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Neeraj 3

  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYER BRANDINGSubmitted to:-Ms. Sashmita Singh(Training Coordinator)Department of MBASri Ramswaroop Memorial College ofEngineering and Management,LUCKNOWSubmitted by:-Neeraj TripathiSri Ramswaroop Memorial Collegeof Engineering and Management,LUCKNOW AS DONE AT HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD. Renukoot
  2. 2. CertificateI certify that the Project Report entitled “Employer Branding at Hindalco”is the result of the bonafide study carried out by Neeraj Tripathi under myGuidance and supervision and that no part of the report has been submitted inany other form or for any other degree. Ms. Sashmita Singh ( TRAINING COORDINATOR ) Department of MBA Shri Ramswaroop Memorial College of Engineering and Management LUCKNOW. 2
  3. 3. DeclarationI hereby declare that this project titled “EMPLOYER BRANDING” at Hindalco Ind. Ltd., hasbeen completed in Hindalco Industries Limited, Renukoot. It is my own and original work.This is a project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the MBA. It has never beensubmitted nor published anywhere else before.The above statement is true to the best of my knowledge. Neeraj tripathi 3
  4. 4. Contents• Preface• Acknowledgement• Research methodology• India ‘s first global corporation• Landmarks• Hindalco industries ltd ( An emerging regional metal major)• Renupower –an introduction• Coal transport system• Environment and safety• Caring the environment• Alumina profile• Application and product• Benefits• Properties of aluminum• Alloys• Market structure• Outlook• Potential• Employer branding• Analysis and interpretation.• Graduate engineer trainee questionnaire.• External public questionnaire• Employees questionnaire• Swot analysis• Annexure• Bibliography 4
  5. 5. Diagrams & Graphs Reduction plant – Hindalco’s aluminaFully integrated operation process flow chart refinery process renukoot Map Creating the right mix Market structure of alumina The Big Ten 5
  6. 6. Statistical Contents 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. PrefaceThe summer Training is an integral part of curriculum. During the training, a student getsan opportunity to understand the practical aspect of theory. Training makes the conceptclear.This project report is the outcome of the summer training that I have undergone atHindalco industries Limited for the partial Fulfillment of Masters of businessadministration.The topic allotted by the company to me is “Employer branding”. I have tried my level best to make a good report. However, no one can claim forperfection entirely. So I apologize for the discrepancy, if any crept in.Preparation of project requires perseverance, initiatives, proper guidance and direction.So it is mandatory to take the aid of various departments.Actually a project is a summarized form of the following seven activities.oPlanningoResource CollectionoOrganizingoJoint EffortsoEfficiencyoCommunicationoTransparency 8
  9. 9. AcknowledgementIts intended a matter of proud and privilege that Shri Ramswaroop College Of EngineeringAnd Management offered me the opportunity of undergoing my industrial managementtraining at Indias most esteemed organization:HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED RENUKOOT.The schedule of my training includes the study of the functioning of various department ofthe company, emphasizing on human recourse where I got opportunity of undertaking ahuman recourse research study on:“Employer branding”I would to like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. GUNJAN TIWARI, H.R. AssistantGeneral Manager, HINDALCO who gave me insightful tips and excellent suggestionswhich gave this project a fine tuning.In preparing this project, I want to give special acknowledgement to Mr. GUNJAN TIWARIwho not only guide me, but added many examples and ideas to improve this project. He ismy real guide and symbol of my ideas am highly grateful to all my respected faculty staffand training and placement officer of the institute who always inspired and motivated mefor giving such a constructive shape to this project. At the end ,I faithfully record that Ihave devoted the best of my knowledge, effort and beliefs in the preparation of thisproject. 9
  10. 10. Research methodologyObjective :-The research objective was to do serve on Employer Branding in Hindalco. The researchconducted was descriptive in nature.Sample design :-The sample was conducted in which the respondent were the Employee , Graduate Engineertrainee and Students.• Area selected :- the survey was conducted in Renukoot town .• Sample unit :- each respondent was considered as a single unit in survey.Collection of data :-The data that are used for survey was primary data. That means I had used first hand data.The method , which I used for collecting the data was questionnaire method. I askedquestions related to the problem and I got the feedback through the questionnaire.Scope :-The scope of the study is restricted to the people within the Renukoot . So both quantitativedata were applied in the study. 10
  11. 11. India’s first global corporationGLOBAL VISION,INDIAN VALUESA US $28 billion corporation with a market cap of US $31.5 billion and in the league of fortune500, the aditya birla group is anchored by an extraordinary force of 100,000 employees,belonging to 25 different nationalities. In India, the group has been adjudged "the bestemployer in India and among the top 20 in Asia" by the Hewitt-economic times and wall streetjournal study 2007. Over 50 per cent of its revenues flow from its overseas operations.The group operates in 20 countries: India, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Philippines, Egypt,China, Canada, Australia, USA, UK, Germany, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, France, Luxembourg,Switzerland, Malaysia and Korea.Globally the Aditya Birla Group is:A metals powerhouse, among the worlds most cost-efficient aluminum and copperproducers. Hindalco-Novelis from its fold, is a Fortune 500 company. It is the largestaluminum rolling company. It is one of the three biggest producers of primary aluminum inAsia, with the largest single location copper smelter.• No.1 in viscose staple fibre• The fourth largest producer of insulators• The fourth largest producer of carbon black• The 11th largest cement producer globally• Among the worlds top 15 BPO companies and among Indias top three• Among the best energy efficient fertilizer plants 11
  12. 12. In India :-o A premier branded garments playero The second largest player in viscose filament yarno The second largest in the chlor-alkali sectoro Among the top five mobile telephony companieso A leading player in life insurance and asset managemento Among the top three supermarket chains in the retail business 12
  13. 13. landmarksThe Aditya Birla Group, Indias first multinational corporation, traces its origins back to the tinyvillage of Pilani in the Rajasthan desert, where Seth Shiv Narayan Birla started cotton tradingoperations in 1857. Today, the Groups footprint extends to 20 countries and its revenues areUS$ 28 billion. We retrace the highlights of this remarkable journey, starting from the present.2009:-•The Aditya Birla Group of companies donate Baht 3.5 million for housing in Chiang Mai,Thailand2008:-•Aditya Birla Group contributed Rs. 5 crore towards flood relief measures in Orissa2007:-• India Today Groups Readers Digest Gold Award 2007 in recognition of the work that truly exemplifies the highest values of society as well as those of Readers Digest at the Pegasus Corporate Social Responsibility Awards• In May 2007, Novelis became a Hindalco subsidiary with the completion of the acquisition process. The transaction makes Hindalco the worlds largest aluminum rolling company and one of the biggest producers of primary aluminum in Asia, as well as being Indias leading copper producer.• Group was declared the “Best Employer” in 2007 by the Hewitt / Economic Times / Wall Street Study.2006:-• Hindalco in a joint venture with Almex USA Inc.• Trans Works Information Services announces success of bid to acquire Minacs Worldwide• Grasim Industries Limited, India; Thai Rayon Public Company Limited, Thailand and P.T. Indo Bharat Rayon, Indonesia form a JV with Hubei Jing Wei Chemical Fiber Company, China, for VSF. 13
