Tourism Resources


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Tourism Resources

  1. 1. Tourism Resources© Ramakrishna Kongalla1Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  2. 2. RESOURCE• A resource is a source or supply from which benefit isproduced• Typically resources are materials or other assets thatare transformed to produce benefit and in the processmay be consumed or made unavailable• From a human perspective a natural resource isanything obtained from the environment to satisfyhuman needs and wants.• From a broader biological or ecological perspective aresource satisfies the needs of a living organism• Resources have three main characteristics:– 1) utility, 2) limited availability, and 3) potentialfor depletion or consumption.2Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  3. 3. On the basis of origin– Abiotic resources comprise non-living things(e.g., land, water, air and minerals such as gold,iron, copper, silver).– Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere.Forests and their products, animals, birds andtheir products, fish and other marine organismsare important examples. Minerals such as coaland petroleum are sometimes included in thiscategory because they were formed fromfossilized organic matter, though over long periodsof time.3Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  4. 4. On the stage of development• Potential Resources are known to exist and may be used in thefuture. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of Indiahaving sedimentary rocks, but until the time it is actually drilled outand put into use, it remains a potential resource.• Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantityand quality determined, and are being used in present times. Forexample, petroleum and natural gas is actively being obtained fromthe Mumbai High Fields.• The development of an actual resource, such as woodprocessing depends upon the technology available andthe cost involved. That part of the actual resource that can bedeveloped profitably with available technology is called a reserveresource, while that part that can not be developed profitablybecause of lack of technology is called a stock resource.4Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  5. 5. On the basis of renewability• Non-renewable Resources are formed over verylong geological periods. Minerals and fossils are included inthis category. Since their rate of formation is extremelyslow, they cannot be replenished once they are depleted.Out of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used byrecycling them, but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled.• Renewable resources, such as forests and fisheries, can bereplenished or reproduced relatively quickly. The highestrate at which a resource can be used sustainably isthe sustainable yield.• Some resources, like sunlight, air, and wind, arecalled perpetual resources because they are availablecontinuously, though at a limited rate.5Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  6. 6. based on distribution and ownership• Ubiquitous Resources are found everywhere(e.g., air, light, water).• Localized Resources are found only in certainparts of the world (e.g., copper and iron ore,geothermal power).• On the basis of ownership, resources can beclassified as– individual,– community,– national, and– international6Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  7. 7. TOURIST ATTRACTION• A tourist attraction is a place of interestwhere tourists visit, typically for its inherent orexhibited cultural value, historical significance,natural or built beauty, or amusementopportunities.• Eg:– Historicalplaces, monuments, zoos, aquaria, museumsand art galleries, botanical gardens, buildings andstructures– (e.g., castles, libraries,former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges),nationalparks and forests, theme parks and carnivals, living historymuseums, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and culturalevents7Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  8. 8. UNIQUE FEATURES OF TOURISM PRODUCTS• Intangible• Irreversible• Inseparable• Perishable• Lack of ownership8Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  9. 9. NATURAL TOURISM RESOURCES IN INDIA9Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  10. 10. Name StateHeight(ft)Lamkhaga Pass Himachal Pradesh 17,336Marsimik La Jammu and Kashmir 18,314Mayali PassNama Pass Uttarakhand 18,045Namika La Jammu and Kashmir 12,139Nathu La Sikkim 14,140Palakkad Gap Kerala 1,000Rohtang Pass Himachal Pradesh 13,051Sasser Pass Jammu and Kashmir 17,753Sela Pass Arunachal Pradesh 14,000Sin La Uttarakhand 18,028Tanglang La Jammu and Kashmir 17,583Traills Pass Uttarakhand 17,100Zojila Pass Jammu and Kashmir12,400Mountain passes of IndiaName State Height (ft)Asirgarh Madhya PradeshBanihal Pass Jammu and Kashmir 9,291Bara-lacha-la Himachal Pradesh 16,400Changla Pass Jammu and Kashmir 17,800Debsa Pass Himachal Pradesh 17,520Dongkhala Sikkim 12,000Dhumdhar KandiPassFotu La Jammu and Kashmir 13,451Goecha La Sikkim 16,207Haldighati RajasthanIndrahar Pass Himachal Pradesh 14,473Jelep La Sikkim 14,300Khardung La Jammu and Kashmir 18,380Kunjum Pass Himachal Pradesh 14,931Lungalacha La Jammu and Kashmir 16,600 10Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  11. 11. Mountain ranges• Agasthyamalai Hills,• Aravalli Range,• Anamalai Hills,• Camore Hills,• Cardamom Hills.• Eastern Ghats• Garo Hills,• Great IndianHimalayas• Jaintia Hills• Karakoram Range• Khasi Hills• Manipur Hills• Mizo Hills• Naga Hills• Nag Tibba Range• Nilgiri Hills• Palani Hills• Patkai Hills• Pir Panjal Range• Purvanchal Range• Satpura Range• Sahyadri• Shivalik Hills• Vindhya Range• Western Ghats• Zaskar Range11Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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  13. 13. Deserts in IndiaThar Desert• Great Indian Desert, is 496 miles longand 248 miles wide• Rajasthan to southeast Pakistan andsome of Gujarat• annual rainfall is less than 10 inches• Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner• historical palace Mehrangarh• the most colorful desert in the world• contains sand dunes, marshes, graveland hillocks. Paleontologists havediscovered fossils as old as 300million yearsKutch Deserts• western tip of the state of Gujrat• Bordered by the Arabian Sea, theKutch deserts are salty, muddygrasslands and swamps that flood inmonsoon season• myriad wildlife, including desert cats,gazelles, cranes, falcons, pelicans andthe wild Asiatic ass• Raan of Kutch, a wetland within thedesert, is crossed by the river Lunand is home to 18 tribes ofindigenous people.• Because of rapid deforestation andsalt extraction, the ecosystem of theKutch has come under threat• The Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuaryof Gujarat, the largest in the country,and a biosphere reserve house manyrare and endangered animalsincluding vultures and eagles.13Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  14. 14. Desert Tours• Camel and jeep safaris• city to city• historic buildings andsites• meeting residents• camp in mud huts ortents• participate in localfestivals and activities• prepared for very hot• very cold nights , bring alarge supply of water• most popular safari circuittakes visitors to the citiesof Jaisalmer, Bikaner andJodhpur, encompassingvillages, palaces, lakesand historic forts andother sites along the way• The Desert National Park,which is 20 percent sanddunes, provides a glimpseinto the desertsecosystems14Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  15. 15. islands of IndiaLakshadweep• lie 200 to 300 km (124 to 186 miles)off the coast of Kerala in the ArabianSea with an area of 32 km² (11 sq mi).They consist of 12 atolls, 3 reefs and5 submerged banks, with a total ofabout 36 islands and islets.Diu• Portuguese enclave; Majuli, Asiaslargest freshwater island;• Elephanta in the Bombay Harbour• Sriharikota barrier island in AndhraPradesh.• Forty-two islands in the Gulf of Kutchconstitute the Marine National Park.Andaman and Nicobar Islands• consist of 572 isles, lying in the Bay ofBengal near the Myanmar coast. It islocated 1255 km (780 miles) fromKolkata (Calcutta)• two island groups, the AndamanIslands and the Nicobar Islands• 204 small islands with a total lengthof 352 km• Indias only active volcano, BarrenIsland• Narcondum is a dormant volcano• mud volcano at Baratang. Indira Point• Salsette Island is Indias mostpopulous island on which the city ofMumbai (Bombay) is located.15Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  16. 16. Flora and Fauna, India• Project Tiger was started in 1973• now covers 27 Tiger Reserves and anarea of 37,761• Corbett National Park in Uttaranchalis one of the oldest national parks inIndia and where Project Tiger started.Kanha National Park, RanthamborNational Park, Bandhavgarh NationalPark are some of the best• Kaziranga National Park and Manas inAssam are also famous as they arehome to the One Horned IndianRhinoceros.• The Gir forest in Gujarat is the lastrefuge of the Asiatic Lion.• the Annamalais, which are in the highranges and Periyar National Park inKerala• Bandipur National Park in Karnataka(866 sq. kms), Nagarahole NationalPark (643 sq. kms), MudumalaiNational Park (321 sq. kms) andWayanaad in Kerala, MukurthiNational Park (80 sq. kms) and SilentValley National Park (78 sq. kms) arethe forests which form the NilgiriBiosphere Reserve, whichencompasses over 5500 sq. kms andwas the first biosphere reserve to beset up in India.• It has the largest population of Asiaticelephants in the world and is alsohome to the Royal Bengal tiger andother large mammals such as theIndian Bison or Gaur.16Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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  20. 20. Trekking in India• the high altitude regions of IndianHimalayas• Indian Himalayas• Ladakh• J&K• Darjeeling• Sikkim• Trekking Places in India:• Ladakh-Zanskar Via Lahaul• Manali to Beas Kund• Garhwal Trekking• Himachal-Manikaran To Spiti• Dodi Tal• Khatling Saharatal Trek• Gangotri Nandvan Trek• Kinner-Kailash Parikrama• Manimahesh Chui Yatra• Jagatsukh To Base of Deo Tibba• Adi Kailash Trek• Hemkund Trek20Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  21. 