Tourism Transportation


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Tourism Transportation

  1. 1. Transport in Tourism©Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. 2. Transportation• Vital relationship between transport and tourismdevelopment• For tourism development adequate and efficienttransportation is needed• Access to generating market• “the means to reach the destination and also themeans of movement in the destination” (Burkart &Medlik)• For geographical distribution world travelers anddomestic travelers• Get from home to tourist destination• Links tourist generation area with tourist destination2Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  3. 3. Dynamically changing needs and means• Ancient times– Horse– Horse carriage– Hand driven carriage– Boat• Modern times– Motor cars– Railways– Buses– Airways– Private automobiles• Many transport facilitiesused to transfer soldiersduring wars now used forgeneral purposes andtourism• Technologicaladvancement• Modern replaced the old3Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  4. 4. Land marks in Transport sector• Great eastern ship in 19th century by Isambard Kingdom Brunel• First Airplane was invented by wright brothers in 1903• Grand trunk road was constructed in 1540-45 by Shershah suri• First steamship invented in 1775 by JC pierrier• Cook transported 570 passengers from leicester toLoughborough in 1841• In 1841 Henry wells started as a Shipper for tourists – WellsFargo• Mass excursion started by Thomas Cook 1845 tourists travelledto Liverpool by train• Cook executed a tour to Europe in 1862• In 1894, first turbiane ship called Turbinia was developed byCharies Parsons• Luxury sea liner Titanic sank on Apr16, 1912, 1600 died• First ever single rotor Helicopter was made in 1939 by IgorSikorsky - Russia 4Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  5. 5. • First flight Imperial airways from Delhi to Cairo was madeon jan8, 1927• First air station was constructed in Delhi in 1927• First flying club at Delhi at 1928• Full fledged airport at Delhi in 1939-45• In 1910, first ever powered seaplane made by Henri Fabre• World’s longest sea vehicle is Arctic Snow Train belongs toUS army• First Trans-Alantic mail had bag of 192 letters in 1919• First train from Mubai –thane in 1953, 32km• 1984 Rakesh sharma on moon• Ashok leyland designed , EXUBA, vehicle 1912 based in2002• 2002 nedumbassery, first private international airport inIndia5Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  6. 6. Airlines• History– In December 1903, Wright Brothers - flew the first plane with a person– In 1908 Wright Brothers - airborne for 1½ hours.– In 1909 Wright Brothers - contract - US military, to build the firstmilitary plane.– In 1911 first flight across the United States, from Sheepshead Bay (NewYork) to Long Beach (California), was made by Calbriath Rodgers.– November 16, 1909 DELAG, was the worlds first airline - governmentassistance - operated airships Mfg by Zeppelin Corporation -headquarters were in Frankfurt– The 5 oldest airlines that still exist are NetherlandsKLM,Colombias Avianca, Australias Qantas, Czech Republics CzechAirlines,Mexicos Mexicana.– KLM first flew in May 1920.6Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  7. 7. Types of Airlines• Trunk carriersThe large airlines with long distances routes were designed as trunkcarriers• Regional carriersIt served large areas with in a certain part of the country• Commuter airlinesCommuter airlines serve the many smaller communities that largeairlines can’t service economically, linking small airports with majorhubs• Charter airlinesA charter flight operates under rules different from those governingscheduled flights. Planes may be chartered from airlines that offerscheduled service or from a company that operates charters only.
  8. 8. Regulations• Warsaw convention– Originally signed in 1929 in Warsaw(hence the name), it was amendedin 1955 at The Hague and in 1975 inMontreal– Intergovernmental Agreement– It defines the legal responsibility ofa carrier to its passengers– Governs the airline’s liability for• Death and injury to passengers• Loss, damage or delay tobaggage and Cargo– A limit is set for the liability– The information is included in thepassenger’s ticket– Additional protection can beobtained by purchasing travelinsurance– Liability not governed by theconvention is printed on ticket as ‘Conditions of Contract’• limits a carriers liability to atmost:– 250,000 Francs or 16,600Special Drawing Rights (SDR)for personal injury;– 17 SDR per kilogram forchecked luggage and cargo,– 5,000 Francs or 332 SDR for thehand luggage of a traveller.• Special Drawing Rights– International financinginstrument created in 1970 bythe International MonetaryFund (IMF) to coincide with thedisfavour of the US dollar asthe principal currency of theworld trade.– At present, one SDR is the sumof 0.6320 US Dollars, 0.4100euro, 18.4 Japanese yen and0.0903 pound sterling8Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  9. 9. • CHICAGO CONVENTION– Chicago convention onInternational Civil Aviation wasconcluded at a meetingbetween governments in 1944– In 1947, the convention createda permanent internationalauthority-ICAO– Convention also draws adistinction between scheduledand no scheduled services– Scheduled international airservices may be operated byagreement between the twocountries concerned- bilateralAgreement– For non- scheduled serviceseach country may impose suchregulations and conditions as itmay consider desirable– Convention governs relationsbetween state on both technicaland commercial matters whichinclude• Flying over territories ofcontracting states (Airservices, customs, rules ofthe air)• Nationality of aircraft,facilitation (Customs,accident investigation etc,)• Documents (Recognition ofcertificates and licenses)• International standards andpractices including those forthe carriage of dangerousgoods• Financial and technicalassistance9Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  10. 10. Bermuda convention• GOVERNMENT OF THE USA , GOVERNMENT OF UK OFGREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND,• conclude an Agreement for the purpose of promotingdirect air communications as soon as possiblebetween their respective territories• With 14 articles of agreement10Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  11. 