance

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  1. 1. Chapter Four<br />DESIGN<br />Utility<br />and Significance<br />
  2. 2. DESIGN<br />Utility and Significance<br />Chapter Four<br />
  3. 3. Bad DesignCreates Confusion<br />5,237 Palm Beach County voters marked ballots for Al Gore and Pat Buchanan,<br />and had their votes invalidated. Bush carried the entire state by 537 votes. <br />
  4. 4. Perhaps Changed The Outcome of an Election<br />
  5. 5. Gordon MacKenzieHallmark Cards<br />“How many artists are in the room?”<br />Kindergarten & 1st Grades: All hands went up<br />2nd Grade: ¾ of a class raised their hands<br />3rd Grade: Only a few hands were raised<br />6th Grade: No hands were raised <br />Is art a deviant behavior? How little the wider world valued their work.<br />
  6. 6. The Importance of Design<br />“The wealth of nations and well-being of individuals now depend on having artists in the room.” (pg. 69)<br />“…today we must all be designers.” (pg. 69)<br />
  7. 7. What Is Design<br />It’s not just to make things look better.<br />“Design, stripped to its essence, can be defined as the human nature to shape and make our environment in ways without precedent in nature, to serve our needs and give meaning to our lives.” John Heskett (pg. 69)<br />Everything in your midst has been designed. <br />It is a whole-minded aptitude.<br />
  8. 8. What Is Design<br />
  9. 9. GREAT DESIGN<br />
  10. 10. Design: Utility & SignificanceJohn Heskett<br />Example: A Brochure<br />Utility: Easy To Read<br />Significance: Transmit ideas or emotions that words cannot convey.<br />
  11. 11. Design: Utility & SignificanceJohn Heskett<br />Example: A Table<br />Utility: Stands/Supports Weight<br />Significance: Must possess an aesthetic appeal that transcends functionality.<br />
  12. 12. Think of a Place Where Utility And Significance Meet <br />Going GaGa Over Good Design<br />The Design Mecca <br />
  13. 13. Design<br />Utility<br />Left Brain Directed Thinking<br />Significance<br />Right Brain Directed Thinking<br />
  14. 14. Utility<br />Left Brain Directed Thinking<br />“Has become widespread, inexpensive, and relatively easy to achieve – which has increased the value of significance.”<br />Significance<br />Right Brain Directed Thinking<br />“Design-that is, utility enhanced by significance-has become an essential aptitude for personal fulfillment and professional success for at least three reasons.”<br />Page 70<br />Page 70<br />
  15. 15. 3 Reasons<br />Reason One<br />“…Thanks to rising prosperity and advanced technology, good design is now more accessible than ever, which allows more people to partake in it’s pleasures and become connoisseurs of what was once specialized knowledge.”<br />Page 70<br />
  16. 16. 3 Reasons<br />Reason Two<br />“…In an age of material abundance, design has become crucial for most modern businesses-as a means of differentiation and as a way to create new markets.”<br />Page 70<br />
  17. 17. 3 Reasons<br />Reason Three<br />“…As people develop a design sensibility, we’ll increasingly be able to deploy design for its ultimate purpose: changing the world.”<br />Page 70<br />
  18. 18. CHADCharter High School for Architecture<br />The Aim<br />“…To use design to teach core academic subjects.” (pg. 71)<br />“Design is interdisciplinary. We’re producing people who can think holistically.” (pg.72)<br />
  19. 19. “Good design is a renaissance attitude that combines technology, cognitive science, human need, and beauty to produce something that the world didn’t know it was missing.”<br />The Aim<br />-Paola Antonelli,<br />Curator of Architecture<br />And Design, Museum of Modern Art<br />Page 72<br />
  20. 20. CHADCharter High School for Architecture<br />The Result<br /> “We’re building an awareness in students of what design is and how it can affect their lives. I see the design curriculum as providing a modern version of a liberal arts education for these kids.” (pg. 74)-Christina Alverez, Deputy Principal CHAD<br />
  21. 21. CHADCharter High School for Architecture<br />The Significance<br /> “No matter what path these students pursue, their experience at this school will enhance their ability to solve problems, understand others, and appreciate the world around them-essential abilities in the Conceptual Age.”<br />Page 74<br />
  22. 22. The Significance<br /> “Design in its simplest form is the activity of creating solutions. Design is something that everyone does every day.”<br />-Frank Nuovo,<br />Nokia Cell Phone Designer<br />Page 75<br />Design<br />
