Women and Child Issues in Tourism


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Women and Child Issues in Tourism

  1. 1. Women and Child Issues in Tourism © Ramakrishna Kongalla, Assistant Professor Rtist @ Tourism
  2. 2. Women and Tourism• sex, sea, sand and sun concept in Tourism• Tourism, is generally as victims, either in terms of sex work• Advertising which portrays them as sex objects• Experience of women as hosts, entrepreneurs, craftspeople, or even as observers of the tourist scene• Attention has been paid to sex tourism• The damage tourism has already done to women can be mitigated• Future development can be designed in a way that includes women and their interests from the very beginning Rtist @ Tourism
  3. 3. • policy guidelines can be developed so that tourism development can be as constructive for women as possible, and• womens experience in one community can be conveyed to those in another, to help them make better decisions.• She earns, but at the price of her health, her self respect, and the recognition usually available to women in her society.• The only decently paid work to which most women have access is sex work, and it involves numerous disadvantages. Rtist @ Tourism
  4. 4. • Reformism will have little effect until women have real occupational alternatives to the "quick buck" of prostitution.• Tourism represents the commodification not only of a particular culture, but of womens role as nurturer and caretaker, the all giving –taken to the extreme in sex tourism, in which the womans actual body is sold.• womens having no other viable economic options as being an outrage to their womanhood.• The prostitution of women also represents the loss of something private and sacred, for female reproductive power was worshipped before anything else on earth.• rural poverty which drove her into her job, or the system which keeps her there. Rtist @ Tourism
  5. 5. • What are the roles which the tourism industry creates for women?• What part are women playing in restraining tourism?• What do women want from tourism?“ Are they looking merely for income?• To what extent are women shaping tourism, as policy makers, managers, owners, guests, workers and service providers? – Each of these deserves a study of its own. Rtist @ Tourism
  6. 6. • While women are probably a tiny minority in the more powerful roles, the underside of the iceberg gives it shape at least as much as the tip, and women are all too well represented as airhostesses, chambermaids, waitresses, and other "invisible" occupations• As guests, women are almost unstudied (Valene Smith), even though there is ample evidence that they are critical decision makers in travel destinations, and have somewhat different priorities than male tourists. While we know a lot about male guests fantasies of paradise, how much do we know about womens? Rtist @ Tourism
  7. 7. • How does tourism affect women in terms of their daily lives and activities, their opportunities for health and prosperity, and their roles?• How does it affect their status, both as their own community sees them, and as women striving for self-sufficiency worldwide might see them?• Thus far, it seems that tourism is a double- edged sword for women, as it is for men;• it both gives and takes. Rtist @ Tourism
  8. 8. Child & Tourism• The incidence of growing child abuse in South East Asian countries is already ringing alarm bells among critics of mass tourism in the early 80’s.• growing links between tourism and the abuse of children- in the forms of, sexual exploitation of children, child pornography and trafficking and child labour.• policy makers, particularly tourism and child protection, as well as the industry and local communities in tourism destinations aim should be to get rid tourism of child abuse. Rtist @ Tourism
  9. 9. • In 1990, An early study in Palani Hills (Tamil Nadu) made the links between pilgrimage tourism and child prostitution.• In 2008, Unholy Nexus which focussed on male child abuse in Guruvayoor, Puri and Tirupati.• In the intervening two decades however much efforts have been made on the issue, Rtist @ Tourism
  10. 10. • In 1989, Child Prostitution in the context of Tourism, on Child Labour and Tourism, Bhopal drew attention to the links between tourism development in India and the exploitation of children.• Until then this was seen to be an issue plaguing only SE Asian countries.• “A contextual view of child prostitution in India” Rtist @ Tourism
  11. 11. • In 1991, the issue of child-sex tourism caught media and government attention when six men were accused of sexually abusing children at an orphanage run by Freddy Peats in Goa.• They hailed from countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Germany.• However, it took several years to break the myth that child sexual abuse linked to tourism was a phenomenon limited to Goa and isolated to foreign tourists alone. Rtist @ Tourism
  12. 12. • By 2000-01 - networking with civil society coalitions and platforms, international organisations like ECPAT, the National Commission for Women, UNICEF, Department of Women and Child Development etc.• In 2002 - “Coastal Sex Tourism and Gender”, commissioned by the National Commission for Women (NCW) focused on five sites (Kerala- Kovalam, Karnataka – Uttara Kannada, Goa, Tamil Nadu- Mamallapuram and Orissa-Puri). – It established the prevalence of child sexual abuse and prostitution in all these tourism destinations. Rtist @ Tourism
  13. 13. • In 2003 - “Situational Analysis of Child Sex Tourism in India” commissioned by ECPAT International reported a rise in prostitution and trafficking in women and children for the purposes of sex tourism and labour.• In 2004, through involvement in a rescue operation of trafficked children in a jewellery unit, guidelines for such rescue and rehabilitation arising out of this experience.• In 2004 “Towards Strengthening Rights of Minors and Adolescents in Tourism” commissioned by UNIFEM - an overview of the interventions and guidelines that would protect minors and adolescents from exploitation in tourism. Rtist @ Tourism
  14. 14. • The Goa Children’s Act 2003 (and its amendments in 2006) was the first time that tourism gained mention as a cause for child exploitation.• In 2006 the Ministry of Labour banned child labour as domestic servants and in the hospitality industry & its implementation, which unfortunately, has been far from effective.• “Rights of the Child in the context of Tourism” has been in demand from groups all over the country as it puts together perspectives and information from various angles on the exploitation of children Rtist @ Tourism
  15. 15. • The process of reforming the Juvenile Justice Act 1986 initiated in 2000, contributed significantly in networking with policy level groups on women and children’s issues, as well as activists and organisations working on these issues.• A continuing engagement with the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD), National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, the Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Tourism and the Planning Commission on various legislations and protocols and policy initiatives that could ensure the protection of children and the ensuring of their rights.• The ‘Offences against Child’ Bill’ in 2005, Information Technology Amendment Act 2006, and India’s commitments on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols have been areas of active advocacy and campaigns. Rtist @ Tourism
  16. 16. • From 2005, End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography, and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purpose (ECPAT) International, a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children and have collaborated even more closely with ECPAT on the mission to rid tourism of child exploitation, and indeed seek a world where no child is exploited. Rtist @ Tourism
  17. 17. Thank You…!!!©Ramakrishna Kongallae-mail: artist.ramakrishna@gmail.com Rtist @ Tourism