11. ICAOThe aims and objectives of the Organization are to develop theprinciples and techniques of international air navigation and to foster theplanning and development of international air transport so as to:• Insure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviationthroughout the world;• Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peacefulpurposes;• Encourage the development of airways, airports, and air navigationfacilities for international civil aviation;• Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficientand economical air transport;• Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;• Insure that the rights of contracting States are fully respected andthat every contracting State has a fair opportunity to operateinternational airlines;• Avoid discrimination between contracting States;• Promote safety of flight in international air navigation;• Promote generally the development of all aspects of internationalcivil aeronautics.11Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  12. 12. Bilateral Agreement• The agreements specify therights that the designatedcarrier may enjoy in theother country• Eg. A foreign carrier may bepermitted to import thespare parts and suppliesfree of duty, but undercustoms bond for use inmaintaining and supplyingtheir aircraft• It specifies the cities thatmay be served by thedesignated airlines• Include Freedoms of Air• Freedoms of Air– The freedoms of the air are aset of commercial aviationrights granting a countrysairline(s) the privilege toenter and land in anothercountrys airspace.– Formulated as a result ofdisagreements over theextent of aviationliberalisation in theConvention on InternationalCivil Aviation of 1944,(known as the ChicagoConvention).12Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  13. 13. • First freedom– The first freedom is the right to fly over a foreigncountry without landing– It is also known as the technical freedom– It grants the privilege to fly over the territory of atreaty country without landing.– Member states of the International Air ServicesTransit Agreement grant this freedom (as well asthe second freedom) to other member states,subject to the transiting aircraft using designatedair routes.• Second freedom– The second freedom allows technical stopswithout the enplaning or deplaning of passengersor cargo.– It is the right to stop in one country solely forrefueling or other maintenance on the way toanother country.• Third freedom– The third freedom is the right to carry passengersor cargo from ones own country to another– The third freedom was the first commercialfreedom• Fourth freedom– The right to carry passengers or cargo fromanother country to ones own– Third and fourth freedom rights are almost alwaysgranted simultaneously in bilateral agreementsbetween countries.– The right of an airline from one country to land ina different country and board passengerstravelling to the airline’s own country.• Fifth freedom– This freedom is also sometimes referred to as beyondrights.– It is the right of an airline from one country to land in asecond country, to then pick up passengers and fly on toa third country where the passengers then deplane.– An example would be a flight by American Airlines fromthe US to England that is going on to France. Traffic couldbe picked up in England and taken to France.• Sixth freedom– The right to carry traffic from one state through the homecountry to a third state.– Example: traffic from England coming to the US on a USairline and then going on to Canada on the same airline• Seventh freedom– The right to carry traffic from one state to another statewithout going through the home country.– Example would be traffic from England going to Canadaon a US airline flight that does not stop in the US on theway• Eighth freedom– This is also called cabotage and almost no countrypermits it.• Airline cabotage is the carriage of air traffic thatoriginates and terminates within the boundaries ofa given country by an air carrier of anothercountry.– The unofficial eighth freedom is the right to carrypassengers or cargo between two or more points in oneforeign country• European Union, which has granted such rights between all ofits member states.• Single Aviation Market (SAM) established between Australia andNew Zealand in 199613Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  14. 14. Open sky policy• Open skies refers to abilateral (and sometimesmultilateral) Air TransportAgreement• liberalizes the rules forinternational aviationmarkets and minimizesgovernment intervention• The U.S. began pursuingOpen Skies agreements in1979 and, by 1982, it hadsigned twenty-three bilateralair service agreementsworldwide, mainly withsmaller nations.• That was followed in the1990s by agreements withsome individual Europeanstates.• Open skys provisions– Free market competition:– No restrictions oninternational route rights;number of designatedairlines; capacity;frequencies; and types ofaircraft.– Pricing determined by marketforces:– Fair and equal opportunity tocompete:– Cooperative marketingarrangements– Designated airlines may enterinto code-sharing or leasingarrangements with airlines ofeither country, or with thoseof third countries, subject tousual regulations. Anoptional provision authorizescode-sharing betweenairlines and surfacetransportation companies.14Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  15. 15. • IATA is a global trade organisation, with its head office at Montreal, Canada. Itprovides standards and recommended practices for airline operations.• Over 60 years, IATA has developed the commercial standards that built a globalindustry.• Today, IATA’s mission is to represent, lead and serve the airline industry.• Its members comprise some 230 airlines - the world’s leading passenger andcargo airlines among them - representing 93 percent of scheduledinternational air traffic.• Scope of IATA• The scope of IATA encompasses all Air Transport activities.• IATA only controls International flights. However because they must complywith the IATA processes the involved parties tend to apply the same processesto domestic flights.15Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  16. 