  23. 23. The Democracy of Design<br />Design– Often reserved for the elite<br />The Past – A specialized Domain<br />Today– We can choose<br />What was chosen for us in the past, is now within our ability to choose.<br />
  24. 24. Design Awareness<br />Match the font on the left with the correct font name on the right.<br />A Whole New Mind a. Times New Roman<br />2.A Whole New Mind b. Arial<br />3. A Whole New Mindc. Courier New<br />
  25. 25. The Democracy of DesignWe live and work in a new habitat<br />Computer Literacy: We have learned to distinguish many different typefaces.<br />Design Within Reach: Mission – to bring great design to the masses.<br />Target: Obliterating the distinction between high fashion and mass merchandise.<br />
  26. 26. “Aesthetics Matter<br />Attractive Things Work Better.”<br />
  27. 27. Sony has 400 in-house designers.<br />63 designers on the staff of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.<br />Uncle Sam: The General Services Administration has a “Design Excellence” program that aims to turn drab federal facilities into places more pleasant work in and more beautiful to view.<br />In 2004, the U.S. State Department declared that it was replacing the font it had used for years – Courier New 12 – and replacing it with Times New Roman 14.<br />The Mainstreaming of Design Has Infiltrated Beyond The Commercial Realm.<br />Page 77<br />
  28. 28. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />The Democratization of design has altered the competitive logic of business.<br />Companies traditionally have competed on price or quality, or some combination of the two.<br />Today decent quality and reasonable price have quickly become … the entry ticket for being allowed into the marketplace.<br />Page 77<br />
  29. 29. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />Once companies have satisfied the functional and financial qualities they must move onto the ineffable qualities such as whimsy, beauty, and meaning.<br />“Businesspeople don’t need to understand designers better. They need to be better designers.”<br />-Roger Martin, Dean,<br />Rotman School of Management<br />Page 78<br />
  30. 30. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />“Manufacturers have begun to recognize that we can’t compete with the pricing structure and labor costs of the Far East. So how can we compete? It has to be with design.”<br />“At Sony, we assume that all products of our competitors have basically the same technology, price, performance, and features. Design is the only thing that differentiates one product from another in the marketplace.”<br />-Paul Thompson, Director,<br />Cooper-Hewitt Museum in NY<br />-Norio Ohga, Former Chairman,<br />Sony Corporation<br />Page 78<br />
  31. 31. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />For every percent of sales invested in product design, a company’s sales and profits rise by an average of 3 or 4 percent.<br />Stocks of companies that place a heavy emphasis on design outperform the stocks of their less design-centered counterparts by a wide margin.<br />Page 78-79<br />
  32. 32. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />The Auto industry<br />Design - a key principle for consumer decisions. GM – Designers made equal with engineers. (Bob Lutz)<br />U.S. automakers have learned that a focus on only science and engineering in the 1960’s neglected the importance of design.<br />“You need to differentiate or you cannot survive. I think designers have a sixth sense, an antenna, that allows them to accomplish this better than other professionals.” (Anne Asenio, Design Director, GM)<br />BMW – “We don’t make automobiles, we make moving works of art that express the driver’s love of quality.” (Chris Bangle)<br />Page 79<br />
  33. 33. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />Kitchens – The Toaster Problem<br /><ul><li> Used 15 minutes per day
  34. 34. Not used 1,425 minutes of the day
  35. 35. In other words, 1 percent of the toaster’s time is devoted to utility, while 99 percent is devoted to significance.
  36. 36. Why shouldn’t the toaster look beautiful?</li></ul>Page 80<br />
  37. 37. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />The Cell Phone<br /><ul><li> In less than a decade, cell phones have gone from being a luxury to being a necessity for most.
  38. 38. They’ve morphed from “logical devices” (speed & specialized function) to “emotional devices” (expressive, customizable, & fanciful).