21. Skiing Holidays India• Kufri, H.P• Narkanda, H.P.• Manali, H.P.• Auli, Uttaranchal• Mundali, Uttaranchal• Munsiyari, Uttaranchal• Dayara Bugyal,Uttaranchal21Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  22. 22. Mountaineering in India• Ladakh, the Nun-KunMassif, Jammu and Kashmir,in hills of Manali inHimalayas and Uttranchalare the best destinations forenjoying mountaineering inIndia.• Idle sights– Garhwal and KumaonHimalayaSahasratal trek, GarhwalHimalaya, Hills of UP– Khatling glacier trek, GarhwalHimalaya, Hills of UP– Ladakh, Lahaul, Spiti /Kinnaur• Destinations ForMountaineering– Himalayas of North India– Himachal and Uttranchal Ranges– peaks of Kanchenjunga– North East Ranges• Rhododendron trek -Mountaineering on the hills ofDarjeeling22Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  23. 23. CAR RELLIES OF INDIA• India-ASEAN Car Rally– Guwahati - 250 participants– 8,000 km rally from Guwahati toBatam Island in Indonesia• Great Arc Rally– Kochi in the south to Mussorie inthe north• Blind Man Car Rally– raise funds for national themeFreedom through Education‘inpartnership with NationalAssociation for the Blind (NAB)• Monsoon Rally– from Kolkata• Himalayan Car Rally– New Delhi to New Delhi• Maruti Suzuki Desert Storm CarRally– one of the toughest motorsports– terrains of Thar Desert– rocky mountains of Aravalli– slippery white sands of Rann ofKutch• Indian National RallyChampionship– organized by FederationInternationale de l’Automobile(FIA) and Motorsports Associationof India (MAI)• Vintage Car Rally– Delhi up to Sohna (Haryana)• Women Car Rally by NGO‘Uthaan’• Kalinga Green Car Rally– Kalinga Motor Sports Club (KMSC)23Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  24. 24. RIVER RAFTING IN INDIA• Himacha Pradesh, Ladakhin Jammu & Kashmir, theGarhwal Himalayas inUttaranchal, the BeasRiver of Himachal Pradeshand Teesta River inSikkim.• River Rafting inUttarakhand, RiverRafting in HimachalPradesh,• River Rafting in Ladakh,River Rafting in Sikkim,River Rafting in Kashmirin River Ganga ,Alaknanda River, BhagiratiRiver, Indus River, ZanskarRiver, Kali Sarda River andBrahmaputra River.24Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  25. 25. Canoeing & Kayaking• Kayaking is just likebackpacking on an off beatenpath, except that this timeyour adventure is on the sea• Kayaks look like small fishingboat and are not a new thingin the Indian coastal sites, butthey are fastly picking up as afavourite water sport in India• Lake Paradise, Nanital• Mumbai• Dal Lake, Srinagar• Nagin Lake, Srinagar• Manasbal Lake, Srinagar• canoeing presents quiet aunique combination ofexploration. Paddle throughthe amazing sea caves, exploreoffshore islands, and snorkelthe marine reserves that arefilled with abundant marinetreasures• the beaches of Goa, Karnatakaand Kerala• In j&k and uttaranchal25Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  26. 26. India Surf Spots• India has 7,000 km ofcoastline• Sea, the Indian Ocean andthe Bay of Bengal• waves in India all yearround averaging 3 to 5 feetbut the season for bigwaves [8feet plus] is Maythrough September• pre-monsoon and monsoonseason. At this time the surfwill range from 8 to 15 feetand bigger• On the westcoast - 200surfable river mouths• Except for a few beachesaround Goa, Gokaran,Varkala, Kovalam,Pondicherry andMahabalipuram• KanyaKumari ,KovalamBeach,Rameswaram, Tiruchendur,Varkala, Mahe, KrishnaRiver , Auroville, Vizag,Dwarka, Jagannatha Puri,Gokarna, Goa26Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  27. 27. Dive Sites of India• Lakshadweep Islands– Kadmat Island• Goa– S.S. Rita• Bangalore• Andaman Islands– Havelock Island– Minerva Ledge– South Button Island– Neil Island– South Andamans27Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  28. 28. Parasailing in India• 3 methods of parasailing currently beingoffered to consumers around the world.Winchboat Parasailing, Beach Parasailing andPlatform Palasailing. However, WinchboatParasailing is the most popular and widelyaccepted method.28Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  29. 29. Hot Air Ballooning• India also has its own hot-air balloons and theBallooning Club of India organizes internationalballoon festivals and demonstration flightsannually. There are Ballooning clubs in Guwahati,Dehradun, Bangalore and Jaipur.• Ballooning Places in India:– Agra, UP– Pushkar, Rajasthan– Beneshwar, Rajasthan– Nagaur, Rajasthan29Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  30. 30. Hang Gliding• Most Indian hang gliding sites have been highly rated and those inthe lower regions of the Himalaya are among the best the worldhas. Hang gliding clubs in India are located at Pune, Delhi, Mumbai,Chandigarh, Shimla, Devlali and Bangalore.• Hang Gliding Places in India:– Billing, HP– Dharamkot, HP– Pune, Maharashtra– Delhi– Mumbai, Maharashtra– Mumbai, Maharashtra– Chandigarh– Shimla, HP– Devlali, Maharashtra– Bangalore, Karnataka– Kalahatty, Ooty30Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  31. 31. Para gliding in India• Paragliding Places in India:– Billing, HP– Kullu, HP– Solang, HP– Lahaul & Spiti, HP– Naukutchiyatal, Nainital– Dayara Bugyal, Garhwal– Dhanolti Ridge, Garhwal– Bedni Bugyal, Kumaon– Jaipur, Rajasthan– Jaisalmer, Rajasthan– Jodhpur, Rajasthan– Udaipur, Rajasthan– Bikaner, Rajasthan– Matheran, Maharashtra31Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  32. 32. INDIAN NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES• 100 Wildlife National Parks and more than 400 Wildlife Sanctuaries• famous for its tigers and elephants but with more than 500 species ofmammals including leopard, the rare one-horned rhino, 2000 bird speciesand subspecies– Corbett National Park– Nagarhole National Park– Keoladeo Ghana (Bharatpur) National Park– Nameri National Park– Kanha National Park– Kaziranga National Park– Bandhavgarh National Park– Gir National Park– Ranthambore National Park– Singalilla National Park– Sundarbans National Park– Periyar National Park (Thekkady National Park)– Gorumara National Park– Dibru-Saikhowa National Park– Jaldapara National Park– Manas National Park32Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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  38. 38. Corbett National Park• Uttartranchal• 201 square mile park• in 1973 and this park wasone of the first such tigerreserves in the country• 100 species of tree. It isalso home to 50 speciesof mammal, 580 birdspecies and 25 reptilespecies• four kinds of deer, wildboar, the leopard cat,jungle cat and fishing cat,dhole (wild dog) gharialcrocodile and the muggercrocodileKeoladeo Ghana (Bharatpur)National Park• 350 species of birds findrefuge in Bharatpurs 11square miles of shallowlakes and woodland• there are four species ofcormorants, eight speciesof egrets, three ibises, 17species of duck and geese,and two species of crane.• Siberian Crane is one of therarest species in the world• huge rock pythons• sambal deer and blue bull38Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  39. 39. Kanha National Park• Mandla district of MP• 2000 square km• Mekal Hills• Surpan River runs• attraction is the tiger• gray langur, porcupine,mongoose and wild pig• 175 varieties of birdsBandhavgarh National Park• Vindhyan mountains• declared a park in 1968• highest density of tigerSundarbans National Park• part of the largest delta inthe world formed whereGanges, Brahmaputra andMeghna• largest National Park inIndia• more than 250 tigers39Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  40. 40. Ranthambore National Park• Eastern Rajasthan• Aravali Hill ranges and theVindhyan plateau meet• Chambal in the South andBanas in the North bound theRanthambore National Park.Six man made lakes• 300 trees, 50 aquatic plants,272 birds, 12 reptiles andamphibians- including themarsh crocodile - and 30mammalsJaldapara National Park• West Bengal is situated in thefoothills of the EasternHimalayas in the Jalpaiguridistrict• formed in 1943 for theprotection of wildlife, inparticular the one-hornedrhino• bisected by the River TorshaNameri National Park• foothills of the easternHimalayas and is a haven formany endangered animals, inparticular the Bengal tiger• consists of hilly deciduousforests flanking the Jia Bhoroliriver40Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  41. 41. Nagarhole National Park• separated from the famousBandipur National Park bythe mighty Kabini river• the Park was extended toinclude the Mysore Forestsin 1974Gorumara National Park• located on the flood plainsof the Murti and Jaldhakarivers in the Dooars (rollinghill slopes) region ofJalpaiguri district in WestBengal• Asiatic one-horned rhinoKaziranga National Park• one horned rhinocerousGir National Park• Asiatic lion is incredibly rareand is the most endangeredlarge cat species in theworld. Sasangir (Gir)National Park in Gujarat isthe only place where theycan be found in the wildand only approximately 300remain41Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  42. 42. Periyar National Park(Thekkady National Park)in the Western GhatsNilgiri Tahr, gaur (Indian bison)100 species of butterfly and atleast 240 birdDibru-Saikhowa National Park• biggest National Park in Assam• one of the 19 biodiversityhotspots in the worldManas National Park• along the Assam-Bhutanborder• World Heritage Site• Bengal florican and the GianthornbillDachigam National Park• 22 kilometersfrom Srinagar, Jammu andKashmir• a National Park in the year1981• Hangul• Musk Deer• Leopard• Himalayan Gray LangurDudhwa National Park• Terai of Uttar Pradesh• national park in January 1977• In 1988, the park wasdeclared as a tiger reserve42Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  43. 43. Mudumalai National Park• first wildlife sanctuariesestablished in India. Thesanctuary is divided into 5ranges - Masinagudi,Thepakadu, Mudumalai,Kargudi and Nellakota• 48 tigers in the Nilgiri ReserveValley of Flowers National Park• Uttarakhand• UNESCO World Network ofBiosphere Reserves since2004• declared a national park in1982MADHAV – shivpuri NATIONALPARK• Jhansi-Shivpuri Road• wildlife – buffs• chinkara, Indian gazelle andchitalNanda Devi National Park• Uttarakhand in northern India• World HeritageSite by UNESCO in 1988• Nanda Devi: 7,816 m (25,643ft)• Devistan I, II: 6,678 metres(21,909 ft), 6,529 m (21,421 ft)• Rishi Kot: 6,236 m (20,459 ft)43Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  44. 