16. For the benefit of all parties involved:• For consumers, IATA simplifies the travel and shipping processes, while keeping costs down. Passengers can make onetelephone call to reserve a ticket, pay in one currency and then use the ticket on several airlines in several countries.• IATA allows airlines to operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly defined rules.• IATA serves as an intermediary between airlines and passenger as well as cargo agents via neutrally applied agencyservice standards and centralised financial systems.• A large network of industry suppliers and service providers gathered by IATA provides solid expertise to airlines in avariety of industry solutions.• For governments, IATA seeks to ensure they are well informed about the complexities of the aviation industry toensure better, long-term decisions.• IATAs Industry Priorities for 2008Safety– Implement IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations (ISAGO), conducting at least 60 station audits and 8headquarters audits– Develop plan to address future airline training and qualification requirements• Environment– Achieve a reduction of at least 6 million tones of CO2 from operations and infrastructure– Implement a strategy to reach carbon neutral growth– Develop standards and guidelines for an industry carbon offset programme and pilot it with at least 6 airlines infour different regions• Simplifying the Business– Achieve 100% E-Ticketing penetration in IATA Billing and Settlement Plan (BSP)– Ensure 130 airports offer Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) facilities by end 2008 and that 200 airlines are BarCoded Boarding Pass (BCBP)-enabled Implement e-freight pilots at 8 additional locations (14 total) by end 2008• Financial– Achieve savings/cost avoidance of $1.5 billion in industry taxes, charges and fuel fees, including at least $800million in real cost reduction– Launch four new initiatives to reduce airline costs and improve service.16Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  17. 17. Functions and Duties of IATA• The main objective of theorganisation is to assist airlinecompanies to achieve lawfulcompetition and uniformity inprices.• IATA has two functions:1. Trade Association(technical, legal, financial, trafficservices and most agencymatters);2. Tariff Coordination(passenger fares and cargo rates,agents commissions).• IATA assigns 3-letter IATA AirportCodes and 2-letter IATA AirlineDesignators, which are commonlyused worldwide.• ICAO also assigns airport and airline codes.For Rail&Fly systems IATA also assigns IATAtrain station codes.• For fare calculations IATA has divided theworld in three regions –TC1, TC2, TC3.• IATA teamed with Sita for an electronicticketing solution• IATA is pivotal in the worldwide accreditationof travel agents although for practicalpurposes this, and giving permission to sellairline tickets from the participating carriers,is achieved through national memberorganisations.• They also regulate the shipping of dangerousgoods and publish the IATA Dangerous GoodsRegulations manual, a globally accepted fieldsource reference for airlines shippinghazardous materials.17Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  18. 18. India• History– K. M. Mathen, was the first Indian Pilot to fly a Boeing 747 in 1970. he is "FirstIndian Jumbo Pilot". Indias first lady Pilot was Sarla Thakral, first solo flight at theage of 21 in the year 1936.– In 1912 - first flight - Karachi to Delhi started by Indian State Air Services andImperial Airways UK collaboration, just an extension of the London-Karachi flight– Tata Airline by JRD Tata in 1932, the first Indian to get an A-License. In 1946, TataAirlines - into Air India. At the dawn of independence, India had 9 air transportcompanies providing both cargo and passenger services.– In 1953, nationalized all - formed Indian Airline Corporation for domestic and AirIndia International for international– Till 1991, private airlines -air taxi scheme, they could operate chartered and non-scheduled to uplift of Indian tourism.– In 1994, air corporation act - private airline companies obtained permission.– In 2003, Air Deccan - budget flying lowering to 17% foll0wed by Spice Jet, GoAirways and Kingfisher Air, All-business class airline, Paramount Airlines.– These budget airlines - major Indian Aviation Industry market share, newer trends.18Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  19. 19. • Airlines in India– Aviation Industry & airlines are managed by Ministry of Civil Aviation, Governmentof India.– All are supposed to obtain license from the ministry.– 10 Airlines =FIA (Federation of Indian Airlines) to deal Aviation Industry challengesin domestic segment and newer trends.• Airports in India– standards in operational, terminal and cargo services, the International AAI +National AAI=Airports Authority of India (AAI). responsible for infrastructure,aviation industry market tasks.– Airports in India are managed AAI• But the entry of private Airlines and their various schemes have reducedairfare drastically. The recent tax relaxation on air fuel and such sops willfurther make air travel within the reach of a greater section of the IndianPopulace.• The domestic scene is now dotted with private airlines as the governmenthas now very wisely ended the monopoly of Indian Airlines.• Today, though India has many airlines - domestic as well as international -like SpiceJet, IndiGo, Kingfisher, Deccan, Sahara, Jet Airways and manymore. And not until 1994, Air India and Indian Airlines were the onlypopularly known airlines of India.19Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  20. 20. • About DGCA– Directorate General of Civil Aviation is an attachedoffice of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.– The DGCA is the regulatory body in the field of CivilAviation primarily dealing with safety issues.– It is responsible for regulation of air transportservices to/from/within India and for enforcement ofcivil air regulations, air safety and airworthinessstandards.– It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions withInternational Civil Aviation Organisation.– The headquarters are located in New Delhi withregional offices in the various parts of India.