  39. 39. Consumers now spend nearly as much on decorative (nonfunctional) faceplates for their cell phones as they do on the cell phones themselves.
  40. 40. 2005, 4 Billion worth of ring tones were purchased.</li></ul>Page 80-81<br />
  41. 41. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />Design – Create New Markets<br /><ul><li>The forces of Abundance, Asia, and Automation turn goods and services into commodities so quickly that the only way to survive is by constantly developing new innovations, inventing new categories, and giving the world something it didn’t know it was missing.</li></ul>Page 81<br />
  42. 42. Design Means Business/Business Means Design<br />Design = Prosperity<br /><ul><li>“Design correctly harnessed can enhance life, create jobs, and make people happy – not such a bad thing.”</li></ul>-Paul Smith,<br />Fashion Designer<br />Page 79<br />
  43. 43. Designing Our Future<br />Good Design Can Change The World.<br />Bad Design Can Also Change The World.<br />“It’s not true that what is useful is beautiful. It is what is beautiful that is useful. Beauty can improve people’s way of life and thinking.”<br />-Anna CastelliFerrieri,<br />Furniture Designer<br />
  44. 44. Designing Our Future<br />Health Care: Hospitals<br />Surgery patients with ample natural light in their recovery rooms required less pain medication (drug costs were 21% lower).<br /> Patients in a modern, sunlit ward need less pain medication and are discharged on average nearly two days earlier than those in a less inviting ward.<br />A redesigning of facilities to include greater amounts of natural light, privacy, comfort, and gardens speed the healing process.<br />Page 81-82<br />
  45. 45. Designing Our Future<br />Public School and Public Housing<br />A Georgetown University study found that improving a school’s physical environment could increase test scores by as much as 11 percent.<br />Public housing, notorious for its abominable aesthetics, may be in the very early stages of a renaissance: Chelsea Court in New York City. <br />Page 82<br />
  46. 46. Chelsea Court Apartments In New York City<br /> The lives of the inhabitants are open to the street, the internal garden and to the community around them. The &quot;blue ribbon&quot; of translucent glass on the street front travels inside the skewed public corridor in the form of metallic blue display niches, past a cubic metallic blue and green security desk and up the chromatically sequenced glazed concrete masonry blocks of the stairwells. Indoors and outdoors merge; the roof garden is part of the apartments and the street is part of the office. An art wall displaying a 2&apos;x 25&apos; photomural of an outdoor image of Coney Island runs through the interior public corridor.<br /><br />
  47. 47. Chelsea Court Apartments In New York City<br />
  48. 48. Chelsea Court Apartments In New York City<br />
  49. 49. Designing Our Future<br />Elections and Voting<br />The 2000 election<br />36 Day Confusion over who won the most votes in Florida: George W. Bush or Al Gore.<br />According to an exhaustive examination of all of Florida&apos;s ballots that several newspapers and academics conducted a year after the election – what determined who won the election was this: <br />
  50. 50. Bad Design<br />5,237 Palm Beach County voters marked ballots for both Al Gore and Pat Buchanan, and therefore had their ballots invalidated. Bush carried the entire state by 537 votes.<br />
  51. 51. Designing Our Future<br />Less well known is the ballot in Duval County in which the presidential ballot showed five candidates on one page and another five candidates on the next page, along with instructions to “vote every page.” In that county, 7,162 Gore ballots were tossed out because voters selected two candidates for President. Had the instructions been clearer, Duval County too, would have provided Gore the margin of victory.<br />Page 85<br />
  52. 52. Designing Our Future<br />Voters’ confusion with ballot instruction and design and voting machines appears to have changed the course of U. S. history. Had Palm Beach County had a few artists in the room when it was designing its ballot, the course of U. S. History would likely have been different.<br />Page 85<br />
  53. 53. Designing Our Future<br />Design is a high-concept aptitude that is difficult to outsource or automate – and that increasingly confers a competitive advantage in business. Good design, now more accessible than ever, also offers us a chance to bring pleasure, meaning, and beauty to our lives. But most important, cultivating a design sensibility can make our small planet a better place for us all. “To be a designer is to be an agent of change.”<br />Page 86<br />
  54. 54. DESIGN<br />The End<br />Utility and Significance<br />Chapter Four<br />