44. CULTURAL TOURISM RESOURCES IN INDIA44Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  45. 45. History of India45Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  46. 46. History of IndiaDivided in 7 Periods1. Original Indians (1700BC – 3300BC)Indus Valley Civilization: Mohenja-daro and Harappa People2. Aryans (2500BC – 322BC) India’s Root Culture3. The Mauryan Empire (322BC – 188BC)Spread of Buddhism4.Gupta Period (320AD – 480AD) Golden Age of India5. Muslim Period (1175AD – 1800AD) Turks and Mughals6. European Rule (1800AD – 1947AD) Portuguese, French, Dutch,and English7. Independence and Democratic India46Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  47. 47. 1. Indus Valley Civilization• Excavation in Northwest part of Pakistan has discovered civilizationthat is over 5,000 years old.• This is the period where people in the rest of the world werenomadic• The artifacts discovered from excavationUrban planning– Sanitation system– Advancements in Art and science– Agriculture and trade– Engineering – metallurgy– Medicine – dentistry– Peaceful egalitarian society• Impact– Engineering– Science– Medicine– Arts47Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  48. 48. 2. Aryans (2500BC – 322BC)• Group of nomadic tribes who had originally inhabited Central Asia(There is a dispute on this)• Tall, fair haired, with clear cut features, they settled in Punjab, inthe Indus Valley River region.• Fought with the original people of Indus Valley Civilization, whowere dark skin and known as Dasyus or Dravidians• The superiority of the Aryans resulted in the Dravidian submissionand retirement to the south.• The Aryan society was very well organized, ruled by a monarch.• Practiced the four Vedas• Caste system was introduced and practiced, based on one’sprofession:– Brahmins: Priests, teachers, intellectuals– Khsatriyas: Warriors, soldiers– Vashya: Traders, merchants, peasants– Shudras: People in service of others• Aryan period ended At the end of 322BC.48Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  49. 49. Cultural Impact of Aryans• The culture of the Aryan period exist today and hasbeen an integral pat of Hindus all over the world.• All Hindus accept Vedas as their most sacred scripture.• Hindu religion originated with Aryans• With the invasion of Persian kings Cyrus and Darius inthe 500 BC, there were significant changes andcommingling of Aryan and Persian culture.Persian and Greek Invasion• The Persian Invasion in 500BC, and the invasion ofAlexander the Great of Greece in 327 BC, changed theIndian culture for ever.• The most significant impact of this period was:– (1) Cultural mixing– (2) Establishment of contacts with foreign countries49Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  50. 50. 3. Mauryan Empire (322BC -188BC)• The Mauryans were better rulers and culturally rich.• They had a highly centralized and hierarchical government, welldeveloped trade and commerce, welfare of foreigners, maintenance ofpublic places including markets, and temples.• The most significant ruler of this period was Emperor Ashoka whoconverted to Buddhism and introduced Buddhism outside India• After the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire disintegrated rapidly andall of South Asia fragmented into regional powers.• Cultural Impact of Mauryans• Origin of non-violence in India• War in Kalinga• Ashoka promoted non-violence, along with Buddhism.• spread of Buddhism to neighboring countries of China, Thailand, Vietnam,Japan, etc.• Education and Intellectual movement• The Worlds first university was established in India. More than 10,500students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects.50Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  51. 51. 4. Gupta Period (320 AD – 480 AD)• After the decline of Mauryans, Gupta rulers rose to power• The Gupta period in Indian history is known as the Golden Age of India.• Era of the most advanced civilization, flush with wealth, highereducation, trade with foreign countries, and an overall happy life.• Religious tolerance and freedom of worship• Period of Hindu renaissance.Impact of the Gupta Period• Emperor Ashoka promoted Buddhism, but Gupta rulers showed apreference for Hindu religion• Music, architecture, sculptures and painting were at its• best.• Various copper statues images of Buddha reflect the craftsmanship of theGupta period.• After the death of the last Gupta ruler in 570 AD, the Gupta empiredeclined and broke off.51Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  52. 52. Gupta Period (320 AD – 480 AD)• Huien Tsang has provided a good historicalaccount of the life in this period.Foreign Invasions• Due to its wealth and culture, India has attractedforeigners throughout its history:– Persian invasion in 500BC– Greek Invasion in 327 BC– Turks in 1175AD– Mughal in 1526– Portuguese in 16th century– Dutch and French in 17th century– English in 18th through 20th century52Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  53. 53. 5. Muslim Period – Turks & Mughals (1175 –1800 AD)• Turks from Central Asia invaded India and ruledfrom 1175 to 1340 AD.• Attracted by India’s wealth, looted and destroyedtemples.• More interested in wealth rather than politicsand were soon replaced by the Mughals.• The Turks’ dominance ended in 1526 with theinvasion of Mughals from central Asia• The Turks• Fierce and famous, Turk invader-Mahmud ofGhazni53Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  54. 54. Muslim Period (1175 – 1800 AD) – The Mughals• Nomadic people of central Asia. The first invader was Babur, relatedto Genghis Khan.• He defeated Rajputs and Afgans and ruled in India• Babar’s successors: Akbar and Shahjahan are the most prominentin Indian history.• Akbar is known to be the first Muslim emperor to unite Hindus andMuslims, and marrying a Hindu woman.• Shahjahan is known in history for building the world famousmonument Tajmahal.• Shahjahan built the Tajmahal in memory of his deceased wifeNoorjahan, who died on June 17, 1631 in child birth.• Aurangzeb was the last significant ruler of the Mughal Empire,preceding the european rulers• His successors were week and corrupt, Aurangjeb is generallyregarded as the last significant Mughal ruler.• The Hindu Maratha Empire mostly replaced Mughal rule during therest of the 18th century• Today, 13.4% of India’s population is Muslim54Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  55. 55. 6. European Rule (1800 – 1947) – Discovery of India• The invasion of Alexander had boosted trade contactsoutside India• Italians and Portuguese made several attempts to find aneasy route to India that will avoid the hostile route throughnorthern part of India.• Columbus, in his quest to find India ended up in NorthAmerica and erroneously thought he had reached India,calling the native of the new land as Indians.• On April, 1498 Vasco da Gama reached the western coast ofIndia and the quest for Europeans to reach India wasfulfilled.• Subsequent to Vasco Da Gama’s arrival in India, thePortuguese fought and established their dominance andappointed Portuguese Governor in India.• After a century, due to the incompetent administration,the Portuguese power began to decline.55Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  56. 56. Culture of India• Indias languages, religions, dance, music, architecture,food and customs differ from place to place within thecountry, but nevertheless possess a commonality. Indiais the only country in the world to have so manyreligions and beliefs. The culture of India is anamalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread allover the Indian subcontinent and traditions that areseveral millennia old• Regarded by many historians as the "oldest livingcivilization of Earth", the Indian tradition dates back to8000 BC and has a continuous recorded history sincethe time of the Vedas, believed variously to be 3,000 toover 5,500 years ago. Several elements of Indiasdiverse culture — such as Indian religions, yoga andIndian cuisine — have had a profound impact acrossthe world. 56Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  57. 57. • Religions and spirituality• Marriage - ArrangedMarriage• Namaste• Festivals• Names and language• Animals• Cuisine• Clothing• Languages and literature• History• Epics• Performing arts– Dance– Drama and theatre– Music• Visual arts– Painting– Sculpture– Architecture• Sports and Martial arts– Sports– Indian martial arts• Popular media– Television– Cinema57Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  58. 58. Indian society• Culture of India• is an amalgamation of thesediverse sub-cultures spreadall over the Indiansubcontinent and traditionsthat are several millenniaold• Hindu societyBeliefs– Concept of God– Devas and avatars– Karma and samsara– Objectives of human life– YogaPractices– Rituals– Pilgrimage– FestivalsScriptures– Shruti– SmritisDemographicsSociety– Denominations– Ashramas– Monasticism– Varnas– Ahimsa, vegetarianism58Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  59. 59. Caste system in India• is a system of social stratification and socialrestriction in India in which communities aredefined by thousands of endogamous hereditarygroups called Jātis.• The Jātis were hypothetically and formallygrouped by the Brahminical texts under the fourwell known categories (the varnas):viz Brahmins (scholars, teachers, firepriests), Kshatriyas (kings, warriors, law enforcers,administrators), Vaishyas(agriculturists, cattleraisers, traders, bankers, artisans),and Shudras (labourers, craftsmen, serviceproviders). Certain people like foreigners,nomads, forest tribes and the chandalas (whodealt with disposal of the dead) were excludedaltogether and treated as untouchables.