– There are 14 (fourteen) Regional AirworthinessOffices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata,Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Bhopal,Lucknow, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Kanpur, Guwahatiand Patiala.– Apart from the Regional Airworthiness Offices, thereare 5 (five) Regional Air Safety offices located atDelhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad, theRegional Research and Development Office locatedat Bangalore and the Gliding Centre at Pune.– The regulations are in the forms of the Aircraft Act,1934, the Aircraft Rules, the Civil AviationRequirements, the Aeronautical InformationCirculars.• Aircraft Certification & Registration• DGCA under Rule 49 of the Aircraft Rules, 1937, isempowered to issue Type certificate of aircraft andits engines/ propellers manufactured in India andalso revalidate the Type Certificate issued to anaircraft by foreign airworthiness authority.• DGCA is responsible for registration of all civilaircraft in India. Rule 30 of the Aircraft Rules,1937 empowers the DGCA to register aircraft andto grant certificate of registration in India.• The procedure for registration and de-registrationof an aircraft is given in Civil Aviation Requirements• Wide range of Authorities of DGCA• Certificate of Airworthiness• Special Flight Permits• Safety Oversight• Examination for Pilots and Engineers• Flight Crew Licenses• Aircraft Maintenance Engineers• Training Schools• Recognition of Foreign Licenses20Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  21. 21. DGCA Duties & Functions1. Registration of civil aircraft;2. Formulation of standards of airworthinessfor civil aircraft registered in India and grantof certificates of airworthiness to suchaircraft;3. Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenanceengineers and flight engineers, andconducting examinations and checks forthat purpose;4. Licensing of air traffic controllers;5. Maintaining a check on the proficiency offlight crew, and also of other operationalpersonnel such as flight dispatchers andcabin crew;9. Coordination of ICAO matters with allagencies and sending replies to StateLetters, and taking all necessary actionarising out of the Universal SafetyOversight Audit Programme (USOAP) ofICAO;10. Supervision of the institutes/clubs/schoolsengaged in flying training includingsimulator training, or any other trainingrelated with aviation, with a view toensuring a high quality of training;9. Granting approval to aircraft maintenance,repair and manufacturing organizationsand their continued oversight;10. To act as a nodal agency for implementingAnnex 9 provisions in India and forcoordinating matters relating to facilitationat Indian airports including holdingmeetings of the National FacilitationCommittee;13. Coordination at national level for flexi-use ofair space by civil and military air trafficagencies and interaction with ICAO forprovision of more air routes for civil usethrough Indian air space;14. Keeping a check on aircraft noise and engineemissions in accordance with ICAO Annex 16and collaborating with the environmentalauthorities in this matter, if required;15. Promoting indigenous design andmanufacture of aircraft and aircraftcomponents by acting as a catalytic agent;16. Approving training programmes of operatorsfor carriage of dangerous goods, issuingauthorizations for carriage of dangerousgoods, etc. 21Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  22. 22. Airports Authority of India• The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on1st April 1995 by merging the International AirportsAuthority of India and the National Airports Authoritywith a view to accelerate the integrated development,expansion and modernization of the operational,terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in thecountry conforming to international standards.• AAI manages 126 airports, which include 11international airports, 89 domestic airports and 26civil enclaves at Defence airfields.• AAI also provides Air Traffic Management Servicesover entire Indian Air Space and adjoining oceanicareas with ground installations at all airports and 25other locations to ensure safety of aircraft operations.• AAIs endeavour in enhanced focus on customersexpectations has evinced enthusiastic response toindependent agency organised customer satisfactionsurveys at 30 busy airports.• AAIs proposal to lease out, on global tender basis, thefour most profitable jewels in its crown viz. Delhi,Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai airports primarily aimsto upgrade these to emulate the world standards.• AAIs successful implementation of AutomaticDependence Surveillance system, using indigenoustechnology, at Calcutta and Chennai Air Traffic ControlCentres, gave India the distinction of being the firstcountry to use this advanced technology in the SouthEast Asian region enabling effective Air Traffic Controlover oceanic areas using satellite mode ofcommunication.• Consultancy Services by AAI• Airport Feasibility• Airport Commercial Viability /Airport Audit Services• Airport Master Planning• Designing & Construction of:– Air Passenger Terminals/Air Cargo Terminals– Airport Pavements– Design of Aircraft Hangars and SupportingInfrastructure– Airport Electrical Installations/Approach and NightLanding Facilities– Remodeling, Modernisation of Airports• Planning, Installation, Operation & Maintenance of:– Radars, Navigational Aids, Visual & Non-Visual LandingAids and Communication facilities.• Air Space & Air Traffic Management, Air Route Re-Structuring• Airport Management• Flight Calibration of Airport Ground Facilities• Commissioning & routine flight check of RADAR System, etc.• Computerisation– Cargo Handling– Passenger Information System– Airport Terminal Information System– Air Traffic Management and Airlines Billing• Training– Air Traffic Controllers– Airport Air Side Management (Ground Flight Safety)– Radar & Nav. Aids & Communication Equipment– Engineers– Airport Terminal Management– Airport Fire Services22Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  23. 23. AIR CORPORATIONS (TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKINGS AND, REPEAL) ACT, 1994• An act to provide for the transfer and vesting of theundertakings ofIndian Airlines and Air India respectively to and in the companiesformed and registered as Indian Airlines Limited and Air IndiaLimited• repeal the Air Corporations Act, 1953.BE it enacted byParliament in the 45 Year of the Republic23Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  24. 