OPERATING SYSTEMS
System Software   System software includes all of the    programs needed to keep a computer and its    peripheral devices...
The Operating System (OS):The Computer’s Traffic Cop   The operating system is a set of    programs that perform certain ...
Starting the Computer Booting – The process of loading or  reloading the operating system into the  computer’s memory. T...
   The computer copies the kernel from the    hard drive into the computer’s memory.    ◦ The kernel:      Is the centra...
The step-by-step booting process:  I.     The BIOS (basic input/output system) and         setup program  II.    The power...
Managing Programs   Single-tasking systems run one application    program at a time.   Multitasking operating systems ha...
Managing Memory   Computers use memory to make processing    more fluid.   The operating system allocates memory areas f...
Managing Virtual Memory                         most recently      hard disk          transferred data or     memory      ...
Handling Input and Output   Input and output devices generate interrupts, or    signals, that tell the operating system t...
Exploring Popular Operating Systems:A Guided Tour     WINDOWS XP          MAC OS                  UNIX    MS-DOS          ...
Microsoft Windows     Windows XP (2001)      Windows 3.x(1995)      WindowsNT(1998)       Windows2.0(1990-1992)           ...
Windows XP   Released in 2001 by    Microsoft   XP is short for    “experience”   Uses the same    underlying code for ...
Windows NT   Released in 1993 by    Microsoft   Designed for    client/server systems   Two components:    ◦ Windows NT...
Windows CE   Released in 1996 by Microsoft   System used in PDAs or palmtops   Runs simplified versions of Windows    p...
MAC OS   Created in 1984   First OS to use    graphical user    interface   Easiest operating    system for    beginner...
MS-DOS   Developed for IBM    PCs in 1981   Uses command-line    interface   Use is diminishing   To see:    ◦ start  ...
   Developed by AT&T in                            UNIX    1970s   Included first    preemptive    multitasking system ...
   Developed in      Linux    1991 by UNIX   Open-source    code –Available    for all to see    and use   Competes wit...
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Operating systems

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Operating systems

  1. 1. OPERATING SYSTEMS
  2. 2. System Software System software includes all of the programs needed to keep a computer and its peripheral devices running smoothly. Two major categories of system software are: ◦ Operating systems (OS) ◦ System utilities
  3. 3. The Operating System (OS):The Computer’s Traffic Cop The operating system is a set of programs that perform certain basic functions with a specific type of hardware. The functions of the operating system are: ◦ Starting the computer ◦ Managing programs ◦ Managing memory ◦ Handling messages from input and output devices
  4. 4. Starting the Computer Booting – The process of loading or reloading the operating system into the computer’s memory. The booting processes are: ◦ Cold boot – Loads the OS when the power is turned on. ◦ Warm boot – Reloads the OS when the
  5. 5.  The computer copies the kernel from the hard drive into the computer’s memory. ◦ The kernel:  Is the central part of the operating system  Starts all applications  Manages devices and memory  Resides in memory at all times  Performs other essential functionsStarting the Computer
  6. 6. The step-by-step booting process: I. The BIOS (basic input/output system) and setup program II. The power-on-self-test (POST) III. The operating system loads IV. System configuration V. System utilities loads VI. Users AuthenticatedStarting the Computer
  7. 7. Managing Programs Single-tasking systems run one application program at a time. Multitasking operating systems have the ability to run more than one application program at a time. ◦ Example What’s the difference between Time Sharing and Multitasking? ◦ Windows 3.1 vs. Windows 95 Multitasking is accomplished by: ◦ A foreground application – The active program or program in use ◦ One or more background applications – Inactive program(s) or program(s) not in use
  8. 8. Managing Memory Computers use memory to make processing more fluid. The operating system allocates memory areas for each running program; it keeps programs from interfering with each other. The operating system uses virtual memory as an extension of random access memory (RAM).
  9. 9. Managing Virtual Memory most recently hard disk transferred data or memory page program instructions swapped in Virtual memory management swap file page swapped least recently out used data or program instructions
  10. 10. Handling Input and Output Input and output devices generate interrupts, or signals, that tell the operating system that something has happened. ◦ Example: Keyboard, mouse, antivirus The OS provides interrupt handlers or mini- programs that begin when an interrupt occurs. Interrupt request (IRQ) lines handle the communications between input/output devices and the CPU. An IRQ conflict causes system instability when two devices try to use the same IRQ line.
  11. 11. Exploring Popular Operating Systems:A Guided Tour WINDOWS XP MAC OS UNIX MS-DOS LINUX
  12. 12. Microsoft Windows Windows XP (2001) Windows 3.x(1995) WindowsNT(1998) Windows2.0(1990-1992) ME (1985) 2000(2000) 98 (1987) 95 (1993) 1.0 (2000)
  13. 13. Windows XP Released in 2001 by Microsoft XP is short for “experience” Uses the same underlying code for all versions Replaces all previous versions of Windows Three versions: ◦ Windows XP Home Edition ◦ Windows XP
  14. 14. Windows NT Released in 1993 by Microsoft Designed for client/server systems Two components: ◦ Windows NT Workstation ◦ Windows NT Server Oriented to business needs Offers security, remote administration, directory services, and a Web
  15. 15. Windows CE Released in 1996 by Microsoft System used in PDAs or palmtops Runs simplified versions of Windows programs Data can be transferred to PCs Includes handwriting and voice recognition
  16. 16. MAC OS Created in 1984 First OS to use graphical user interface Easiest operating system for beginners A new version, Mac OS X, was released in 2000
  17. 17. MS-DOS Developed for IBM PCs in 1981 Uses command-line interface Use is diminishing To see: ◦ start ◦ Run ◦ cmd
  18. 18.  Developed by AT&T in UNIX 1970s Included first preemptive multitasking system Developed concepts of file management and path names Facilitates client/server networking Widely used by corporations
  19. 19.  Developed in Linux 1991 by UNIX Open-source code –Available for all to see and use Competes with Windows and MAC-OS Powerful and free Growing acceptance

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