• Although identified with Hinduism, in the past(1883 year data)the caste-like systems were alsoobserved among followers of other religions in theIndian subcontinent, including some groupsof Muslims and Christians, most likely due toinherited cultural traits. Theoretically, allforeigners are considered to be casteless; in the18th century, the high-caste Brahmins avoidedundertaking sea trips, as they considered theEuropean merchants as untouchableSocio-economic issues• Overpopulation• Economic issues– Poverty– Sanitation– Corruption• Education– Initiatives– linkage between educationand economic growth– Measurement of returns toschool– Issues• Violence– Religious violence– Terrorism– Naxalism– Caste related violence59Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  60. 60. Indian TraditionsIndia, in the past, witnessed successive waves of migrationfrom various foreign forces like the Persians, Arabs, British andTurks. Though, with time, all of them retreated, they leftbehind their indelible mark which is still reflected in theculture and traditions of India. From one state to another,there is huge variation in the language, attire, beliefs andother demographic aspects of the denizens that it is simplymind-boggling.However, there are some very prominent features that bindall Indians to the brand Hindustani. These traditions rangefrom the aarti done to welcome the guests to touching thefeet of the elders. The cultural traditions of India have beenpassed on from generation to generation and are deeplyrooted in the Indian way of living.60Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  61. 61. Etiquette• India is a vibrant amalgamationof varied ethnic groups, climate,cultures, regions and traditions.As such, many people visitingthe country for the first timefind it uniquely different. Onone hand, you will find manyconservatively dressed Indianwomen flocking the templeentrance. On the other, thereare others who have no qualmswalking the fashion ramp in theskimpiest of clothes. Whilethere are millions of illiteratesin the Indian subcontinent,there are also those who arethe driving force behind thebooming IT industry in India.• Dressing EtiquetteMajority of the Indians,especially in the rural areas,small towns and cities, are aconservative.Short, revealing clothes,especially for women, is astrict taboo.As such, its expected thatyou dress up according to thesituation.E.G. when you go out forsight-seeing, you can wearknee length Bermudas, teeshirts, long or quarter lengthskirts, capris and jeans.However, at high-endrestaurants, bars and discos,you can dress in a morerelaxed manner, withoutworrying much about thedress codes. 61Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  62. 62. Customs on usage of ShoesIndian temple etiquettestipulates that you take offyour shoes before enteringthe premises.The same applies to evencertain churches in India.Usually, there will be peoplestationed outside mosttemples and gurdwaras, whowill keep your shoes safely fora nominal sum.You will be expected to followthe same protocol when youvisit a persons home in someof the cities of India.• Indian ProximityIndian culture and traditionforbids unnecessary touchingor any form of physicalcontact, especially between aman and a woman, in public.Kissing in public is a notadvisable.You can shake hands withpeople, or better still stick, tothe traditional Namaste, thepopular Indian style greeting.For this, you need to pressyour hands together with allfingers pointing towards thesky in front of your chest andpolitely say Namaste, whilelooking at the person you aresaying it to.62Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  63. 63. Generic AttitudeIndian manners and etiquette alsocomprise of not speaking illabout or criticizing the countryor its people openly.The natives are bound to takegreat offence to it.At the same time, never addressthe elderly by their first name,unless they allow you to.Its advisable for you to call themsir or ma’am instead. Withyoungsters, you can choose to beinformal.It is also considered disrespectfulin India to use loud and foullanguage words publicly.• Joint Family SystemA majority of the people in Indiaprefer to live in a joint family,which could compriseanywhere between a group oftwo or more members to evenover 20 members sometimes.As per the Indian way of living,the commanding position in afamily is held by the eldestearning male member. Heconsults other adult memberson important issues, but it is hisdecision that ultimatelyprevails. However, a lot ofimportance is also given to theadvice of the eldest retiredmembers of the family.63Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  64. 64. Women as HomemakerAs per the lifestyle of theIndian people, it is the dutyof a woman to take care ofher home.As such, from her childhood,a girl child is taught to rustleup mouth-watering dishesby her mother and otherladies in her family.She is also taught to attendto guests and strangerspolitely and elegantlybecause it is thought togreatly reflect upon herupbringing.Respecting EldersOne common trait you willfind amongst Indians is thatchildren show utmostrespect to their elders. Nowthis is one habit all Indianparents deliberately inculcatein their children, sincebeginning. It is an unsaid rulein India that a person cannotrudely respond to elders. It isdeemed disrespectful in Indiato refer to an elder by his /her name. Instead peopleprefer calling them uncle andaunt, especially if the personis very elderly. It is alsocustomary in India for theyoungsters to touch the feetof their elders as a way ofgreeting as well as onimportant occasions. 64Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  65. 65. Places of Worship - CustomsWorshipping is an important part of the daily life ofIndian people. You will find the holy basil tulsiplanted in maximum houses, which people water aswell as worship everyday religiously.Many Indians are associated to various religious sectsand attend weekly gatherings to listen to thesermons.Apart from temples, mosques and gurdwaras, therewill also invariably be a personal place for worship,and pictures of Gods and Goddesses, in every housein India65Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  66. 66. HospitalityPerhaps, the one thing that isgoing to take you bysurprise and also deeplytouch you on your Indiatour is the warm hospitalityof Indians. A ready smile onthe face, always willing togo out of the way to helpsomebody, exuding genuinehappiness upon meeting aperson - these are some ofthe common traits you willfind in maximum Indians.The Sanskrit adage, "AtithiDevo Bhava," meaning theguest is truly your goddictates the respect grantedto guests in India.Welcoming Guests- TraditionsPlaying the perfect host is anintegral part of the Indianculture and tradition. As such,Indian people go to greatlengths to make their guests feelwelcome. Garlanding, aarti andapplying tilak, or a redvermillion mark, on theforehead of the guest is, thus,an important part of thereception ritual. There arebasically two reasons behind thegarlanding tradition of India.Firstly, it showcases oneshappiness at receiving theparticular guest and secondly, itis a form of publiclyacknowledging the guestsimportance.66Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  67. 67. Indian Family Value SystemExamples of Indian family values are - a young person should always touch the feetof his elders; he should never speak in a high or rude tone to those who are olderto him; he should always give respect to elders and refer to them as aap; heshould not consume alcohol and tobacco or smoke cigarettes; he should respectwomen; he should always speak truth and try to engage in non-violent behavior;and so on. Most of the values that the parents impart to their children in India, asa part of the family value system, are similar in nature.Some other values that are part of Indias cultural heritage are:• Living peacefully and respecting each others rights.• Never ever compromising on integrity for the purpose of prosperity.• Maintain strong bonds with the family members as well as relatives.• Being hospitable to everyone who comes to your home, irrespective of his caste,creed, financial position or status.• Treating guest as God i.e. Atithi Devo Bhava.• Remembering and bowing to God first thing in the morning.• Indulging in yoga and meditation.• Always taking the advice of elders in case of any important decision67Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  68. 68. Cuisine and Food habits• Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which dateback thousands of years• are characterised by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs,vegetables and fruit.• known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society.• Each family of Indian cuisine includes a wide assortment of dishes andcooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region,reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically-diversesubcontinent.• Hindu beliefs and culture have played an influential role in the evolutionof Indian cuisine. However, cuisine across India also evolved as a resultof the subcontinents large-scale cultural interactionswith Mongols and Britain making it a unique blend of some variouscuisines.• Indian cuisine has influenced cuisines across the world, especially thosefrom Southeast Asia and the Caribbean.• by a 5000 year history of various groups and cultures interacting withthe subcontinent, leading to the diversity of flavors and regionalcuisines68Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  69. 69. Antiquity• Many recipes first emerged during theinitial Vedic period, when India was stillheavily forested and agriculture wascomplemented with game hunting andforest produce.• a normal diet consisted of fruit,vegetables, grain, dairy products,honey, and poultry and other sorts ofmeats.• Over time, some segments of thepopulation embraced vegetarianism,This was facilitated by the advent ofBuddhism and an equitable climatepermitting a variety of fruits,vegetables, and grains to be grownthroughout the year.• saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developedin Ayurveda. A reference to the kind offood one is to eat is also discussed inthe Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 17, Verses8,9 & 10).