24. INDIAN CARRIERS• Air India– is India’s national carrier,and after merging withIndian Airlines, is the onlygovernment owned airlinein India offering domesticflights in India.– Air India was initiallyfounded in 1932 as TataAirlines.– Air India’s primary hubs inIndia are Chhatrapati ShivajiInternational Airport inMumbai and Indira GandhiInternational Airport inDelhi.• Jet Airways– is based in Mumbai, andoffers over 370 daily flightsacross 44 domesticdestinations. Jet Airways alsooperates numerousinternational flights todestinations like the UnitedKingdom, United States,Canada, Thailand, and Nepal.– Jet Airways became the firstIndian carrier to offerinternet check-in facilities forits passengers.– Jet Airways offers youthdiscount (25%) for thoseunder 29 years of age, andSenior Citizen discounts forthose 65 years and older. Toget the discount rates fordomestic flights in India, theairline requires you to faxover credit card as well aspass port ID details.24Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  25. 25. • Kingfisher Airlines Limited– is based in Bangalore, and wasestablished in May 2005. Itoperates over 200 domesticIndian flights a day across 37destinations in India. Its primaryhub is in BangaloreInternational Airport.– Although Kingfisher onlyoperates flights in India, theairline has plans to expand intothe international market byadding the Unted States as apossible destination.– Check-in baggage rules fordomestic India flights:Kingfisher Class - 20 kg,Kingfigher First - 35 kg.• JetLite,– formerly known as Air Sahara, isone of the older privately-owned airlines in India.– It was founded in September,1991, is has bases in IndiraGandhi International Airport inNew Delhi, Begumpet Airport inHyderabad, Chatrapati ShivajiInternational Airport inMumbai, Chennai InternationalAirport in Chennai, and NetajiSubhash Chandra BoseInternational Airport in Kolkata.– JetLite covers domestic flightsall over India, as well as travelbetween Delhi and Chicagothrough a code share withAmerican Airlines. Check-inbaggage for domestic flights inIndia (per person): 20 kg.25Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  26. 26. • Deccan,– formerly known as Air Deccan,is India’s first low cost airlinecarrier. It was foundedin August 2003, " with thevision to empower every Indianto fly by providing the lowestairfares and connectivity tounconnected towns and cities".Deccan is based in Bangalore,with another hub in Chennai.– Deccan does not differentiate infares between NRI, tourists, andlocals for Indian domesticflights. Check-in baggage rulesfor domestic India flights (perperson): 15 kg (Rs 70/kg forexcess check-in luggage)• GoAir– is another low-cost carrier, andis a relative new-comer forIndian domestic flights, havingbeen established in June 2004.It is based in Mumbai.– GoAir does not differentiate infares between NRI, tourists,and residents, and fliesbetween Ahmedabad,Mumbai, Coimbatore ad Goa.– GoAir offers 10,000 FreeTickets Per Month. Check-inbaggage rules for domesticIndia flights: 15 kg (Rs 70/kg forexcess check-in luggage)26Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  27. 27. • Indigo Air– began its flight operationsfor domestic Indian flights inAugust 2006, and currentlylinks Agartala, Ahmedabad,Bangalore, Bhubaneswar,Chennai, Goa, Guwahati,Hyderabad, Imphal, Jaipur,Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai,Nagpur, New Delhi, Pune,Udaipur, and Vadodara. Thislow cost Indian flightcarrier’s main hub is inDelhi.– Indigo Air does notdifferentiate between NRI,tourist, and local fares fordomestic Indian flighttickets.• Paramount Airlines’– primary focus is on thebusiness traveler, and fliesbetween Tamil Nadu, Kerala,Andhra Pradesh, andKarnataka. Some of itsIndian domestic flightdestinations includeBangalore, Chennai, Kochi(Cochin), Hyderabad andMadurai.– It is based in Madurai India,with its primary hub locatedin Chennai InternationalAirport. The airline startedoperating in October 2005.Click here for a schedule ofParamount Airways flights.27Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  28. 28. • SpiceJet– was voted the best low-costcarrier in Central Asia bySkyTrax in 2007. It is based inNew Delhi, with its main hubin Mumbai and an additionalhub in Ahmedabad. SpiceJetalso offers service toBangalore, Chennai, Goa,Hyderabad, Kolkata, andVaranasi.– SpiceJet offers onlinebooking services, and has nodifferentiation in faresbetween NRI, tourists, andlocals. Check-in baggagerules for domestic flights inIndia: 20kg.• Jagson Airline,– established in November1991, is India’s first privateairline. It is based primarilyin Delhi. Jagson Airlinescurrently operates Delhi-Kullu and Delhi-Shimlaroutes, as well as Shirdi-Mumbai and Shirdi-Puneflights. Jagson airlines hasoffices in Mumbai, Shirdi,Manali, Kullu, Shimla, withgood connects for the Delhi-Rajasthan sector– Jagson airlines does offerinternet booking facilitiesfor domestic Indian flighttickets through their onlinebooking site.28Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  29. 29. • Indus Air– no longer exists as acarrier, having gone outof business few monthsafter its launch. It wasoriginally based inGhaziabad, with its mainhub in Indira GandhiInternational Airport inDelhi. The airline startedits domestic Indian flightoperations in December2006.– Indus Air was a regionalcarrier, and operatedflights between Amritsar,Chandigarh, Delhi, andMumbai.International Airlines in IndiaThere are a number of Indiainternational airlines. The main internationalairlines of India are given below:• Air India:– The government of India owns air India.This national flag carrier airline of Indiahas its main base in Mumbai. The otherhubs of Air India are New Delhi andChennai. It also provides cargo servicesworldwide. It is one of the two state-owned airlines in the country, the otherone is Indian Airlines.• Indian Airlines:Indian Airlines is the second state ownedairline. It is primarily a domestic airline. But,it operates internationally also. It is based inNew Delhi.• Jet Airways:Jet Airways is another privately ownedairline operating in the international sectoralso. This airline also got international flyingrights some time back only.29Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
