Ugc net-tourism-tourism introduction


Published on

Published in: Education, Travel, Business

Ugc net-tourism-tourism introduction

  1. 1. Tourism Introduction@ Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. 2. Definition"Tourism is a collection of activities, services andindustries which deliver a travel experiencecomprising transportation, accommodation, eatingand drinking establishments, retailshops, entertainment businesses and otherhospitality services provided for individuals orgroups traveling away from home""The sum of the phenomena and relationshipsarising from the interaction of tourists, businesssuppliers, host governments and host communitiesin the process of attracting and hosting thesetourists and other visitors"-Macintosh and GoeldnerRtist @ Tourism, PU
  3. 3. First Definition for TourismThe first definition of tourism was made byGuyer Feuler in 1905.UNWTO Definition of Tourism"Tourism comprises the activities of personstraveling to and staying in places outside theirusual environment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business and otherpurposes."Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  4. 4. • Tourism is different from travel• In order for tourism to happen, there must be adisplacement• But all travel is not tourism.• Three criteria are used simultaneously in order tocharacterize a trip as belonging to tourism:– It involves a displacement outside the usual environment:– Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purposedifferent from being remunerated from within the placevisited: the previous limits, where tourism was restrictedto recreation and visiting family and friends are nowexpanded to include a vast array of purposes;– Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not aminimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without anovernight stay. Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  5. 5. • Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or businesspurposes.• The World Tourism Organization defines– tourists as people "traveling to and staying in placesoutside their usual environment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business and otherpurposes".• Tourism has become a popular global leisureactivity.• In 2011, there were over 983 million internationaltourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of4.6% when compared to 940 million in 2010.• International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to anincrease in real terms of 3.8% from 2010Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  6. 6. • In 2011, international travel demand continued torecover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strongslowdown from the second half of 2008 through theend of 2009.• After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growthin international tourist arrivals moved into negativeterritory in the second half of 2008, and ended uponly 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in2007.• The negative trend intensified during2009, exacerbated in some countries due to theoutbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in aworldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 millioninternational tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline ininternational tourism receipts.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  7. 7. • It was recognized in the Manila Declaration on WorldTourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life ofnations because of its direct effects on thesocial, cultural, educational and economic sectors ofnational societies and on their international relations."• Tourism brings in large amounts of income in payment forgoods and services available, accounting for 30% of theworlds exports of services, and 6% of overall exports ofgoods and services.• It also creates opportunities for employment in theservice sector of the economy, associated with tourism.• These service industries include transportationservices, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs;hospitality services, such as accommodations, includinghotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such asamusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venuesand theatres Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  8. 8. Etymology• Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word touris derived from the Latin, tornare and theGreek, tornos, meaning a lathe or circle; the movementaround a central point or axis.• This meaning changed in modern English to represent onesturn.• The suffix –ism is defined as an action or process; typicalbehaviour or quality, while the suffix, –ist denotes one thatperforms a given action.• When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist arecombined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle.• One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, whichultimately returns back to its beginning.• Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is around-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to theoriginal starting point, and therefore, one who takes such ajourney can be called a tourist."Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  9. 9. • In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism aspeople who travel "the sum of the phenomena andrelationships arising from the travel and stay ofnon-residents, insofar as they do not lead topermanent residence and are not connected withany earning activity.“• In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englands definitionwas: "Tourism is the temporary, short-termmovement of people to destination outside theplaces where they normally live and work and theiractivities during the stay at each destination. Itincludes movements for all purposes.“• In 1981, the International Association of ScientificExperts in Tourism defined tourism in terms ofparticular activities selected by choice andundertaken outside the homeRtist @ Tourism, PU
  10. 10. In 1994, the United Nations classified threeforms of tourism in its Recommendationson Tourism Statistics:–Domestic tourism, involving residents of thegiven country traveling only within thiscountry.–Inbound tourism, involving non-residentstraveling in the given country.–Outbound tourism, involving residentstraveling in another country.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  11. 11. World tourism statistics and rankings• Most-visited countries by international tourist arrivals– The World Tourism Organization reports the following tencountries as the most visited in terms of the number ofinternational travellers. In 2011, Turkey overtook the UK tobecome the sixth most visited country.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  12. 12. International tourism receipts• International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.• The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the topten tourism earners for the year 2011, with the United States by far thetop earnerRtist @ Tourism, PU
  13. 13. International tourism expenditure• The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries asthe top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year2011.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  14. 14. Most-visited cities by international tourist arrivalsRtist @ Tourism, PU
  16. 16. CLASSIFYING TOURISTS• By Product– Mass Tourism: Package tour– Alternative Tourism:EcotourismBy nature of the activity– Active: Adventuretourism, Ecotourism, Golf– Passive:Sightseeing, Beach, Cruise• Location preference– Coastal, Rural, City, Mountains, Lakes• Duration of trip– Day trip, weekendtrip, annual holiday• Psychographic– Allocentric– Mid-centric– Psychocentric• By age/socio-economicgroup– Backpackers– DINKS– SINKS– Empty Nesters– Boomers– YouthsRtist @ Tourism, PU
  17. 17. Tourist Typologies• Dalen (1989)– Traditional Materialists– Traditional Idealists– Modern Materialists– Modern Idealists• American Express (1989)– Adventurers– Worries– Dreamers– Economizers– Indulgers• Valene Smith– Explorers– Elite Tourists– Offbeat tourists– Unusual tourists– Incipient mass tourists– Mass Tourists• Perreault &Dorden (1979)– Budget tourists– Adventure tourists– Homebody tourists– Vacationer– Moderates• Cohen (1972)– Recreational tourists– Diversionary tourists– Experimental tourists– Experiential tourists– Existential tourists• Gray (1970)– Wanderlust– Sunlust• Plog (1977)– Psychocentric– Allocentric• Peters Inventory of Tourist attractions– Cultural attractions– Traditional attractions– Scenic attractions– Entertainment attractions– Other attractions• Iso Ahola– Push-Pull Factors• Cooper Tourism Demand– Life Cycle Factors– Life style FactorsRtist @ Tourism, PU