• In this period eating beef becametaboo, a belief still commonly heldtoday.Middle Ages• period in which several NorthIndian dynasties werepredominant, including the Guptadynasty.• Travelers who visited Indiabrought with them new cookingmethods and products like teaand spices.• Later, India saw the period ofCentral Asian and Afghanconquerors, which saw theemergence of the Mughlaicuisine that many people nowassociate with India.• This included the addition ofseveral seasonings like saffron,the addition of nuts, and thepractice of cooking in a sealedpot called a "dum". 69Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  70. 70. Ingredients• are Bajra, rice, atta (whole wheat flour), and a variety of pulses, of which the most central to thiscuisine are masoor (most often red lentils), channa (bengal gram), toor (pigeon pea or yellowgram), urad (black gram), and moong (green gram).• Pulses may be used whole, dehusked – for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad – or split. Split pulses,or dal, are used extensively. Some pulses, like channa and mung, are also processed into flour (besan).• Most Indian curries are cooked in vegetable oil. In northern and western India, peanut oil is popular,while in eastern India, mustard oil is more commonly used. Coconut oil is used widely along thewestern coast, especially in Kerala; gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south as well.• In recent decades, sunflower and soybean oil have become popular across India. Hydrogenatedvegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is another popular cooking medium. Butter-based ghee,or desi ghee, is used very frequently, but still less used than before.• The most important or frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper, black mustard seed(sarso), cumin (jeera), turmeric (haldi), fenugreek(methi), asafoetida(hing), ginger(adrak), coriander (dhania), and garlic (lehsun). Popular spice mixes are garam masala, a powder that typically includes fiveor more dried spices, especially cardamom, cinnamon, and clove.• Each region, and sometimes each individual chef, has a distinctive garam masala blend. Godamasala is a comparable, though sweet, spice mix that is popular in Maharashtra Some leavescommonly used for flavoring include tejpat (Bay leaf),coriander leaf, fenugreek leaf, and mint leaf.• The use of curry leaves and roots is typical of Gujarati and all South Indian cuisine. Sweet dishes areseasoned with cardamom, saffron, nutmeg, and rose petal essences.70Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  71. 71. Regional cuisinesAndaman and Nicobar Islands• Seafood plays a major rolein the cuisinesof Andaman and NicobarIslands, which were, andstill are inhabited by theindigenous Andamanese.Since they had very littlecontact with the outsideworld, raw fish and fruitswere their staple diet for along time• Andhra Pradesh• Telugu and Hyderabadi cuisine• Rice,curries and lentil soups orbroths• heavy useof spices and chillies• pickles, such as avakayamango, and gongura• Curds to kill spicyness• Hyderabadi biryani71Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  72. 72. Arunachal Pradesh• Rice with fish, meat and greenvegetables. Lettuce commonvegetablewith ginger, coriander and greenchillies. Boiled rice cakes wrappedin leaves . Thukpa is a kind ofnoodle soup of Monpa tribeAssam• bhuna, the gentle frying of spicesbefore the addition of the mainingredients, so common in Indiancooking, is absent.• khar, a class of dishes ends with atenga, a sour dish.• The food is usually served in bellmetal utensils.• Pann, the practice of chewing betelnut, generally concludes the meal.Bihar• buttermilk (called mattha)• poha (flattened rice) withyoghurt and sugar.• Sattu Parathas, Chokha• alu-bhujia• Tangy raita made from lauki(winter melon)Chattisgarh• liquor brewed fromthe Mahuwa flower• Red ant chutney• pork constitute a large part ofChatisgarhDaman and Diu• Gujarati food andtraditional Portugese food72Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  73. 73. Goa• Seafood, coconut milk, rice andpaste are main ingredients. Kokumis a distinct feature. staple foods arerice and fish. Kingfish (Vison orVisvan) is most commonGujarat• primarily vegetarian. The typicalGujarati Rotli inGujarati), daal or kadhi, rice,and sabzi/shaak, Keri no ras (freshmango pulp) is often an integralpart of the meal. GaramMasala less in summer. Regularfasting is a common practice.Haryana• dairy is a common component ,Kadhi Pakora, Besan Masala Roti,Bajra Aloo Roti, Churma, Kheer,Bathua Raita, Methi Gajar, Singri kiSabzi and Tamatar Chutney. Lassiand Sherbat are the two popularnon-alcoholic beverages. liquor• Himachal Pradesh• similar to north India,including lentil, broth, rice, vegetables and bread. specialities ofHimachal include Pateer, Chouck,Bhagjery and chutney of Til.Jammu & Kashmir• influence of the KashmiriHindus andBuddhists. invasion ofKashmir by Timur. influencedcuisines of Central Asian, Persia,and the North Indian. notableingredient is mutton (lamb), over 30varieties.• Kashmiri Pandit food, differencesbetween Kashmiri cuisine andPunjabi cuisine is rice and Roti.Jharkhand• equally vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian. not available at therestaurants , not beencommercialised. on a visit to a tribalvillage to taste such exotic food.73Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  74. 74. Karnataka• Vegetarian and non-vegetariancuisines. Influence of SouthIndian states and Maharashtra,Goa to its north. Some typical dishesinclude Bisi bele bath, Joladarotti, Chapati, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti,Saaru, Huli, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath,Kesari Bath, Davanagere BenneDosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu.Masala Dosa traces its originto Udupi cuisine. Plain andRave Idli, Mysore MasalaDosa and Maddur Vade are popularin South Karnataka. Coorg district isfamous for spicy pork curries, sweetsMysore Pak, Dharwadpedha, Chiroti are well known.typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadigameal) includes Uppu(salt),Kosambari, Pickle, Palya, Gojju,Raita, Dessert, Thovve, Chitranna,Rice and Ghee.Kerala• grated coconut and coconut milk arewidely used in dishesand curries. Rice is grown inabundance, and could be said, alongwith tapioca (manioc/cassava) mainstarch ingredient . spices - blackpepper, cardamom, cloves, ginger,and cinnamon predominantly non-vegetarians, variety of breakfastdisheslike idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, puttu, and pathiri.Lakshadweep• influence of Kerala, coconut and seafish. coconut waterManipur• simple, organic and healthy. use chilipepper rather than Garam masala.staple diet of Manipur consists of rice,leafy vegetables, and fish. TheUmarok is a very popular chili that isused in the cuisine.74Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  75. 75. Madhya Pradesh• wheat and meat, dominated by riceand fish. Gwalior and Indore aboundin milk and milk-based, Bhutte kakees, Sabudane ki khicri, AalooPatis Chat house. Bhopal - roganjosh, korma, keema, biryani pilaf andkababs such as shami and seekh, Dalbafla. Bafla is a steamed and grilledwheat cake dunked in rich gheewhich is eaten with daal (a pungentlentil broth). It is followed bysweet ladoos. Another popular dishin Malwa region (central M.P)is poha (flattened rice), it is mostly abreakfast item served with Jalebi.• local liquor which is distilled from theflowers of the mahua tree. date palmtoddy• Mizoram• Mizo cuisine is a blend of Chineseand north Indian , served on freshgreen banana leaves. Meals areusually less spicy and plain in taste,popular dish is Bai, eaten with rice.Sawchair made of rice cooked withpork or chicken.Maharashtra• Bajri, Wheat, rice, jowar, vegetables,lentils and fruit, puranpoli, ukdiche Modak and batatawada. The staple dishes ofMaharashtrian cuisine are basedon Bajri, Jowar and Rice(Tandul).Konkani cuisine. Vidarbha area, hasits own distinctive cuisine known asthe Varadi cuisine. kokum, a deeppurple berry that has a pleasingsweet and sour taste. panha madefrom boiled raw mango is consumed.varan/aamtee – a type of lentilsMeghalaya• home of three Mongoloid tribes, hasa unique cuisine of its own. rice withspicy meat and fish preparations.They rear goats, pigs, fowl, ducks andcows and relish their meat. Thepopular dishes areJadoh, KiKpu, Tung-rymbai, and pickledbamboo shoots. ferment rice beer75Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  76. 76. Nagaland• Naga cuisine, of the Naga people isknown for exotic meats cooked withsimple and flavorful ingredients like theextremely hot bhut jolokia or ghost chili,fermented bamboo shoots and soyabeans. oil minimally, prefer to ferment,dry and smoke their meats and fishes,food is healthy and light.Orissa• Panch phutana, a mix of cumin,mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji(nigella) is widely used for temperingvegetables and dals, while garammasala (curry powder)andhaladi (turmeric) are commonly usedfor non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, adish made of rice, water, and yoghurt,that is fermented overnight, is verypopular in summer, particularly in therural areas. fond of sweetsPuducherry• The French and the Indo style havegiven birth to an innovative taste. Theinfluence of the neighboring areas likeTamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Keralais also visible.• Coconut Curry, Tandoori Potato, SoyaDosa, Podanlangkai, Assad, CurriedVegetables, Stuffed Cabbage, BakedBeansPunjab• restaurant style using large amountsof ghee, with liberal amountsof butter and cream with home cookedconcentrating on mainly uponpreparations with whole wheat, riceand other ingredients flavoredwith masalas.• prefer stuffed parathas and dairyproducts, Mah Di Dal, saron da saag,and many othe things.The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in whichmost of the rural folk burn up a lotof calories while working in thefields. Tandoori food is a Punjabispeciality Tandoor, Naan, Pakoras andvegetable dishes with paneer – derivefrom the Punjab. 76Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  77. 