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  32. 32. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF AIR INDIA• Political Factors :- Excise Duty and Sales Tax on Aviation Turbine Fuel- Modernization of Airports- The government does not allow any domestic airline operator to operateinternational flights unless they have served minimum of 5 years in the domesticmarket. This acts as deterrent for the other operators to enter the industry. AI also hasto deal with Safety Regulatory Authorities (DGCA,FAA etc.).• Technological Factors :- Growth of Electronic Ticketing Systems- Satellite based Navigation Systems for aircrafts- Time and speed of delivery being of special importance in the aviation industry, AIhas rolled out the ORACLE supply chain solution, a module of ORACLE ERP application.• Demographic Factors :* India has a wide demographic reach and hence at times it becomes difficult for AI tooperate on this hug scale. Also the expectations of customers across regions is veryvaried.• Marketing strategies like low cost carriers, Indian food services etc….32Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  33. 33. ROAD TRANSPORT IN INDIA• National Highways connecting allthe major cities and state capitals• economic backbone of the country• India has a total of 66,590 km(41,377 mi) of National Highways,of which 200 km (124 mi) areclassified as expressways• National Highways DevelopmentProject (NHDP)• plan to convert some stretches ofthese roads to six lanes• As per the National HighwaysAuthority of India, about 65% offreight and 80% passenger traffic iscarried by the roads• National Highways carry about40% of total road traffic, thoughonly about 2% of the roadnetwork is covered by theseroads• Average growth of the number ofvehicles has been around 10.16%per annum over recent years• All national highwaysare metalled, but very few areconstructed of concrete, the mostnotable being the Mumbai-PuneExpressway• Golden Quadrilateral and North-South and East-West Corridorswhich link the largest cities• around 40% of villages in Indialacked access to all-weatherroads and remained isolatedduring the monsoon season33Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  34. 34. • To improve ruralconnectivity, Pradhan Mantri GramSadak Yojana (Prime MinistersRural Road Program), a projectfunded by the CentralGovernment with the help of WorldBank, was launched in 2000 to buildall-weather roads to connect allhabitations with a population of500 or above (250 or above for hillyareas• As per 2009 estimates, the totalroad length in India is 3,320,410 km(2,063,210 mi); making the Indianroad network the third largest roadnetwork in the world.• At 0.66 km of highway per squarekilometre of land the density ofIndia’s highway network is higherthan that of the United States (0.65)and far higher than that of Chinas(0.16) or Brazils (0.20)Expressways• 650 kmNational Highways• 66,590 kmState Highways• 131,899 kmMajor District Roads• 467,763 kmRural and Other Roads• 2,650,000 kmTotal Length• 3,300,000 km• Buses are an important means ofpublic transport• predominantly owned andoperated by public agencies• State Road Transport Corporationsintroduced during 1960-70sconnecting villages and townsacross the country34Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
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  37. 37. TRAVEL AGENTS & TOUR OPERATORS OF INDIA• International travelagencies and touroperators– Thomas Cook– Cox&Kings– American Express– Kuoni– Orbitz• National travel agents andtour operators– Sita– Chetak– Southern Travels– Kesineni Travels– Rao Travels etc• Online travel agencies– Expedia,–,– Travelocity,– Orbitz,– CheapTickets,– Priceline,– CheapOair,–– Expedia– WorldHotel-Link–– TripAdvisor– SideStep37Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
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  39. 39. RAILWAY SYSTEM OF INDIA• first introduced in 1853• transporting over 18 millionpassengers and more than 2 milliontonnes of freight daily across one ofthe largest and busiest rail networksin the world• 1951 the systems were nationalisedas one unit• Indian Railways is divided intosixteen zones, which are furthersub-divided into sixty sevendivisions, each having a divisionalheadquarters• covering 6,909 stations over a totalroute length of around 63,465 km• worlds largest commercial or utilityemployer, with more than1.4 million employees• owns over 200,000 (freight)wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000locomotives• owns locomotive and coach production facilities• operates both long distance andsuburban rail systems on a multi-gauge networkof broad, metre and narrow gauges, and is in the process of convertingall the metre gauge (14,406 km(8,951 mi)) into broad gauge in aproject called Project Unigauge• The Rajdhani trains introduced in1969 provides connectivitybetween the national capital, Delhiand capitals of the states• Shatabdi Express providesconnectivity between centres oftourism, pilgrimage or business• The Shatabdi Express trains runover short to medium distanceswhile the Rajdhani Expresses runover longer distances39Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  40. 40. • Bhopal Shatabdi express, however,runs at a peak speed of 161 km/h(100 mph), which makes it thefastest train in India• Duronto provides non-stop point topoint rail services, Garib Rath aimsto provide comfortable rail travel atan economical rate• luxury trains which cater to varioustourist circuits– Palace on Wheels serves the Rajasthancircuit– The Golden Chariot serves theKarnataka and Goa– Deccan Odyssey - Konkan route– Fairy Queen - New Delhi to Alwar– Maharajas Express - Delhi-Taj– Royal Orient Train -Gujarat and Rajasthan– Royal Rajasthan on Wheels• Two UNESCO World Heritage Sites— the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminusand the Mountain railways of India– Darjeeling Himalayan Railway,a narrow gauge railway in WestBengal.– Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a metregauge railway in the NilgiriHills in Tamil Nadu– The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a narrowgauge railway inthe Shivalik mountains in HimachalPradesh.