  14. 14. 2005:-• Indian Rayon re-christened as Aditya Birla Nuvo.• Aditya Birla Group to set up a world-class Aluminium project in Orissa.• The Aditya Birla Group signs a framework agreement to acquire St Anne Nackawic Pulp Mill, Canada2004:-• Board reconstituted with Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla taking over as Chairman.• Completion of the implementation process to demerge the cement business of L&T and completion of open offer by Grasim, with the latter acquiring controlling stake in the newly formed company UltraTech.• Grasim, Nagda, received the FICCI Annual Award 2003-2004 in recognition of corporate initiaitve in rural development.• Bihar Caustic and Chemicals Ltd., Rehla, Jharkhand, has received the FICCI Annual Award 2003-2004 in recognition of corporate initiative in family welfare.• Hindalco recieves India CFO Award 2004 for excellence in finance in a large corporate.• Scheme of Arrangement announced to merge Indal with Hindalco.• Indian Rayon completes its brownfield expansion of 40,000 TPA at Hi-Tech Carbon, Gummidipundi, taking total capacity to 1,60,000 TPA.• Deming Award for Indo Gulf.• Indal wins FICCI Award 2002-2003 for Corporate Initiative in Rural Development. 14
  15. 15. 2003:-• Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla, Chairman of the Group, is selected as Business Indias Businessman of the Year - 2003.• Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla is selected as The Economic Times Business Leader of the year.• The Group is ranked 16th in Indias first ever survey of Great places to work in, published in Business World magazine. The Groups joint venture concern, Birla Sun Life Insurance, is ranked 9th in the same study.• The Group is ranked 20th in a study on the Best Employers in India, conducted by Hewitt Associates and Business Today.• Hindalco receives the Asian CSR Award for its "Rural Poverty Allevation Programme". The Asian CSR Awards are Asias premier awards programme on Corporate Social Responsibility.• The Group acquires the Mount Gordon Copper mines in Australia, another strategic step in becoming a globally competitive copper player.• Liaoning Birla Carbon, the Groups first carbon black company in China, is incorporated.• Indian Rayon acquires TransWorks, a leading Indian ITES / BPO company.• The board of engineering major Larsen & Toubro Ltd (L&T) decides to demerge its cement business into a separate cement company (Cem Co), in which L&T will retain 20 per cent of its equity with the balance to be distributed to their shareholders in proportion to their shareholding in L&T. As a consequence, Grasim to acquire an 8.5 per cent equity stake from L&T and then make an open offer for 30 per cent of the equity of CemCo, to acquire management control of CemCo. 15
  16. 16. • Indian Rayon formally launches its insulators joint venture with NGK Insulators Ltd., Japan, christening it as "Birla NGK Insulators Private Limited.• Birla Copper, a strategic business unit of Hindalco, is accorded London Metal Exchange (LME) registration. Its copper cathodes are approved as Grade A copper brand by LME.2002:-• The Grasim board approves an open offer for purchase of up to 20 per cent of the equity of L&T, in accordance with the provisions and guidelines issued by the Securities & Exchange Board of India Regulations, 1997.• Grasim increases stake in L&T to 14.15 per cent (351.84 lakh shares).• Landmark corporate restructuring of Hindalco and IndoGulf. The fertiliser business of IndoGulf to be demerged into a separate company called Indo Gulf Fertilisers. Indo Gulfs copper business to be merged with Hindalco, creating a non-ferrous metals powerhouse.• Grasim divests its Gwalior unit to Melodeon Exports Limited, and consolidates textile operations at a single location in Bhiwani, MP, which will manufacture both Grasim and Graviera brands.• PSI Data Systems acquires Birla Technologies Ltd, bringing the Group IT services business under one umbrella.• Indal acquires a controlling stake in Anapurna Foils Ltd (AFL), to augment its position in the foil and packaging sectors. Subsequently AFL is merged with Indal.• The Group receives The Economic Times "Corporate Citizen" of the year award. 16
  17. 17. 2001:-• Grasim acquires 2.50 crore shares -- representing just over 10 per cent of the equity -- in L&T from Reliance Industries Ltd.• Birla Consultancy & Software Services spun off; becomes a separate entity called Birla Technologies Ltd.• Indian Rayon acquires a stake in PSI Data Systems, in one of the largest cash transactions in the Indian technology sector.• Grasim closes its pulp plant at Mavoor as a part of its restructuring initiatives.1999:-• A joint venture with financial services major Sun Life of Canada is inked, as part of the overall restructuring of the Groups financial services business.1998:-• The Group forms a 50:50 joint venture company with Tembec Inc. of Canada, called A.V. Cell Inc., to supply pulp for the Groups VSF operations.• Grasim acquires Dharani Cement and Shree Digvijay Cement to consolidate the groups leadership position in cement.• The cement businesses of Indian Rayon and Grasim are consolidated into a single division of Grasim – the biggest restructuring ever by any corporate entity in India.• The Group forays into copper with the commissioning of Indo Gulfs copper smelter – the largest of its kind in India.• Thai Organic Chemicals begins commercial operations of Chlor-Alkali and Epichlorohydrin. 17
  18. 18. 1996:-• To honour the memory of the late Aditya Birla, a new corporate logo – Aditya, the rising sun – is launched.• All group companies are consolidated under the umbrella of the Aditya Birla Group, led by Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla.• P.T. Indo Liberty Textiles is incorporated to manufacture yarn in Indonesia.1995:-• The Group enters the telecommunications sector through a joint venture with AT&T (USA).• Thai Sulphites & Chemicals is incorporated to manufacture sodium sulphite and sodium metabisulphite.1994:-• The Birla Growth Fund is renamed Birla Global Finance Limited, as its span of operations expands.• Alexandria Carbon Black, the Groups first joint venture with the Egyptian government, is established.1992:-• Thai Epoxy and Allied Products commences production of Epoxy Resins in Thailand.1991:-• Pan Century Oleo chemicals commences production of fatty acids and glycerin in Malaysia. 18
  19. 19. 1990:-• Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla gets actively involved in the Groups operations.1989:-• Thai Peroxide commences manufacturing of hygrogen peroxide solutions in Thailand.1988:-• The government liberalises the petroleum industry. The Aditya Birla Group enters into a joint venture with Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd to set up a three-million- tonne refinery, Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals Ltd (MRPL), at Mangalore, Karnataka.1987 :-• Indian Rayon is renamed as Indian Rayon and Industries Limited (IRIL), to reflect its wide horizon of activities.• Thai Acrylic Fibre is incorporated to produce fibre and tow.1986:-• The Birla Growth Fund is set up to finance industrial equipment, plant and machinery and consumer durables, as well as for stock market operations.1985 :-• Indias first gas-based fertiliser plant in the private sector – IndoGulf – goes on stream at Jagdishpur, UP.1984:-• Thai Polyphosphates and Chemicals commences production of sodium phosphates in Thailand. 19
  20. 20. 1982 :-• P.T Indo Bharat Rayon is established. It is the first producer of Viscose Staple Fibre in Indonesia.1978:-• Thai Carbon Black, the Groups first carbon black company is incorporated in Thailand.1977 :-• Pan Century Edible Oils is incorporated in Malaysia, going on to become the worlds largest single-location palm oil refinery.1975 :-• The Indo Phil Group of companies, the first Indo-Filipino joint venture commences production of spun yarn.1974:- • Thai Rayon, the Groups Viscose Rayon Staple Fibre business is incorporated in Thailand.1973:-• P.T. Elegant Textiles is established to manufacture spun yarn. It marks the Groups first venture in Indonesia.1969 :-• Aditya Birla sets up Indo-Thai Synthetics Company Ltd, the groups first overseas company.1967:-• Grasim is incorporated. It commences operations with a small rayon weaving unit at Gwalior, MP. 20