  18. 18. Tourism Theories• Leiper’s Tourism System Model (1990)• Stanley plog’s model of Destination preferences• Stanley Plog’s psychographics model (1974)• Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC - 1980)• Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex - 1975)• Matheison and Wall Travel – Buying BehaviorModel (1982)Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  19. 19. Tourism System• Leiper’s model, which was suggested in 1979 andadapted in 1990Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  20. 20. Stanley plog’s Tourist model of Destination preferences (1980)• Smith(1990) argued that the allocentric-psychocentric model fails tosupport the hypothesized association between personality typesand destination preferences.• Litvin (2006) tested Plog’s model by showing that ideal destinationand the destination most recently visited differ.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  21. 21. Stanley Plog’s psychographics model (1967)Allocentric Near AllocentricMid - CentricNear Psychocentric PsychocentricRtist @ Tourism, PU
  22. 22. Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC - 1980)Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  23. 23. Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex - 1975)Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  24. 24. Matheison and Wall Travel – Buying Behavior Model (1982)• Mathieson and Wall (1982) suggested a linear five-stage modelof travel buying behaviourFelt need/travel desireInformationcollectionandevaluationimageTraveldecision(choicebetweenalternatives)Travelpreparationand travelexperiencesTravelsatisfactionoutcomeandevaluationRtist @ Tourism, PU
  25. 25. Tourism TypologiesLeisure travel• Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – thefirst European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population.• Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economicoligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class• Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758• The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France,one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the longesplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; inmany other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotelshave names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic – reflecting thedominance of English customers.Winter tourism• Although it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing, it is welldocumented that St. Moritz, Graubünden became the cradle of the developing wintertourism; since that year of 1865 in St. Moritz,when many daring hotel managers chooseto risk opening their hotels in winter.• It was, however, only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead fromsummer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in winter, portions of up to onethird of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  26. 26. Mass tourism• Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements intechnology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a shortspace of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers ofpeople could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.• In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style wereat Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York.• Heiligendamm, founded in 1793, as the first seaside resort on the BalticSea.Adjectival tourism• Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel formsof tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its ownadjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourismindustry and academics.• Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage.Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include:Agritourism, Birth tourism, Culinary tourism, Cultural tourism, Extremetourism, Geotourism, Heritage tourism, LGBT tourism, Medicaltourism, Nautical tourism, Pop-culture tourism, Religious tourism, Sextourism, Slum tourism, War tourism, Wildlife tourismRtist @ Tourism, PU
  27. 27. Recent developments• There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few decades, especially inEurope, where international travel for short breaks is common.• Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotelshave developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beachvacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter resorts, family-orientedholidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.• The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism moreaffordable. On 28 April 2009 The Guardian noted that "the WHO estimates that up to500,000 people are on planes at any time.“• There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age peoplesustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Somesites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quotedfor a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.• There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks andterrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities.Also, on 26 December 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hitthe Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives werelost including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations, stopped orseverely hampered tourism in the area for a time.• The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travelhas a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The termstourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in thecultures or locations visited by tourists.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  28. 28. Sustainable tourism• "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such away that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining culturalintegrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems."(World Tourism Organization)• Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (WorldCommission on Environment and Development, 1987)• Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carryingcapacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourismdevelopment planning.• It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so asto mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of mass tourism. Murphy(1985) advocates the use of an ecological approach, to consider both plants andpeople when implementing the sustainable tourism development process.• This is in contrast to the boosterism and economic approaches to tourismplanning, neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts oftourism development to a destination.• However, Butler questions the exposition of the term sustainable in the context oftourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable developmentphilosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that apreoccupation with economic growth without regard to its social and environmentalconsequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus sustainable tourism developmentis seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separatefrom general economic growth.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  29. 29. EcotourismEcotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsibletravel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strivesto be low impact and (often) small scale.• It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation;directly benefits the economic development and politicalempowerment of local communities; and fosters respect fordifferent cultures and for human rights.Pro-poor tourism• Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people indeveloping countries, has been receiving increasing attention bythose involved in development; the issue has been addressedthrough small-scale projects in local communities and throughattempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers oftourists.• Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests thatneither is the best way to encourage tourists money to reach thepoorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reachesthe poorRtist @ Tourism, PU