– The Maharaja Railways (GwaliorLight Railway), a narrow gauge line ofjust 0.6m widthfrom Gwalior to Sheopur of 198 length is worlds longestnarrowgauge railway line is in the UNESCOworld heritage tentative list.– The Neral-Matheran Railway, anarrow gauge railwayconnecting Matheran is also ahistoric line.40Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  41. 41. • Kashmir Railway is thesecond highest in the world• In 1999, the Konkan RailwayCorporation introducedthe Roll On Roll Off (RORO)service, between Kolad inMaharashtra and Verna inGoa extended upto Surathkal in Karnataka• The RORO service, the firstof its kind in India,transportedon flatbed trailers. highlypopular,carrying about1,10,000 trucks and bringingin about 74 crore worth ofearnings• Two trains operateto Pakistan– Samjhauta Express betweenDelhi and Lahore– Thar Express betweenJodhpur and Karachi.• Bangladesh is connectedby a bi-weekly train,the Maitree Express.41Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
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  43. 43. MAJOR RAILWAY SYSTEMS OF THE WORLDBritish Railways (BR)• from 1965 traded as British Rail• formed fromthe nationalisation of the "BigFour" British railwaycompanies• 1997, British Rail wasprivatised• with the trunk routes ofthe West Coast Main Line, EastCoast Main Line, GreatWestern MainLine and Midland Main LineEurorail• informally known as Eurail• Netherlands-based company,registered in Luxembourg• sells passes and tickets forEuropean railroads• Eurail pass covers 21countries, as of 2009:– Austria, Belgium, Croatia, CzechRepublic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,Norway, Portugal, Republic ofIreland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,and Turkey43Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  44. 44. Amtrak• National Railroad PassengerCorporation, doing businessas Amtrak• government-owned corporation• provide intercity passengertrain service in the United States• "Amtrak" is combination of"America" and "track“• headquartered at Union Station inWashington• employs nearly 19,000 people• 21,000 miles (34,000 km)• connecting 500 destinations in 46states and three Canadian provinces• 15 busiest routes in the Amtraksystem• Covers – west coast , midwest,northeast, east/southeastINDRAIL PASS• special railway pass available toforeign nationals created along thelines of the Eurail Pass for unlimitedtravel without reservation ofa ticket on the IndianRailways network.• special time period from half a day to90 days.• It is only available to:– Foreign Tourists– Indian Nationals residing abroadtravelling on valid passport– Indian spouse of a foreign tourist– A guide accompanying foreign tourists• Its validity period starts from thedate of the first train journey andends on the midnight of the lastjourney.• Payment may only be made in USdollars or poundssterling or euro currencies.44Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  45. 45. LUXURY TRAINS OF INDIADeccan Odyssey• to boost tourism on the Konkan route of the IndianRailways.• starts in Mumbai and travelsto Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Goa, Belgaum, Kolhapur, Pune, Nashik, Aurangabad,Ajanta-Ellora• It is a venture of the Maharashtra Government• complete 5-star hotel on wheels, with tworestaurants and a bar, a sauna, business centre• The duration of the tour is 7 nights, starting everyWednesday from MumbaiFairy Queen,• built in 1855, is the worlds oldest steamlocomotive in regular operation today, plyingbetween New Delhi to Alwar .• The locomotive was certified by the Guinness Bookof Records to be the oldest operational locomotiveafter the Rajasthan government invoked it in 2004 tolug a deluxe train in order to boost tourism in thearea. The Fairy Queen is run on the lines of the Palaceon Wheels• constructed in Leeds, England in 1855 AND SERVEDTILL 1909• In 1943, the locomotive was shifted to theRailway Zonal Training School at Chandausi,where it served as a curiosity object for manyof the students based there.• In 1972, the Indian government bequeathedheritage status to the engine, rendering it anational treasure.• The locomotive was spruced up and given aspecial spot in the newly built National RailMuseum, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi.• In 1997, return to commercial service on July18. The two-day excursion sees the trainplying from New Delhi to Alwar to the SariskaTiger Reserve.• The train pulled by this locomotive canaccommodate 38 passengers and the ticket ispriced at Rs. 7,500 for adults and Rs. 3,750 forchildren.• It was built in 1855 by Kitson, Thompson, &Hewitson, (Leeds, UK). Previously it waslocomotive No. 22 on the East Indian Railway,and used on the Howrah-Raniganj line andthen in Bihar45Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  46. 46. Golden Chariot• Karnataka and Goa. It is named after the StoneChariot• The 19 coaches on the train are coloured purpleand gold, and sport the logo of a mythologicalanimal with the head of an elephant and a bodyof a lion.• operates weekly and had its maiden commercialrun on March 10, 2008.• with accommodations, spa treatments anddining.• Karnataka State Tourism DevelopmentCorporation• 7-day/8-night tourof Bangalore, Kabini, Mysore, Hassan, Hospet, Badami and Goa• COVERS Nagarhole National Park, MysorePalace, Srirangapatna forts, HoysaleswaraTemple, Gomateshwara and the Badami CaveTemples• 44 cabins in 11 coaches that are named afterdynastiesKadamba, Hoysala,Rashtrakuta, Ganga, Chalukya,Bahamani, AdilShahi, Sangama, Satavahana, Yadukula and Vijayanagar.• HAS two restaurants, a lounge bar, andconference, gym and spa facilities• only train in India to have onboard Wi-Fi• accommodate 88 passengers• Maharajas Express• from early 2010.• It is a joint venture between irctc and Cox andKings India Ltd• The all-inclusive costs begin at $800 (£535 or INR40000)per person per day, and can climb to $2,500(£1,670 or INR 125000)per person per day.• four itineraries, all of which either begin or endin Delhi and include a visit to the Taj Mahal• Each morning, the train arrives at a differentstation for off-rail excursions, including visits tomonuments, heritage sites, shopping, palaces,forts, and hotels.