  21. 21. 1966 :-• Hindalco is incorporated.1965:-• Hindalco commences production at its aluminium complex at Renukoot, UP.1962:-• Aditya Birla, grandson of the legendary Shriyut Ghanshyamdas Birla, starts the Eastern Spinning Mills & Industries.1958:-• The Indian Rayon Corporation Ltd is acquired.1947 :-• Hindalco sets up a captive power plant at Renusagar - a significant strategic move.1919 :-• Shriyut Ghanshyamdas Birla, grandson of Seth Shiv Narayan Birla, sets up the first Birla jute mill, marking his entry into the manufacturing sector. Rapid business expansion follows.1857:-•The foundation of the Birla Group of Companies is laid by Seth Shiv Narayan Birla – cotton 21
  22. 22. Hindalco Industries limited 22
  23. 23. Investment highlightso Domestic market leadero Globally competitive cost structureo Significant strategic strengths backing benchmark efficiencieso Entering higher growth trajectory with sustainable growth momentumo Valuations yet to reflect the changing growth profile 23
  24. 24. Bauxite mines Power station E Extrusion plant s Alumina Smelter RAlumina Refinery R R s F s R W F F J s R s ECopper Aluminusmelter Foils Extrusio Alumina Rolling Wheels Bauxite Power Coal m,refinery plant n plant refinery mill plant mines station mines smelter& jetty s F E R R W B 24
  25. 25. Organizational profileBACKGROUND OF THE UNIT – HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED, RENUKOOTHindalco Industries Ltd. is the Flagship Company of the Aditya Birla Group and is a renownednon-ferrous metal major, producing Aluminum and Copper including Aluminum Foil.Hindalcois amongst India’s top corporate having its units located at Renukoot, Renusagar, Dahej,Silvassa, Muri, Belur, Belgaum, Kalwa, Taloja, Hirakud, Kollur, Mauda and Alupuram. Hindalco was incorporated in 1958. Renukoot Unit commenced commercial production in1962. The unit was set up in technical collaboration with Kaiser Aluminium and ChemicalsCorporation, USA. Renukoot was chosen as the site for the Companys integrated Aluminiumfacilities to capitalize on power available from the Rihand Hydro Electric facilities. Renukootunit of Hindalco is the largest single location vertically integrated aluminium producer in thecountry while contributing significantly to economic growth of the country, generatingemployment and setting high standards in respect of fulfilling of obligations to all stakeholders.The Renukoot unit of Hindalco comprises of Alumina (Refinery), Reduction (Smelter) &Fabrication plant where as Captive power plant is located at Renusagar. Their bauxite minesare located at Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Orrisa. Hindalco has centralised Marketing forPrimary metal, Flat Rolled and Extrusion Products. 25
  26. 26. Organizational environmentHindalco being four decades old ‘pioneer in its field’ is having its operational activities at about150 Kms away from the nearest Holy City of Varanasi in the midst of Reserve Forest ofVindhyachal Range. Over a period of time, Hindalco and its township has been enriched withan unparalleled family culture. Belongingness and ownership feelings amongst the employeesare deep rooted in their inherited mindset. It can well be understood from the very fact thatthere hasn’t been a single hour loss of production due to any labor unrest for last 32 years. Inits effort to continuously excel the past performance, efficient technologies and bettermanagement practices like QC, WCM, Kaizen have been implemented.Main products and services:Delivery Mechanisms:The alumina powder is delivered to customer (Smelter plant) through belt conveyor and airsluice, directly in their silos. 26
  27. 27. Rolled Captive Power (820 MW) 80,000 TPA Wire Rods 40,000 TPA Extrusion 13,700 TPA flexibility. Foils 5,000 TPA Caustic Soda Al. Fluoride Foils From Subsidiary From JV 5Wheels 300,000 Pcs Fully integrated operations - Renukoot Indal synergies provide additional strength and operational27
  28. 28. Hindalco alumina refinery process 28 Al2O3 (Alumina) to Reduction Plant
  29. 29. Reduction plant – process flow chart POT ROOM 29
  30. 30. Fabrication plant- processesRolling Millso This involves conversion of rolling ingots into sheets, coils, plates, circles etc.o Rolling section has a Hot rolling mill and 2 nos. cold rolling mills.o The rolling process can be divided into two parts i.e. Hot rolling and Cold rolling.o Steps involved are scalping, soaking, Hot rolling, Cold rolling, Annealing, Heat treatment, finishing and packing.o Finishing Line incorporates equipments like Mecesa Slitting Line, Bronx Cut-to-Length Ungerer Tension Leveller and Samis Circle Blanking Line.o Finished products in packed condition as per customer requirement are despatched.Continuous Strip Castero An alternative to Hot rolled coils, the strip is cast directly from molten metal in this plant.o This eliminates all intermediate processes like D Casting, Scalping, Soaking etc. and thereby reduces cost of end product.Inspection & Packingo Adoption of semi-automatic process.o Endeavour to packing cost reduction and assurance for supply of material in intacto Storage of packed material in warehouse till desptach. 30
  31. 31. Renupower -an introduction Rihand Lakeo Source of Water Jingurdah Mines, NCL (Distance -7.6o Source of Coal KM) 3300 Kcal/KG (F Grade)o Average CV of Coal Arial Ropeway (70%) By Road (30%).o Mode of Transportation Two (2)o No. of Ropeways Top Supported, Bi-drum, Pulverizedo boiler Coal Firing, Tangential Tilting Burner System. 85%.o Boiler Efficiencyo Turbine Impulse & Reactiono Overall Cycle Efficiency 30% 31
  32. 32. Coal transportation systemo Renusagar is linked to Jhingurda Coal Mines of Singrauli coal belt which is about 8 Km from Renusagar.o Coal is transported with the help of Aerial Rope Way system as well as with road transport system.o About 12,000 tons of coal is transported every day.o Aerial Rope Way Systemo Bi-Cable System (#1&2) : Two ropes are used.One is stationary rope, used as track rope, the other one isendless haulage rope. Each bucket carries about 1.4 tons of coalo Mono-Cable System (#3&4) : There is only one rope which serves as track cum haulage rope for carrying buckets. Each bucket carries about 1 ton of coal. 32
  33. 33. maintenance and other practices continuously forEnvironment and safety pollution prevention.o Conservation of key input resources.o Exploring the feasibility of recycling and utilization of inevitable waste.o Compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.o Continuous improvement in working conditions leading to prevention of accidents. 33
  34. 34. Caring for the environment Process Area Process Improvement Savings( Rs.crore ) Recycling system improved. Water conservation in New sewage treatment 1.2 power plant plant. Recyclingo Recovery of Fluorine through Dry Scrubbing Systemso Recovery of Fluorine Value and burning of residual Spent Pot Linings as fuel in Boilers Waste Disposalo Fly Ash Bricks and Blocks manufacturing for Building and Road Construction also given to Cement Units.o Semi-dry stacking of Red Mud for reduced storage area and prevention of seepage. 34