77. Rajasthan• food is generally cookedin milk or ghee, Besan or gram flouris a mainstay of Marwari foodmainly because of the scarcity ofvegetables in this arid land.• Major dishes of a Rajasthani platterincludes Daal-Baati, Tarfini, Raabdi,ghewar, Bail-Gatte, Panchkoota,Chaavadi, Laapsi, Kadhi and Boondi,and snacks like BikaneriBhujia, Mirchi Bada, PyaajKachori, Dal Kachori.Sikkim• the Nepalese, Bhutias and Lepchas.Rice is the staple food. Meat anddairy products finger millet, wheat,buckwheat, barley, vegetable,potato, soybeans, etc. are grown.Tamil Nadu• rice, legumes and lentils, itsdistinct aromaand flavour achieved by theblending of spices including curryleaves, tamarind,coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg,coconut and rosewater.• "curry" is derived fromthe Tamil word kari which means"an additive to the main courseor a sidedish" Rice and legumes play animportant role in Tamil cuisine.Tripura• The major ingredient of Tripuriscuisine for non-vegetarian foodincludes pork, chicken, mutton, turtle, fish, prawns, crabs,and frogs.77Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  78. 78. Uttar Pradesh• Awadhi and Mughlai cuisine but avast majority of the state enjoyssober vegetarian mealswith Dal, roti, sabzi and riceconstituting the essentials of dailyfood habits. Pooris and kachoris,Chaat, samosa and pakora, are alsooriginally from Uttar Pradesh.Uttarakhand• Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine arethe same, there are some basicdifferences , Kumauni cuisine is thetightfisted use of especially milkand milk-based. Badi (sun-driedUrad Dal balls) and Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitutefor vegetables at times. Main dishesfrom Uttarakhand include Chainsoo,Kafuli, Jholi, Thechwani, Baadi, etc.West Bengal• Bengali cuisine is known for itssubtle flavours, itsconfectioneries and desserts, andhas perhaps the only multi-coursetradition from India that isanalogous with French and Italiancuisine in structure. The natureand variety of dishes found inBengali cooking are unique evenin India78Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  79. 79. Desserts• Indian sweets, known as mithai,are a type of confectionery. Manyare made with sugar, milk andcondensed milk, and cooked byfrying. The bases of the sweetsand other ingredients vary byregion. In the Eastern part of India,for example, milk is a staple, andmost sweets from this region arebased on milk products– Barfi– Chikki– Gulab jamun– Jalebi– Khaja– Kulfi– Kheer (Paayasam)– Laddu– Malpoa (pan cake – rice or wheat)– Motichoor Ka Ladoo (gram flour)– Rasgulla– Shrikhand (yogurt)Beverages– Tea, Lassi, Sharbat, nimbu pani– Alcoholic beverages BeerEating habits– breakfast, or nashta,– Lunch by pan– snacks.– Dinner by sweets• Etiquette– Seated– without cutlery– right hand– South India - banana leaves– Now spoons and forks79Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  80. 80. Music of India - folk, popular, pop, classical musicHindustani music• Vedic times around 1000 BC.developed circa the 13th and 14thcenturies AD with Persianinfluences and religious and folkmusic. The practice of singingbased on notes was popular evenfrom the Vedic times where thehymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text,was sung as Samagana and notchanted. Hindustani music was notonly influenced by ancient Hindumusical traditions, historical Vedicphilosophy and native Indiansounds but also enriched bythe Persian performance practicesof the Mughals. During the Medivelage especially in Mughals eravarious Gharana became famousdue to excellence and class in typeof musics like raga. Tansen is one ofthe navratna of Mughals AdmiralAkbar.• Classical genres are dhrupad,dhamar, khyal, tarana sadra.Carnatic music• 15th - 16th centuries AD and thereafter, one of thegifts bestowed on man by the gods of Hindumythology. It is one of the oldest musical forms thatcontinue to survive today.• Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations.It consists of a composition with improvisedembellishments added to the piece in the formsof Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval, and, in thecase of more advanced students, Ragam Tanam Pallavi.The main emphasis is on the vocals as mostcompositions are written to be sung, and even whenplayed on instruments, they are meant to beperformed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Thereare about 7.2 million ragas (or scales) in CarnaticMusic, with only 300 or so still in common use today.• Purandara Dasa is considered the father of carnaticmusic. Sri Tyagaraja, Sri Shyama Shastry andSri Muthuswami Dikshitar are considered the trinity ofcarnatic music and with them came the golden age incarnatic music in the 18th-19th• Noted artists of Carnatic Music include MSSubbulakshmi, Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the fatherof the current concert format), Semmangudi SrinivasaIyer, TN Seshagopalan and more recently SanjaySubrahmanyan, TM Krishna, Bombay Jayashri, etc.80Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  81. 81. FOLKBihu of Assam– Bihu is the festival of NewYear of Assam falling onmid AprilBhangra• lively form of musicand dance that originatedin the Punjab region tocelebrate VaisakhiDandiya– t is practised in (mainly)the state of GujratPopular music– Film music– Interaction with non-Indianmusic• Indi-pop music– Daler Mehndi, BombayRockers• Rock & metal music– Ravi Shankarand ZakirHussain81Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  82. 82. Indian Musical Instruments• A musical instrument is a deviceconstructed or modifies with apurpose of making music. Inprinciple, anything that producessound, and somehow controlled bea musician can serve as a musicalinstrument. The expression isreserved generally to items thathave a specific musical purpose.The academic study of musicalinstrument is called Organology• In the sphere of instrumental music,India occupies a prominentposition. There are as many as 500musical instruments with distinctnames and techniques of play. Themusical instruments of India havebeen so devised as to fully serve theneeds of her highly developedmelodic system of music. All musicperformances are accompanied byartists on musical instruments.• classified as– (i) Tala Vadhya - Stringedinstruments that stretch in tension.Egs. Veena, Violin, Tambura,Gottuvadhyam, Sitar, Sarod.– (ii) Sushira Vadhya -Windinstruments. Egs. Nadhaswaram,Flute and Shehnai.– (iii) Avanaddha Vadhya -Percussion instruments that haveone or two faces covered with thehide skin.Egs. Mridhangam, Dolak, Tabla.– (iv) Gana Vadhya - Solidinstruments that do not require anytuning. Cymbals, Jaltarang aresome of the Gana Vadhyas.82Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  83. 83. TALA VADHYA (Stringed Instruments)• A String instrument (or stringedinstrument) is a musical instrumentthat produces sound by means ofvibrating strings.SITAR Most well known of the Indianinstruments. It is a long necked instrument with aninteresting construction. It is played in north Indian classicalmusic (Hindustani Sangeet), filmmusic and western fusion music. It developed during the collapse ofMughal empire.(1700 BC) Prominent Players – Ravi Shankar,Imdad Khan, Vilayat Khan, NikhilBanerjee.TANPURA Sophisticated drone instrument ofconcrete platform. There are 3 main styles: Miraj style,Tanjore style and Tamburi. (smallinstrumental version) Known for its rich sound. Came into use in 13th century.SANTUR Instrument indigenous to Kashmir. Has a vibrant tone and has becomevery popular in the last 20 years. 2 types: The Indian santur is box-likewhile the Persian version is muchwider. Origin is from Middle East. Prominent players: Shiva KumarSharma, Bhajan Sopori, OmprakashChaurasiya.VIOLIN Western Origin. Introduced by Portuguese 3 centuriesago Techniques used in Indian & WesternViolins are different. Most refined technique is found inIndian Music. Prominent Players: V.G. Jog,Gajananrao Joshi, N. Rajam.83Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  84. 84. SUSHIRA VADHYA (Wind Instruments)• A Wind instrument is a musicalinstrument that contains some type ofresonator (usually a tube), in which acolumn of air is set into vibration by theplayer blowing into (or over) amouthpiece set at the end of theresonator. The pitch of the vibration isdetermined by the length of the tubeand by manual modifications of theeffective length of the vibrating columnof air.FLUTE They are typically made of Bamboo orReed. There are 2 main types; Bansuri and Venu.Bansuri is used in the North Indian system. Venu is the South Indian flute and is usedin the Carnatic system. Special significance in India because of itsassociation with Lord Krishna. Prominent Players: Pandit Hari PrasadChaurasya, Pannalal Ghosh, RaghunathSeth.SHEHNAI– North Indian oboe.– It is a quadruple-reed instrument.– Has a wooden body with a brass bell.– Found in temples and is anindispensable component of any NorthIndian wedding.– Origin from Persia.– Prominent players: Bismillah Khan.NADHASWARAM– South Indian version of the shehnai.– Larger than the shehnai and has asimple double reed .– Considered a very auspiciousinstrument and is found at temples andat weddings.– Smaller version of the nadaswaramwhich is played in folk music is knownas mukhavinaHARMONIUM– The harmonium is also known as peti orbaja.– It is a European instrument which wasimported in the 19th century.– It is a reed organ with hand pumpedbellows.84Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  85. 85. Avanada – percussion instruments• One or two faces covered with thehide skin. About 290 varieties ofdrums. TABALA, PAKHWAJ,MRIDANGAM, GHODAM, CHENDA,EDAKKA, DHOLAKTABALA• Considered as a royal instrument.• Consists of two drums.• Right side is called tabla & leftbayan.• Sakir Hussain.– The drums are hollow from insideand covered with leather straps.– Black circle are called ankhs/syaki– Straps are pulled to raise or lowerthe pitch.• PAKHWAJ– Originated in North India.– Played with an open left hand.– In south musicians use the left side.– Similar to Mridangam except for slightdifferences in construction and playingtechniques.