  30. 30. Recession tourismRecession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way ofthe world economic crisis. Identified by Americanentrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism isdefined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place ofonce-popular generic retreats.Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boomduring the recession thanks to comparatively low costs ofliving and a slow world job market suggesting travelers areelongating trips where their money travels further.Medical tourismWhen there is a significant price difference between countriesfor a given medical procedure, particularly in SoutheastAsia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are differentregulatory regimes, in relation to particular medicalprocedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of theprice or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medicaltourism".Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  31. 31. Educational tourismEducational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching andlearning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of theclassroom environment.• In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includesvisiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student ExchangePrograms and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroomin a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.Creative tourismCreative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the earlybeginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the GrandTour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostlyinteractive, educational experiences.More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymondand Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and LeisureEducation (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the EuropeanCommission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism.They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participationof travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshopsand informal learning experiencesMeanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profileorganizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, haveendorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes anactive understanding of the specific cultural features of a place. More recently,creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism,Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  32. 32. • Dark tourismOne emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon andFoley (2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to"dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts ofgenocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains asmall niche market, driven by varied motivations, such asmourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or evenentertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medievalfairs• Doom tourismAlso known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" thisemerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally orotherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the meltingglaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is toolate. Identified by travel trade magazine TravelAge West editor-in-chiefKenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times, thistype of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend asrelated to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that anumber of these tourist destinations are considered threatened byenvironmental factors such as global warming, over population orclimate change. Others worry that travel to many of these threatenedlocations increases an individual’s carbon footprint and only hastensproblems threatened locations are already facing.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  33. 33. Growth• The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism willcontinue growing at the average annual rate of 4%.• With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the mosttraded items on the internet.• Tourism products and services have been made available throughintermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their servicesdirectly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditionalshops.• It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure percapita and the degree to which countries play in the global context.• Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, butalso as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage theresources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies.• This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of therelative influence that each country will exercise in the future.• Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, althoughcompared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain lowuntil technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap.• Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either onsolar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles.• Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built.On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floatingcities.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  34. 34. Sports tourism• Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such asrugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups haveenabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them inpackages that include flights, hotels and excursions.• The focus on sport and spreading knowledge on the subject, especially more sorecently, lead to the increase in the sport tourism.• Most notably, the international event such as the Olympics caused a shift in focus in theaudience who now realize the variety of sports that exist in the world. In the UnitedStates, one of the most popular sports that usually are focused on was Football.• This popularity was increased through major events like the World Cups. In Asiancountries, the numerous football events also increased the popularity of football. But, itwas the Olympics that brought together the different sports that lead to the increase insport tourism.• The drastic interest increase in sports in general and not just one sport caught theattention of travel companies, who then began to sell flights in packages.• Due to the low number of people who actually purchase these packages thanpredicted, the cost of these packages plummeted initially.• As the number start to rise slightly the packages increased to regain the lost profits. Withthe certain economic state, the number of purchases decreased once again.• The fluctuation in the number of packages sold was solely dependent on the economicsituation, therefore, most travel companies were forced to set aside the plan to executethe marketing of any new package features.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  35. 35. Latest trends• As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strongslowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7%during the first eight months of 2008.• This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the airtransport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3%growth in passenger traffic through September.• The hotel industry also reported a slowdown, with room occupancy declining. In2009 worldwide tourism arrivals decreased by 3.8%.By the first quarter of2009, real travel demand in the United States had fallen 6% over six quarters.While this is considerably milder than what occurred after the 9/11 attacks, thedecline was at twice the rate as real GDP has fallen.• However, evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomena shows no signsof substantially abating in the long term. Much literature, especially thatfollowing the Mobilities paradigm, suggests that travel is necessary in order tomaintain relationships, as social life is increasingly networked and conducted ata distance.• For many vacations and travel are increasingly being viewed as a necessityrather than a luxury, and this is reflected in tourist numbers recovering some6.6% globally over 2009, with growth up to 8% in emerging economies.Rtist @ Tourism, PU
  36. 36. Thank YouRtist @ Tourism, PU