  35. 35. Aluminium profileDemandAluminium product profile and its substitutes(wood and plastic)are used for the sameintermediat uses in four different cases: new and renovated buildings. Profile aluminium has65% of doors and windows frame market in India,during the last 5 years. The increaseddemand of aluminium profile products in Greece is primarily determined by the developmentof private construction and public sector projects (spata airport ,rio-antirio bridge, metroAthens,etc.)are are very important factor for the future demand of the aluminium profileindustry. The construction industry service are a highly cyclical market, suffering from thenormal 4 or 5 year business cycle.Aluminium profile demand exhibits greater variability than the other sector of the constructionindustry because private sector demand is dependent on investment by other sector of theeconomy and is highly sensitive to interest rate.The future for construction demand is uncertain and growth will depend on, among otherthing, the success of policies to increase growth, employment and competitiveness. Thespeed of convergence towards monetary integration and the constraint that thisconvergence may impose on the greek government for construction will also effect growth.SupplyThe total number of aluminium profile company is 25 and most of these companies aresociety anonyms. The aluminium profile market has a small number of large well knowncompanies(15% of the total number of firms),a relatively less significant band of medium sizedfirms(65% with less than 30 employees) and a major segment of small companies (there areno dominant companies and they have less than 29 employees)which are either specialists orworked in extremely localized markets. 35
  36. 36. Total production of primary aluminium was 170 thousand tones in 1996(40%of the totalEuropean production),while the consumption7,67,00tonnes in the same year. Extrudedproduct output was 6,71,000 tones in 1995(+0,3%vs 1994) and 6,95,000 tones in1996(+3,6%vs 1995)around 40% of total production is exported primarily in the E.U.The extruded product have an incomparably large range of applications: in construction(90% in 1996),transportation (1,7%),Mechanical and electricity sector(1,8%),and many other applications (6,5%).manycompanies of the aluminium sector are listed in the Athens stock exchange, in the last 4years.The international market:The non ferrous-metal industry is one of the biggest sector in the European union; with grossoutput accounting for 10%-13% of GDP in the E.U.aluminium also represents about 205 ofthe total economy. The E.U. consumption of these metals is even higher, representing nearly28% of the market economy countries demand. The sector is a major employer with around300,000 persons employed at same 3200 firms and its annual turnover is ,in the order of 20billion ,ECU in 1996.the e.u. aluminium industries is a net exporter of raw materials.Production of primary aluminium was3, 1 million tones in 1995 (+2, 6%vs 1994) and 3,2million tones in 1996(+1,9%vs 1995). Production of secondary aluminium was 1,71 milliontones in 1995(+4,6vs 1994) and 1,74 million tones in 1996(+2,1%vs 1995). 36
  37. 37. Applications & productsAluminium is a key component in so many aspects of our life – from the buildings we work into the cars we drive, from the cans we drink out of to the flights we take. Its uniquecombination of properties – lightweight, strong, flexible, recyclable - make it ideal for analmost endless range of applications and an essential part of modern living.Building & ConstructionThe building and construction industry is today faced with many environmental challenges -from its impact on climate change to its choice of materials and methods of waste disposal.The growing understanding that the entire life cycle of a building and its fittings must beconsidered and balanced against the realities of design, function and economy has seenaluminium fast become the material of choice.Its properties mean that intricate, stable and lightweight structures can be designed withoutconcern, as even thin structures do not warp. Aluminium is a material that has given architectsand designers the physical means to achieve creative innovations in design.Aluminium allows a high degree of prefabrication with a variety of finishes before componentsleave the factory, which reduces the workload at the construction site.Design, Function and EconomyArchitects and designers have been aware of aluminiums unique qualities for more than 100years. As well as being one of the most abundant metals in the world, aluminiums formability,high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and ease of recycling make it ideal for:Windows, Skylights, Screens and DoorsHighly resistant and rigid, they have low rates of expansion and contraction and also ofcondensation. They are extremely stable, durable and thermally efficient. 37
  38. 38. Facades, cladding/siding, weatherproofingAluminium siding is available with insulation and reflective foil backing, so walls can be madeweatherproof and energy-efficient.Roofs and CanopiesAluminium building products help keep homes cool in summer, warm in winter, and snug anddry all the year round.StructuresStructural uses range from a glazed shop front to the superstructure of a shopping centre orstadium. Its resistance to corrosion means it is virtually maintenance-free which is particularlyimportant if used in an inaccessible area.TransportationThe combination of lightness, strength and formability make aluminium the ideal material forany transport application. The initial investment in energy is repaid many times over in fuelsavings and gains during recycling of most vehicles.It takes force to move something (Force = Mass x Acceleration). Therefore, the lighter therelevant thing is, the less force it takes. A truck, car, train, boat or plane can be moved withless force or carry more cargo at the same force if the vehicle itself is lightened.Lets not forget non-motorised transport - bicycles, scooters, roller blades - nor mobility aids -wheelchairs, walking frames and chairlifts - both of which also benefits from the properties ofaluminium. 38
  39. 39. Aluminium cansAluminium cans are perfect containers - strong, lightweight, compact, impermeable, safe andrecyclable.Most drinks cans are now made of aluminium and their popularity is easy to understand asaluminium imparts no taste, it keeps flavor and carbonation in and oxygen, light and moistureout. Also it is shatter proof and any attempts at possible tampering are easily detectable.Aluminium beverage have a protective polymer coating applied on the inside to prolongstorage life. This polymer coating ensures that the acids and salts in beverages or food neveractually come into contact with the metal.Aluminium cans are easier to ship to wholesalers and retailers than both glass or plasticbottles because of they are light, but strong. They stack better in delivery trucks, on shelvesand in the refrigerator and need less protection during shipment. Significant energy savingsare made in both shipping and distribution.Aluminium cans are also easy to collect for recycling and one of their great assets is that theyare totally recyclable. 39
  40. 40. ElectricityAluminium or aluminium alloy electrical conductors are now widely used in:oOverhead electrical transmission and distribution cablesoPower systems and substationsAluminium is particularly suited to these uses because of its high electrical conductivity, lowweight and good resistance to corrosion.Transmission and distribution lines Worldwide most high-voltage overhead transmission anddistribution lines – as well as many underground lines - are made of aluminium.Since 1945, aluminium has replaced copper in high-voltage transmission lines and today isthe most economical way to transmit electric power. Aluminium weights only one-third ofcopper and one kilogram of aluminium can carry twice as much electricity as one kilogram ofcopper. Aluminium power lines are therefore lighter and require fewer, and lighter supportstructures.Aluminium power lines can be made of single-strand wires, of many wires stranded togetheror, for maximum strength, of aluminium strands wrapped around a steel core.Power systems and substationsAlmost all electric lights, motors, appliances and power systems depend on a vast grid ofaluminium wire. For example, the power systems of the worlds largest buildings are made ofaluminium.Aluminium is also widely used in "switchyards" or substations where electricity is steppeddown to lower voltages for local distribution.Light bulbs, antennae and satellite dishesSince the 1950s aluminium has practically replaced brass as the standard base for the electriclight bulb. Every year in North America, more than four billion light bulbs, fluorescent tubesand other electric lamps are manufactured and 95 per cent of them have aluminium bases. 40Thousands of television antennae and many satellite dishes are also made of aluminium.