– Only confined to classical compositionslike Dhrupad and Dhamar.• MRIDANGAM– Means – earthen body.– Originated in South India.– The most highly developed and mostancient of all percussion instruments.– A cylindrical hollow block of wood withhide being used to cover the two ends.– A wide variety of tones can be obtainedfrom different part of the instrument.– Heads on both sides – keeping time andrhythm.– Different in the sound, quality, shapeand making procedure.85Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  86. 86. • GHATAM– An ancient percussioninstrument.– Often used in Carnatic musicconcerts.– This is a mud pot with an openmonth.– Played with hands, wrists andfingers.– The player can bring to lightvarious volume and tones byusing finger strokes at differentparts of the instrument neck,center and bottom.• CHENDA– Is a hollow cylindricalinstrument.– Made from softwood, theends of which are coveredwith cowhide.– Is the chief accompaniment inkathakali.– Most important instrumentwhich is played in temples.• EDAKKA– Is a sensitive percussioninstrument.– Made of wood a quartermetre long, the drumheadsare held in position byinterlacing cotton threads.– The player beats the drumwith one hand whilesimultaneously manipulatingthe strings with the other,thus creating a variety ofmusical notes.• DHOLAK– Is a drum used to accompanylight forms of music and mostof folk music.– Light forms of music likebhajans, ghazals, quawwalis.– In the Carnatic school ofmusic, the dholakaccompanies ‘Nadaswaram’and is called ‘dhol’.86Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  87. 87. • GHANA MUSICALINSTRUMENTS– Solid instruments that do notrequire anything are calledghana.– Not as important as otherinstruments.JALTARANGCYMBOLS – COPPER PLATESBELLSGONGS• JALTARANG– Literally means ‘waterwaves’– It consists of 18 porcelaincups of different sizes.– Each one will producedifferent tone.– Arranged in a semi-circle infront of the performer.– Beginning from largest tosmallest.– Bigger cups produce a deeppitch.– Smaller have higher pitch.– Classical as well as lightmusic is played on it.• Bells & Gongs– Used for the support ofother instruments.– Especially used in temples.87Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  88. 88. DANCE FORMS OF INDIA• Physical expression of emotive contentof music• “Gestures coupled with rhythmicalmovements to expressions can bedefined as Dance”• Expression of mind through bodymovements• In ancient culture dance was purely forreligious practices, in modern society-entertainment• Pleasure of dancing is in watching thatmusic through the visual expression• Literary work which gives informationabout dance is Natyasasthra by Bharata• There are three principles that govern thestructure of Indian DanceTHE MODE OF PRESENTATION– Stage way (natya)– Way of world (loka)TYPE OF STYLE– Gracial (kaiseki)– Grand (stavathi)– Energetic (arabati)– Verbal (bharati)TYPES OF ACTING– vocal (vachiak)– gestures (angika)– stage props (acharya)– temperment (satvika)TECHNIQUE OF DANCE• According to sangeetharatnakara andAbhinayadarpana, dancing is divided into3 distict categories• NATYA – corresponds to drama• NRITHA – pure dance – movement ofbody do not express any any mood anddo not convey any meaning• NRITHYA – or Abhinaya – gesticulationof song– Bharatanatyam– Mohiniyattam– Kathakali– Kathak– Odissi– Kuchipudi– manipuri88Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  89. 89. • BHARATANATYAM– Dance form of Tamilnadu– Opens with ALARIPPU –performed in the beginningfor the obedience of God– 2nd stage is JATISWARAM –Performer waves severalpatterns on musical base– SABDAM –a composition ofKarnatic music– VARNAM – complex itemand central piece– THILLANA – conclude– Bharatha stands for Bhavawhich is mood. Raga ismusic, and Tala is rhythm,while Natyam stands forNritya.• KUCHIPUDI– Dance originated inKuchipudi, AP– Traced back to dancedrama of enacted byBrahmanas in temples– Theme – Bhagavat Purana,esp. life of Krishna– Famous thing is dancing upon brass plate and pot onhis head– Performed both in solo andin group89Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  90. 90. • MOHINIYATTAM– Originated in Kerala– Based on lasya– Derives it’s name fromMohini of Puranas– It has elements ofBharatanatyam and Kathakali• KATHAKALI– Dance drama of kerala– Born in the temples of Kerala– Performed in open air, in thelight of Nilavilakku– Themes – epics– Katha will recite in music by asinger accompanied by drumsand musical instruments– Actor never opens his lips– movement of body, facialexpressions and mudras areused to interpret the play– Training of 10 to 12 years– It will take 3 to 6 hrs for makeup and dressing– female characters are playedby males– Colour of facial make upindicate the character– Green-dignity and nobility(heroes)– Black –demons anddemoness– kathi – villain characters– Thadi – animals and animalGod– Famous institution –kalamandalam by Vallathol90Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  91. 91. • KATHAK– Dance form of UP– Derives it’s name from kathika whichmeans story teller– He recites from epics with gesturesand music– Gradually it assumed an elaboratestyle involving Nritha and Nrithya– Under Mughal rulers it wasinfluenced by Persian customs andstyle of dancing– Dance begins with Ganesh vandana– Salami amad is the term throughwhich a dancer enters into the stage– Then comes the soft and variedmovements– Padhani is a special feature in whichdancer recites complicated items– Concluding item is Jatkar whichconcentrate on fast foot movements– Male dancer usually wear sharvaniand velvet cap– He ties nearly 200 bells around hisangles and can move all or any no.according to his will– Male or female dance or as coupledance• ODISSI– Dance form of Orissa– As devotion to lord Krishna– Based on Geethagovinda– Used to depict love and devotionto God– It was originally temple art ,laterperformed in royal courts– Mudras and expressions are similarto Bharatanatyam– Dance form based onarchaeological evidence• MANIPURI– Dance of Manipur– Describe the plays of Krishna andgopikas– Body moves with slow and gracearm movements and movementsof fingers91Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  92. 92. FOLK DANCES• Folk comprises commonpeople• Folk dance is commonpeople’s dance• They are simple, natural andspontaneous expression ofevery day themes and feelings• Language is very simple andlocal• FAMOUS FOLK DANCES– Tamasha– Kowada– Dasavatar– Dangytamasha– Bhavai– Garbha– Bhopa-Bhopi– Ruf– Hikat– Parasa– Bhangra– Ghidha(panjab)– Dhamyal– Lahoor– Puppertry– Yakshagana– Ghoomar– Nautanki– Gair(Rajasthan)– Velakali– kaikottikali92Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  93. 93. DRAWING AND PAINTINGMural paintings– Huge works executed onwalls or solid structure.– Early examples of muralsare found in the caves ofAjanta and Ellora– Fragments of muralpaintings are also found inthe contemporaryPitalkhora Caves.– Early evidences of thetradition of mural paintingsin southern India are foundin the sites of BadamiMiniature paintings– Executed on Small scale.– On perishable materials like paper,Clothes etc.– Eg. Rajasthan and Mughalminiature.– Miniature Paintings gainedprominence in the 11th and 12thcentury when people startingdeveloping manuscripts to storevaluable knowledge using palmleaves.– This art got great boost by theMughals who ruled over India overthat period.– Some of the great miniaturepaintings gained inspiration fromRamayana, Mahabharata, BhagvataPurana.– Miniature paintings in there in themanuscripts of Jains, Buddhist,Rajput, and Mughal theories andtexts.93Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  94. 94. • Prehistoric paintings–Found in primitivecaves and rockshelters–Paintings are mainlyhunting scenes–Most of themwashed off–Less tourists areattracted towardsthem–Not Promoted bytourism dept.Classical Paintings– Ajantha paintings– Ellora paintingsFresco Paintings– Method of painting water-based pigments on freshlyapplied plaster, usually onwall surfaces.– The colours, which are madeby grinding dry-powderpigments in pure water, dryand set with the plaster tobecome a permanent part ofthe wall.– The Italian Renaissance wasthe greatest period of frescopainting94Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  95. 95. Ajantha Cave Paintings• Located nearly 106 Km fromAurangabad, Maharashtra• The are 30 Buddhist caves in Ajantha• Hinayan and Mahayan have theirseparate caves• No idol worship for Hinayan• Cave 1, 2, 16 and 17 are famous forcoloured wall paintings• Buddha is depicted throughsculptures and paintings.• Paintings were created by Buddhistmonks during vanaprastha• Most of the paintings show storiesrelated to Buddha called jataka tales• Human figures with different hairstyle, dress style, ornament style andfacial expressions have reflected thesocial life of the dayEllora Paintings• Belongs to three different religiousstyle - Buddhist, Hindu and Jain• Budhist caves(1-12) belongs onlyMahayana sect• Total 34 caves• Cave 2,29,& 10 are attractiveBuddhist caves• Paintings cover the ceilings of walls ofmandapas• Have lovely floral designs , animals,and birds• 13-29 are Hindu caves• 30-34 are Jain caves• Entire surface of ceiling and wallcovered with paintings• Paintings are found in 5 caves• Some what preserved in Kailasnathtemple95Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  96. 96. Medieval Paintings– Rajputh paintings– Mughal paintings– Tanjore paintings– Madhubani paintings– Pithora paintings– Kalamkari paintings• Rajputh paintings– These are Rajasthani miniatures– Deal with prevailing literary works– Messages through paintings werealways spiritual or religious– Colours used symbolically– Mainly deal with Radha and Krishna– Major paintings include , Ragmalapaintings, Geethagovinda, Banithani– Rajasthan has been the leadingstate with regards to Miniaturepainting and even today differentminiature art schools do exist in theregions of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Kangraand Mewar.– The Jodhpur School of Miniaturepaintings depict love scenes oflovers Dholu and Maru on camelback.– There are hunting scenes withelephants and horses also available.