• The trains include a 23-guest carriage train,designed to recreate the personal state carriagesused by the Maharajas of India. Facilities includetwo ornate restaurants with decorative archedceilings, an observation lounge and souvenir shop,and 43 cabins and suites starting at roughly 110square feet in size• most expensive luxury train in India• 24 carriages, 14 guest carriages – 88 passengers– Royal India (8 Days / 7 Nights): Delhi - Agra -Ranthambore - Jaipur - Bikaner - Jodhpur - Udaipur -Vadodara - Mumbai– Classical India (7 Days / 6 Nights): Delhi - Agra -Gwalior - Khajuraho - Bandhavgarh - Varanasi -Lucknow - Delhi46Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  47. 47. Palace on Wheelspromote tourism in Rajasthan• relaunched in August 2009 with anew decor, itinerary and cuisine• started on January 26, IndiasRepublic Day, in 1982• 14 coaches, a bar,• two restaurants, TheMahārāja and The Mahārāni• Each coach has four cabins withtwin beds• wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, DTH satellitetelevision, channelmusic, intercom, attached toilets,running hot and cold water, withpersonal attendants.• Covers Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, SawaiMadhopur, Chittaurgarh, Udaipur, Bharatpur, and Agra.Royal Orient Train• between Gujarat and Rajasthan• taste of royal luxury while"showcasing the best of Indianculture and heritage“• 13 coaches, five-star hotel comforts• offer Rajasthani, Gujarati, Indian,Chinese and continental cuisine• bar on board, intercom, channelmusic, TV, DVD system and amassage-cum-beauty parlor• offers a 7-day/8-night package -Chittorgarh,Jaipur, Udaipur, Ahmedabad, Mehsana, Junagarh, Veraval,Sasangi, Ahmedpur, Mandvi, Palitana and Sarkhej• Covering - Qutub Minar, RedFort and Jama Masjid in Delhi,Chittorgarh Fort and Rani PadminisPalace in Chittorgarh, SabarmatiAshram, lake palace, Gir sanctuary,Hawamahal & Jantar mantar47Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  48. 48. Royal Rajasthan on Wheels• modelled on the Palace on Wheels, and follows a similar routethrough Rajasthan.• 7-day/8-night tour through Rajasthan• starts from New Delhis Safdarjung railway station• attractions covered are the Hawa Mahal (Palace of Winds), MotiMahal, Sheesh Mahal, Ranthambhor National Park, Chittaurgarh Fort, JagNiwas (Lake Palace), Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Agra Fort and finallythe Taj Mahal48Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  49. 49. Reservation proceduresAIRLINE RESERVATION• Computer Reservation systems, latercalled Global Distribution Systems(GDS), were created by Airlines to allowTravel Agents to make online bookings.• Started in 1960; accepted in 1970• Huge transactional systems that processaround 5000 requests per second from40000 to 50000 terminals.• Allow making booking on airlines thataccept to pay a booking fee.• Are more and more independent oftheir founding companies.• Used to store, retrieve - information,contact, transactions etc., designed byairlines• Can accept reservations and bookingsfrom more than 60,000 tour operatorsand travel agents.STAGE I- Manual to automatic reservation• Way back in 1950-1974• Then came SABER (Semi AutomatedBusiness Environmental Research)- Thefore father of modern GDS- developedfor American AirlinesSTAGE II- The True CRS• Between 1974- 1984• Installation of terminals in Travelagency and Tour Operation companies.STAGE III- From CRS to GDS• 1984 it came into existence• Got spread to hospitality industry too49Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  50. 50. • Features– Global perspective– Automatic rate and inventory control– Full reservation functionality– Group block features– Sales flow control– Multi air craft’s rate availability– Efficient searching– Reports and Logs• Main Roles and Functions– Provision of up-to-date, accurateinformation– Fully integrated reservation systemallowing confirmation– Allowing changes and amendments– Issuing tickets and related documents– Provision of travel info, routings andthe likeAMADEUS– Created by Air France, KLM,Siberian Air, Lufthansa.,– Used by online travel agencies- e-bookers, expedia etc.,– Over 400 individual airlines and– Over 800 travel agenciesGALILEO– Owned by Air Lingus, Air Canada,British Airways, Swiss Air, UnitedAirSABRE– Owned by Nippon Airlines,American Airlines, Cathay PacificAirlinesWORLD SPAM– Owned by Delta, North west andTrans West Airlines50Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  51. 51. • BUS RESERVATIONS– State owned websites– Affliated service providers– Travel agents andcommission basis• RAILWAY RESERVATIONS– CRS– Travel agents oncommission basis– Common sale51Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  52. 52. WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA• extensive network of inlandwaterways in the formof rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks• navigable length is 14,500 Km, out ofwhich about 5,200 km of river and485 km of canals• Freight transport by waterways ishighly underutilised in Indiacompared to other large countries• cargo moved by inland waterways isjust 0.15% of the total inland trafficcompared to the correspondingfigures of 20% for Germany and 32%for Bangladesh• Inland Waterways Authority of India(IWAI) is the statutory authority• National Waterway 1 - Allahabad -Haldia stretch of the Ganges -Bhagirathi - Hooghly river system witha total length of 1,620 km in 1986• National Waterway 2 - Saidiya -Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputrariver system with a total length of 891km in 1988.• National Waterway 3 - Kollam -Kottapuram stretch of the West CoastCanal along with Champakara andUdyogmandal canals, with a total lengthof 205 km in 1993.• National Waterway 4 - Bhadrachalam -Rajahmundry and Wazirabad -Vijaywada stretch of the Krishna -Godavari river system along withthe Kakinada -Puducherry canalnetwork, with a total length of 1,095 kmin 2007• National Waterway 5 - Mangalgadi -Paradeep and Talcher -Dhamara stretch of the Mahanadi -Brahmani river system along with theEast Coast Canal, with a total length of623 km in 200752Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
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  55. 55. Thank you55Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University