  41. 41. Other uses of aluminiumo Medical use of aluminium• Aluminium hydroxideAluminium hydroxide is widely used as an antacid to relieve gastric irritation and assist in the healing of peptic ulcers. It has good acid neutralizing capacity and also has the ability to absorb and reduce the activity of pepsin.• Aluminium chlorohydrateSoluble aluminium compounds have been used for many years as antiperspirants. Aluminium chloride was the first compound used as an antiperspirant although currently aluminium chlorohydrate which is much less acidic, is the major antiperspirant compound. The action mechanism is still under investigation but it appears to act by forming a plug of aluminium hydroxide within the sweat duct.• Aluminium hydroxideIn 1926 alum-precipitation diphtheria toxoid was discovered to have greater antigenic properties (for stimulating the production of antibodies) than the toxoid alone.The enhancement of diphtheria toxoid by the adjuvant (beneficial additive) aluminium hydroxide is typical of the use of an aluminium salt to increase the level and duration of immunity afforded by a vaccine. Aluminium salts are the most widely used type of adjuvant due to its reputation for safety in humans.o Aluminium in waterAluminium performs a valuable role in the treatment of water. Aluminium sulphate (alum) iswidely used in the purification of waste water as well as water from rivers, lakes andreservoirs. It is a flocculating agent with the capacity to coagulate and trap solid matter thatmay be floating in the water, such as algae and other organic and non-organic matter.During the process a fine precipitate is formed which removes many contaminants, includingthe spores of dangerous pathogens. Before leaving the treatment plant the water is filtered toremove the flocculate and the vast majority of the aluminium. At present there is a WHOguideline for the maximum level of aluminium in drinking water of 0.2mg total aluminium perliter. This is essentially set for the visual effect and taste. No health-based criteria have beenproposed for aluminium levels in drinking water by the World Health Organization. 41
  42. 42. BenefitsModern life is full of advantages brought about by the use of aluminium. So why aluminium?What are the major benefits of this unique metal:oStrengthPure aluminium is soft enough to carve but mixed with small amounts of other metal to formalloys, it can provide the strength of steel, with only one-third of the weight. Without aluminiumthere would be no commercial air travel.oDurabilityAluminium sprayed on a polymer forms a thin insulating sheet that can keep a newborn babywarm or save the life of someone on an exposed mountaintop.oFlexibilityIts combination of properties ensure aluminium and its alloys can be easily shaped by any ofthe main industrial metalworking processes - rolling, extrusion, forging and casting.oImpermeabilityAluminium has excellent barrier function which makes it ideal for food and drink packagingand containers. It keeps out air, light and microorganisms while preserving the contentsinside.oLightweightAluminium used in transport reducing the weight of the vehicles, hence in providing fuelefficiency, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.oCorrosion-resistantThe metals natural coating of aluminium oxide provides a highly effective barrier to theravages of air, temperature, moisture and chemical attack, making aluminium a usefulconstruction material.oRecyclableOnce made, aluminium can be recycled again and again, using only a very small fraction ofthe energy required to make "new" metal. Recycling saves about 95% of the energy requiredfor primary production.oOtherAluminium is a superb conductor of electricity which has seen it replace copper in manyelectrical applications. It is also non-magnetic and non-combustible, properties invaluable inadvanced industries such as electronics or in offshore structures. 42
  43. 43. Properties of aluminiumo Pure aluminium is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is:o Non toxico Imperviouso Non magnetico Non sparkingo Decorativeo Easily formed, machined, and casto Alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties.o Strong depending on its purity, for example 99.996 per cent pure aluminium has a tensile strength of about 49 megapascals (MPa), rising to 700 MPa following alloying and suitable heat treatment.o Although not found free in nature, aluminium is an abundant element in the earths crust.o Low densityo Corrosion resistanto Electricity conductoro Non-magnetico non-combustibleo Highly reflectiveo Heat barrier and conductoro Malleableo Easily worked 43
  44. 44. Physical properties Density/Specific Gravity ( 2.70 at 20°C) Melting Point (°C) 660 Specific heat at 100 °C, cal.g-1K- 0.2241 (938) 1 (Jkg-1K-1) Latent heat of fusion, cal.g-1 94.7 (397.0) ( conductivity at 20°C (%of international annealed copper 64.94 standard) Thermal conductivity (cal.sec- 0.5 1cm-1K-1)Thermal emmisivity at 100°F (%) 3.0 Reflectivity for light, tungsten 90.0 filament (%)These properties can be very significantly altered with the addition of small amounts of alloying materials. 44
  45. 45. AlloysAluminums range of properties can be found in an impressive array of commercially availablealloys. The composition and logic of those alloys are regulated by an internationally agreedclassifications system or nomenclature for wrought alloys and by various domesticnomenclature schemes for the casting alloys.The wrought scheme is as follows. Each registered alloy is described by a four digit number,with a further letter and number indicating the temper, or condition of the alloy, For example,6082-T6 is a medium strength grade based on the aluminium-magnesium-silicon family, in thefully heat-treated condition.The classification provides for: 1XXX Aluminium of 99% minimum purity 2XXX Aluminium-copper alloys 3XXX Aluminium-manganese alloys 4XXX Aluminium-silicon alloys 5XXX Aluminium-magnesium alloys 6XXX Aluminium-magnesium-silicon alloys 7XXX Aluminium-zinc-magnesium alloys 8XXX Miscellaneous alloys e.g. aluminium-lithium alloysAlloys fall into two main groups. The work-hardening alloys, where strength is achieved by theamount of "cold work" applied to the alloy for example, by rolling, and heat-treatable orprecipitation hardening alloys, where the strength and properties are achieved by heattreatments of varying complexity.For more information about alloy designations and properties try one of the following sites:UK – Aluminium Federation - – Aluminium Association - 45
  46. 46. BackgroundAluminum is a very abundant metal. It also highly sought after due to its properties of beinglightweight and its resistance to corrosion. It is heavily used in the automotive, aerospace andconstruction industries and demand for the metal has soared in the past 50 years.Unfortunately, it occurs very infrequently in a free state and is instead usually found combinedwith other minerals such as bauxite and therefore needs to extracted and smelted. Thisextraction from mineral ores is a difficult and expensive process.One of aluminum’s core requirements is access to large amounts of power in order to drivesmelting operations. A very high temperature is necessary to melt aluminum. The heat isderived from gas, geothermal, hydro or other power sources to generate electricity or heat.Electric power used in aluminum smelting can represent up to 40% of the cost of productionof aluminum. This has prompted most major producers to continually look to set up productionoperations increasingly closer to sources of energy. These may be hydro power in somecases or simply closer to large sources of natural gas, such as exist in the Middle East. Forexample, Alcoa is investing in hydroelectric projects in Brazil in order to be close to the actualpower source. 46
  47. 47. Market structureAluminum production is expensive and requires heavy capital investment. Most of the keyproducers are major corporations and the business is concentrated, not fragmented. Asindicated above, a recent trend is for major firms to invest in smelting operations which arecloser to power sources. As a direct results, older aluminum operational facilities are closingdown as the older sites are no longer cost effective. Norsk Hydro, for example has terminatedapproximately a quarter million tons of capacity in Northern Europe in favor of cheaper MiddleEast based operations. Alcoa has made similar moves. Industry experts estimate that up to 4million tons of annual aluminum capacity from older facilities could be shut down in the next 3to 4 years. How aluminum is used: 47