– The major colors used in this style ofpainting are gold and stone color.96Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  97. 97. Mughal paintings– Combination of Persian and Indian art– Small in size, so miniature– Neither represented Indian emotions nor scenes fromIndian life– Appreciated nature and portrayed with great accuracyand feeling– Beautiful colour combinations of red blue or gold– Immense use of gold , silver and precious stones– Introduced margin decoration– Halos were also introduced to show high personalityand spirituality• Technique:– A high degree of expertise is required as it involves theuse of a very fine brush.– The colours used are mainly derived from minerals,vegetables, precious stones, conch shells, gold andsilver– Paper painting in Miniature art are done on old or newhand made paper of very fine quality that depictAnimals, Birds, Butterfly, Mughal themes and more.– Miniature paintings made of pure marble slabs thatfeature Mythology, Birds, Turbans, Women and Mughalthemes can be used as table tops or wall frames aswell.– Miniature Painting are pain staking efforts of skill andtalent exhibited by Indian artisans.• Tanjore paintings– Tanjore painting is an important form ofclassical South Indian painting native tothe town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu.– The art form dates back to the early 9 thcentury, a period dominated by theChola rulers, who encouraged art andliterature.– Done on wooden material– Colours from locally available naturalmaterials– Also drawn on glass by using differenttechnique– These paintings are known for theirelegance, rich colours, and attention todetail.– The themes for most of these paintingsare Hindu Gods and Goddesses andscenes from Hindu mythology.– In modern times, these paintings havebecome a much sought after souvenirduring festive occasions in South India.– The first stage involves the making of thepreliminary sketch of the image on the base.– The base consists of a cloth pasted over awooden base.– Then chalk powder or zinc oxide is mixed withwater-soluble adhesive and applied on thebase.– After the drawing is made, decoration of thejewellery and the apparels in the image isdone with semi-precious stones.– Laces or threads are also used to decorate thejewellery.– On top of this, the gold foils are pasted.– Finally, dyes are used to add colours to thefigures in the paintings.97Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  98. 98. • Madhubani paintings– Traditional style developed aroundMadhubani, Bihar– Done by women– Done on freshly plastered mud wall– For commercial purpose doing on paperclothes etc.– Religious nature, on special rooms,– Offers special prayer before the work– Various figures include Krishna, Rama ,Lakshmi, sun, moon, wedding scenes etc.– Brush – cotton wrapped around bamboostick– Home made colours– Yellow from turmeric, black from cow dungand soot, green from leaves , white fromrice powder• Pithoro paintings– Paintings of Gujrath– Not a decorative wall piece, way ofappealing to God– Walls of houses are painted byprofessional artists– Young unmarried girls will plaster the wallwith clay and cow dung– Actual painting is done on Wednesday– Tuesday , walls will be whitewashed• Kalamkari paintings– Done mainly on clothes– Using wooden blocks and natural dyes– Painting method of Rajashan• Modern paintings– Bengal School of Art -Raja Ravi Varma– Calcutta School of Art - AbanindranathTagore– During the colonial era, Westerninfluences started to make an impact onIndian art.– Schools of art in India provided access tomodern techniques and ideas– The Progressive Artists Group– The founders were six eminent artists –– K. H. Ara– S. K. Bakre– H. A. Gade– M.F. Husain– S.H. Raza– F. N. Souza,– Some of those who are well-known todayare Bal Chabda, V. S. Gaitonde, KrishenKhanna, Ram Kumar, Tyeb Mehta, andAkbar Padamsee.– Other famous painters like JaharDasgupta, Prokash Karmakar, and BijonChoudhuri enriched the art culture ofindia.– They have become the icon of modernIndian art.98Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  99. 99. HINDU PILGRIMAGE• Allahabad• Amarnath• Ayodhya• Badrinath• Bhuwaneshwar• Dwarka,Gangotri• Haridwar• Kanchipuram• Kanyakumari• Kedarnath• KonarakJainism PilgrimagePalitanaRanakpurSravanabelagolaUdaygiri & KandhagiriCavesChristian PilgrimageGoaVelankanniMuslim PilgrimageAjmer SharifFatehpur SikriHaji AliJama Masjid99Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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  102. 102. SIKH PILGRIMAGEAnandpur SahibDamdama SahibFatehgarh SahibGolden TempleDelhi GurudwarasHemkund SahibManikaranPatna SahibPoanta SahibTakht Sri Hazoor SahibBuddhist PilgrimageAjanta & ElloraBodhgayaKaushambiKushinagarLumbiniNalandaRajgirSarnathShravastiVaishali102Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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  104. 104. ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE• INDUS VALLEY• ANCIENT INDIAN• MIDEVAL INDIAN• COLONIAL• INDUS VALLEY– Each city had a well fortifiedcitadel– Well planned streets– Used backed bricks for buildingconstruction– Houses are often doublestoried– No windows on the street side– Unique sewage system– The Great Bath– Granary104Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  105. 105. • Ancient Indian• Stupas• Rock-cut Architecture– Chaithyas– Viharas– Cave Temples• Temple Architecture• Stupas– Preserving the remains of importantpersonality under a heap ofaccumulated earth– Buddhist Source- Buddhas relics weredivided into different parts and placedunder the Stupas– Sacred place of Buddhism• Structure of Stupas– Shape of bowl turned upside down– Flat structure called ‘Hermika’ (abode of God) at the top– A wooden rode placed in the middle above ‘Hermika’– Small umbrella-like disk above the rode symbolizingrespect, veneration, and magnanimity.• Main Stupas in India– Gaya– Sanchi– Nagargunakonda– Saranath105Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  106. 106. • Rock-cut architectureChaityas– Cell of worship with Stupa placed in thecenter– Have a long rectangular hall ending in asemi-circle at the back-end– The long hall is internally divided intothree sections1. Nave: long central path where theseats are arranged2. Apse: semi-circle area of the cell3. Aisle: passage between rows ofseats– Aisles are separated from the Nave bytwo rows of pillars– The hall has a carved sealing– The door-way is usually placed facingthe Stupa– Horse-shoe shaped window called‘Chaitya window’Viharas– Residents of monks– Square hall in the centre– A pillared Verandah inthe front– Have a number of smallsquare cells– Raised benches in eachcellCave Temples– Rock-cut Hindu, Buddhist, and Jaintemples– Examples:• Kailasnath temple of Ellora• Mahabalipuram temple• Elephanta cave106Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  107. 107. • Temple architecturePatterns of Temples– Sanctum sanctoreum(Garbha Griha)– Shikhara- prominent roof– Pathway– Pradakshin padh– MandapaTypes of temple architecture– Nagara style (North Indian)– Dravida style (South Indian)– Versara (Combined)• Nagara Style– Curvilinear tower– Shrine is square in the center– Projections leading to cruciform shape• One projection- Triratha• Two projections- Pancharatha• Three projections- Saptharatha• Four projections- Navaratha– Nagara style consists of two buildings1. Building with main Shrine2. Mandapa– Differ in the shape of Sikhara– Bell-shaped structure to a height– ‘Kalasa’ at the top– Eg: Temples of Orissa, Rajasthan, and Gujarat• Dravida style– Vimana: tall pyramidal tower consists ofsmall storeys– Gopuram: two storeys separated byhorizontal moulding– Prakara: outer wall envelops the main theShrine107Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  108. 108. • PALLAVA STYLE (AD600-900)– Shore temple of Mahabalipiram,Vaikunta Temple ofKancheepuram• CHOLA STYLE(AD 900-1150)– Brihadewara Temple, Tanjore• PANDYA STYLE(AD 1100-1350)– Chitambaram, Kumbhakonam,Tiruvannamalai• VIJAYANAGARASTYLE(AD 1350-1565)– Auradaiyar koil, Vellur Vittalatemple, Hampi• NAYAKA STYLE (1600 onwards)– Rameshvaram, Chidambaram,Madurai• Versara style– Combined style of Nagara andDravida– Chalukyan Temple(500-750 AD)– Eg. Pattadakal, Aihole108Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
  109. 109. • Agra Fort - former royal residence ofthe Moghul, Agra• Amba Vilas Palace-Mysore• Bangalore Palace - Bengaluru• Chowmahalla Palace• City Palace, Jaipur - Seat of the Maharaja ofJaipur• City Palace, Udaipur - Seat of the Maharana ofUdaipur• Delhi Fort - former seat of the Moghul, Delhi• Falaknuma Palace - royal residence, Hyderabad• Fatehpur Sikri - former royal residence ofEmperor Akbar• Hawa Mahal (Palace of Winds) - former royalresidence, Jaipur• Hill Palace, Tripunithura, Cochin - former RoyalResidence of Maharaja of Cochin, now one ofthe largest archaeological museum in India• Jag Mandir - former residence of Shah Jahan,Udaipur• Jag Niwas (Lake Palace) - former royalresidence, Udaipur• Jaisalmer Fort - Seat of the Maharaja ofJaisalmer• Kangra Fort - Seat of the Maharaja of Kangra-Lambagraon• King Kothi Palace - Palace of VII Nizam, OsmanAli Khan• Kowdiar Palace- Residence ofthe Travancore Royal Family• Lalgarh Palace - former royal residence, todayhotel, Bikaner• Laxmi Vilas Palace - Seat of the Maharajah ofBaroda• Laxmipuram Palace• Marble Palace (Kolkata)• Mattancherry Palace (Dutch Palace), Cochin -former Royal Residence of Maharaja of Cochin,archeological museum at present.• Nedumpuram Palace• New Palace - Seat of Maharaja of Kolhapur• Padmanabhapuram Palace - Seat ofthe Maharaja of Travancore• Purani Haveli - Seat of the Nizam of Hyderabad• Rajbari - Seat of the Maharaja of Cooch Behar• Rambagh Palace - former residence of theMaharaja of Jaipur (today hotel)• Rashtrapati Bhavan - Seat of the President,former viceregal residence, Delhi• Red Fort• Samode Palace - former royal residence, todayhotel, Jaipur• Shaniwar Wada, Pune• Thanjavur Nayak - Thanjavur (Tanjore) NayakPalace, Thanjavur• Umaid Bhawan Palace - Seat of the Maharaja ofJodhpur109Rtist @ Tourism , Pondicherry University
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