  48. 48. Industry players o Rusal Headquartered in Russia Merger of Sual Group, OAO Rusal and assets of Glencore AG Revenues of US $8.6 billion in 2006 o Alcoa Headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Revenues of $31.5 billion in 2006 Net Income of $2.2 billion in 2006 o Norsk Hydro 4th largest aluminum producer worldwide Major producer of oil and gas in Norway 43% owned by the Norwegian government Produces over 1.6 million tons of aluminum annually o Rio Tinto Headquartered in the UK Revenues of US $22 billion in 2006 Market capitalization of US $97 billion 33% profit margin Currently bidding US $38 billion to buy out Alcan o Alcan Headquartered in Montreal, Canada Revenues of US $25 billion in 2006 May be purchased by Rio Tinto 48
  49. 49. o Trends and Recent DevelopmentsWith the price of aluminum remaining high, companies are investing heavily to find dedicatedpower sources to be able to produce aluminum. They are looking even further afield, often invery remote locations to set up aluminum producing operations. Some of these firms,including Rusal and Norsk Hydro are looking to remote spots in Siberia or other locations fornew production sites. The new rule seems to be to get closer to the production source asopposed to closer to the customer. The geographic center of gravity continues to shift. TheMiddle East, as a consequence of its major oil and gas reserves, is expected to significantlygrow its aluminum production. With the same objective in mind, Norsk Hydro has teamed upwith Qatar Petroleum to expand capacity in Qatar. Alcoa has set up production operations inIceland where it has better access to hydropower. For the most part, aluminum operations inthe Pacific Northwest of North America have been almost shut down due to the high cost offuel.Many firms are also focused more on the core production functions and are spinning offancillary operations such as aluminum packaging or aluminum can production (Rusal). Alcoahas also recently been interested in selling some of its consumer-oriented operationsincluding ones in the automotive sector.o Sources o Norsk Hydro o Yahoo Finance o Wikipedia o Market Watch o Wall Street Journal o International Aluminum Institute o United States Census Bureau 49
  50. 50. Outlooko India has the potential to be among the world’s top five suppliers and markets for aluminium and steelo Domestic Steel consumption is expected to grow by 8% p.a. to 60 million tones by 2010o Aluminium demand is expected to grow by 10% p.a. for the next ten yearso India’s per capita consumption of metals is projected to increase substantially in the futureo Low per capita consumption today: 30 kg. of steel as compared to an average 150 kg. globally, 0.6 kg. of aluminium as compared to 3–4 kg. in other developing countries 50
  51. 51. Potentialo India is one of the lowest cost producers of alumina and aluminium.o India presents large investment opportunities across the value chain.o Integrated steel, copper and aluminium plants.o Recycling plants for secondary aluminium.o Booming automotive and infrastructure sectors are likely to drive future demand for aluminium.o Currently only 5% of steel is routed through Steel Servicing Centers; likely to increase to 35% by 2012.o Large integrated international metal manufacturers including Mittal Steel and Dubai Aluminium have announced plans for setting up plants in India.o POSCO’s proposed US$12 billion investment in the mineral rich state of Orissa could be India’s largest FDI till date.o Investments of over US$30 bill.o ion in steel and about $20 billion in aluminium are in the pipeline over the next five years 51
  52. 52. Employer Branding 52
  53. 53. Employer brandingSince the term Employer Brand was first used in the early 1990s to denote an organizationsreputation as an employer. Since then, it has become widely adopted by the globalmanagement community. Minchin ton (2005) defines your employer brand as “the image ofyour organization as a ‘great place to work’ in the mind of current employees and keystakeholders in the external market (active and passive candidates, clients, customers andother key stakeholders). The art and science of employer branding is therefore concernedwith the attraction, engagement and retention initiatives targeted at enhancing your companysemployer brand."Just as a customer brand proposition is used to define a product or service offer, an employerbrand proposition (otherwise referred to as an employer value proposition, employee valueproposition or EVP) is used to define an organizations employment offer.Likewise the marketing disciplines associated withbranding and brand management have beenincreasingly applied by the human resourcesand talent management community toattract, engage and retain talentedcandidates and employees, in thesame way that marketing appliessuch tools to attracting and retainingclients, customers and consumers. 53
  54. 54. Origin and adoption of the Employer BrandconceptThe term ‘Employer Brand’ was first publicly introduced to a management audience in 1990,and defined by Simon Barrow, chairman of People in Business, and Tim Ambler, SeniorFellow of London Business School , in the Journal of Brand Management in December 1996.This academic paper was the first published attempt to ‘test the application of brandmanagement techniques to human resource management’. Within this paper, Simon Barrowand Tim Ambler defined the employer brand as: the package of functional, economic andpsychological benefits provided by employment, and identified with the employing company.By 2001, of 138 leading companies surveyed by the Conference Board in North America, 40%claimed to be actively engaged in some form of employer branding activity. In 2003, anemployer brand survey conducted by the Economist among a global panel of readersrevealed a 61% level of awareness of the term ‘employer brand’ among HR professionals and41% among non-HR professionals. The first book on the subject was published in 2005, andthe second in 2006 . In 2008, Jackie Orme, the Director General of the UK Chartered Instituteof Personnel Directors confirmed the growing status of the discipline in her opening addressto the CIPD annual conference, with the observation that: “When I started out in theprofession, nobody talked about employer branding. Now its absolutely integral to businessstrategy - resonating well beyond the doors of the HR department”. Similar recognition of thegrowing importance of employer brand thinking and practice has also been recently inevidence in the USA, Australasia, Asia, and Europe, with the publication of numerous bookson the subject. 54
  55. 55. Employer brandingWhile the term ‘employer brand’ denotes what people currently associate with anorganization, employer branding has been defined as the sum of a company’s efforts tocommunicate to existing and prospective staff what makes it a desirable place to work, andthe active management of a company’s image as seen through the eyes of its associates andpotential hiresEmployer brand managementEmployer brand management expands the scope of this brand intervention beyondcommunication to incorporate every aspect of the employment experience, and the peoplemanagement processes and practices (often referred to as ‘touch-points’) that shape theperceptions of existing and prospective employees. In other words, employer brandmanagement addresses the reality of the employment experience and not simply itspresentation. By doing so it supports both external recruitment of the right kind of talentsought by an organization to achieve its goals, and the subsequent desire for effectiveemployee engagement and employee retention.Employer brand propositionAs for consumer brands, most employer brand practitioners and authors argue that effectiveemployer branding and brand management requires a clear Employer Brand proposition, alsoregularly referred to as an Employer value proposition or Employee value proposition (EVP).This serves to: define what the organisation would most like to be associated with as anemployer; highlight the attributes that differentiate the organisation from other employers; andclarify the ‘give and get’ of the employment deal (balancing the value that employees areexpected to contribute with the value from employment that they can expect in return). Thislatter aspect of the employer brand proposition is often referred to in the HR literature as the‘psychological contract’. 55
  56. 56. Relationship between employer branding and internal marketingInternal marketing focuses on communicating the customer brand promise, and the attitudesand behaviors expected from employees to deliver on that promise. While it is clearlybeneficial to the organization for employees to understand their role in delivering the customerbrand promise, the effectiveness of internal marketing activities can often be short-lived if thebrand values on which the service experience is founded are not experienced by theemployees in their interactions with the organization. This is the gap that employer brandthinking and practice seeks to address with a more mutually beneficial employment deal /Psychological contract.Role of employer brand management in brand-led culture changeCompared with the more typically customer centric focus of Internal marketing, internalbranding / brand engagement takes a more ‘inside-out’, value-based approach to shapingemployee perceptions and behaviors, following the lead of the highly influential ‘Built to Last:Successful Habits of Visionary Companies’ study published in the mid-90’s. This sought todemonstrate that companies with consistent, distinctive and deeply held values tended tooutperform those companies with a less clear and articulated ethos. While brand-led culturechange is often the stated desire of these programs their focus on communication-led,marketing methods (however, involving or experiential) has been prone to the same failings ofconventional internal marketing. As Amazon’s founder, Jeff Bezos, asserts: “One of things youfind in companies is that once a culture is formed it takes nuclear weaponry to change it”. Youcannot simply assert your way to a new culture, no more can you assert your way to a strongbrand, it needs to be consistently and continuously shaped and managed, which is one of theprimary reasons many organizations have turned from the short term engagement focus ofinternal branding initiatives to more long term focus of employer brand management 56
  57. 57. EMPLOYER BRANDING : EVPDEVELOPMENTBRAND LEARNING has extensive experience helping companies with brand positioning,portfolio management and brand delivery across the marketing mix. We have used thisexpertise to develop proprietary approaches and tools to create and implement EmployeeValue Propositions (EVPs) aligned to our clients’ corporate brands.EVPs deliver significant benefits for organizations: externally, by enhancing efficiencies andeffectiveness of attraction activities e.g. improved targeting and channel selection, cut-throughof persuasive and consistent messages; internally, by raising right fit employee retention ratesthrough greater levels of employee motivation and pride.BRAND LEARNING’s approach to EVP development encompasses a comprehensiveprogram me of:oStakeholder engagement and alignment - gaining traction, commitment and seniorsponsorshipoEmployer brand positioning and EVP frameworks design - aligning to the corporate brandoRobust, innovative research - uncovering key candidate/employee learnings and validatingpotential EVP routesoCandidate/employee Insight and EVP generative workshops- leveraging proprietary toolsand creative techniquesoImplementation plan development - bringing the EVP to life at key touch points through bothinternal engagement and external attraction activitiesUsing this approach, we partner our clients in developing insightful and differentiated EVPs,powerfully brought to life at key “moments of truth” across the candidate journey andemployee experience – thereby providing a compelling reason for target candidates to joinand world class employees to stay. 57
  58. 58. Building an employer brandIn the present job markets , where companies compete for attracting the best of the talent ,employer brand , sometimes , becomes more relevant when compared to various criticalfactors like job profile and the compensation package. Employer brand is the image of an organization as a great place to work inthe minds of its current employees and key stakeholders. It is the development of such anorganizational culture which fosters a sense of belongingness with the company andencourages the employees to share organizations goals for success. In short, it is the valueof the company in external marketplace. The goal of employer branding is to create loyalcustomers; the customers here being the employees.An employer brand represents the core values of an organization. Companies that areconsidered good employers have a strong identity and an image in the marketplace. Buildingsuch a brand requires a lot of introspection by the company, and answering the questions,"what kind of company we are, and want to become?" and "how do we live up to theexpectations of our stakeholders? 58
  59. 59. What makes an employer a brand?Simon Barrow, who is president of a successful consulting firm in London that specializes inemployer branding services describes four elements that work together to make an employerbrand. The first element is the Employment Package which is the offer that an employee getsincluding job responsibilities, financial compensation, work/life balance, the employees role inorganization and professional development. Next comes the Culture and Environment whichincludes the physical working environment, the size of the organization, and the organizationsapproach to work. Then there is Integrity. Delivering what has been initially committed alwayscounts. The consequence of a lack of integrity is seen in the form of high attrition rates. Andfinally Management Performance that plays as a vital role in the Employer Branding processBuilding a brand is typically a twofold process. One is for prospective employees and the otherfor the current set of employees. While building brand for prospective employees, initiativesare targeted at building a repute in potential recruits about the company as a preferred placeto work. On the other hand, while building brand internally, the company has to live up to itsstandards and incorporate a culture of respect and trust for employees. 59
  60. 60. Growing significanceIt is said that an unsatisfied customer tells ten people about his experience while anunsatisfied employee tells a hundred. Employer branding reflects the work culture in anorganization. It has become more critical in todays times, as most professionals are looking ata stable career and establishing a long-term relationship with the company. Research showsthat employees of industrial brands feel a much greater sense of pride, attachment and trusttowards their employer. They are also significantly more likely to recommend their company toothers and claim it treats employees well. Through right branding, the company can recruit thebest talent and reinforce its positioning amongst its employees. It helps build trust andreliability. A good employer brand makes it easy to attract good talent and curb attrition. Thestrength of an organizations brand has a significant impact on the performance of itsemployees. Working with one of the largest or most innovative companies in a specificindustry acts as a motivator tooBut as one moves higher in his career, brand name becomes of little significance as job roletakes over. Brand name is the most important factor but at entry level only. When one is afresher and embarks on ones career, the brand of a company matters. It helps in reflecting astronger resume. With career growth, one places importance on things that are moremeaningful to ones sense of purpose. According to Gautam Sinha, CEO, TVA Infotech, foremployees who have spent three-four years in the industry, brand is high on the list. It iseasier to sell the company if it is a reputed brand. For those who have spent five years in anyindustry, its the job role thats important and for those with 10 year behind them, the job rolebecomes the most critical factor.It is also being argued that in most cases, companies treat employer branding as a mereshort-cut for attracting the talent. Instead of self-analysis, the HR departments tie up with adagencies to conjure up an image that may be attractive to their target market, even if not theirown. While some argue that organizations like Google with strong employer brand hardlyspend money in building the brand; instead they focus on living the brand. Sasken, forexample, has a stated People First policy to emphasize that employees are the focus. Fedexhas a core philosophy of people - service - profit to indicate what comes first. Bill Marriott ofMarriott Hotels does not tire of repeating the founders belief "Take care of the associates,and theyll take good care of the guests, and the guests will come back." These organizationsreveal a high degree of trust in the management of the organization. Managements mustunderstand that the core value offering of the organization is to engage employees towardsbeing productive and responsive to customers. In the end, it is believed that if the companytakes care of people, people will take care of the company. 60
  61. 61. IntroductionHeadlines like RINL(Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited ) Personnel department gets ISO 9000for its excellent services in Human resources, , Standard charted bank employees to have5days week, icici plans to recruit 30,000 employees in coming year , Accenture on course to hit35,000 headcount in India or launching of a completely a new Brand strategy TCL a chinabased electronic company termed " Creative life "for global market or Infosys to open BPOunit in Mexico , or that of wipros in Egypt or the UB group acquiring Shaw Wallace.. thesestatement as news of daily magazine or topic of discussion create what is known as Brandimage or the "Trust mark "or as defined by Minchington (2005) as "the image of theorganization as a great place to work in the minds of current employees and keystakeholders in the external market (active and passive candidates, clients, customers andother key stakeholders)."The concept of Employer Brand has gained importance since 1990"s or it is a result of Globalmanic competition but above all it has become a magnetic force, a catalyst , an acceleratorand a prime factor which determines an organization success and future .Employer brand has overshadowed and synchronized all other factors which had theirindividual importance like customers, relationship, PR, networking, 2- wayCommunication etc and is now the sole prima factor or the turnkey of success.This article is aimed to explain the need, importance, process, applicability, and outcome ofemployer branding. 61
  62. 62. Defining Employer BrandingLike a consumer brand, it is an emotional relationship, but between an employer andemployee, one that radiates out from this core to other stakeholders, to the community atlarge, and obviously to potential employees.Employer branding is the development and communication of an organizationsculture as an employer in the marketplace. It conveys your "value proposition" - the totality ofyour culture, systems, attitudes, and employee relationship along with encouraging yourpeople to embrace and share goals for success, productivity, and satisfaction both onpersonal and professional levels.Employer branding is the essence of the employment experience, providing points thatcommence with initial employer brand awareness, and continuing throughout the tenure ofemployment, even extending into retirement. Employer branding is a distinguishing andrelevant opportunity for a company to differentiate itself from the competition creating itsbranded factors as its USP for employee satisfaction and happiness resulting in retention,productivity and efficiency.Developing an image as an employer is part of employer branding. Turning that image into aworking relationship between an organization and its potential recruits is a process.Understanding that relationship is often a process of discovery," says Jo Bredwell, seniorpartner at JWT Specialized Communications. "Sometimes employers need a brand, but whatthey really need is to discover what it is. 62
  63. 63. A Corporate understanding of EmployerBranding Concept across the globeAmerican Express, Cisco Systems, Amgen, Starbucks, and Intel, all of which have receivedrecognition on The List of 100 Best Companies to Work for in America are leaders inEmployer Branding as well. "They all share the common trait of treating their employees betterthan their peers in their industries, and all invest heavily in employee training anddevelopment," states Hornung .Companies who dont invest in developing an effective Employer Brand will, in the long run,be less financially successful than those who are. As stated by States Woltzen, "They will notbe able to recruit or retain the high-performing employees they will need to run a successfulbusiness."2002 Gallup survey reported that less than a quarter of American workers are fully "engaged"in their work, costing the US economy $300bn (and £50bn in the UK) per year. Gallup surveysin Great Britain, France and Singapore revealed similar findings in 2003.The surveys revealed that more than 80% of British workers lack any real commitment to theirjobs, with a quarter of those being "actively disengaged," or truly disaffected with theirworkplaces. Gallup estimates that actively disengaged workers cost the British economybetween £37.2 billion ($64.8 billion U.S.) and £38.9 billion ($66.1 billion U.S.) per year due tolow employee retention, high absentee levels, and low productivity.Gallup survey results in 2003 also showed that only 12% of French workers are engaged intheir work, with approximately 2.5 times as many workers (31%) being actively disengaged, ordisconnected from their jobs.In Singapores workforce, the percentage of actively disengaged employees is on the rise. At17%, this figure is up five percentage points from 2002. Gallup estimates that the lowerproductivity of actively disengaged workers penalizes Singapores economic performance,costing between $4.9 and $6.7 billion annually.Recruiters in IT/ITES sectors are increasingly advising companies to hire expert help foremployer branding. "If you are not a first-mover like Infy or Wipro, then where is your USP?"asks Mr Gautam Sinha, CEO, TVA Infotech, one of the largest IT recruitment firms in thecountry. 63
  64. 64. Mr Harish Bijoor, CEO of Harish Bijoor Consults Inc, calls this a cusp activity between HRand marketing. "Internal branding is all about activation of solutions that can be seen,touched, felt and literally smelt by the employee every single day. Branding from the externalperspective is all about top-down branding. Internal branding is a very bottom-up process."Brand name is what makes companies employers of choice at campuses, emphasizes Prof S.Murali, Chairperson, Placements, at the ICFAI Business School. Companies now sendstudents of previous batches as brand ambassadors to talk about the work atmosphere,growth opportunity, salary and other attractions that companies offer.Rishi Das, CareerNet Consulting, a consulting firm that has been connecting engineeringcolleges with corporate, has had a different experience with entry-level employees. "We haveseen that in the top 20 colleges, its the salary and the job role that matters. Brand name onlycomes third, but in colleges that are ranked below the top 20, salary and brand name aretop .Thus employer branding includes all such tangible and non-tangible factots that createsatisfaction .Gautam Sinha, CEO, TVA Infotech, a Bangalore-based IT recruitment firm, says the brandname is the most important factor at entry level. On a scale of 1-10, he says, most studentswould place brand name on top. An opinion that is also influenced by parental views, he says."At campus placements, parental consent plays a critical role. Most candidates choose bigbrands because of this, unless of course they have specialized in niche subjects like roboticswhich big brands may not offer. Thus as per the organization requirements employer brand orthe Trust generating factors should be culminated in the system.Employer branding as the" right fit" modelEffective employer branding also helps in hiring, retaining the right stuff. Considering that 85%of job changes are attributed to organizational incompatibility, and one quickly recognizesemployer branding as a critical factor in effective recruitment, says Donald DeCamp, COO ofComp Health Group, a health-care staffing firm. "Employer branding goes beyond acompanys reputation," says Kurt Mosley, vice president of business development says that."Becoming an employer of choice and increasing retention rates means that an organizationsbranding message truly aligns with the reality that exists for its workers because loyalty is nolonger the dominant paradigm of the employer/employee relationship, attracting and retainingtalent relies much more on being able to fulfill a different promise, and that promise variesfrom organization to organization, depending on its culture, mission and ability to achieve itsgoals. 64
  65. 65. Knowing employees expectation: - thefoundation for Employer BrandingWhen properly planned and executed, an employer branding initiative can generate livelydialogue between an employer and its employees, build a rationale for a mutual workingarrangement, and establish compelling reasons to commit to the arrangement. Whatever is acorporate or an employer an employee expects the following from employer:-1) Fair treatment2) Trustful and open channeled communication3) Ability to provide security and benefits in present and future4) Planned and systematic career and succession planning5) Motivating and morale building team and management6) Smooth Disciplinary procedure and I.R7) Employee benefit oriented culture and practices8) Adequate talent acquisition , management, retention and utilization9) Proper advancement and up gradation of employees10) Participatory management11) Industrial democracy12) Clarity in roles and goals13) Clearly defined authority responsibility charting14) Timely decision making15) Impartial , fair and growth promoting organization structure 65
  66. 66. Creating the right mix: defining theemployment packageThe employment package includes those that often "close the deal" for theProspective employee, such as financial compensation, work/life balance, the Employees rolein organization and professional development. Every organization as per its need , workforce ,level of competition and forecasted demand or business plan should match its expectation –Requirement matrix in such a way so that it becomes easier for both employer and employeeto create a perfect brand name resulting in satisfaction. It includes the following :–1) Focus on Culture and Environment: - It includes items such as the physical workingenvironment, the size of the organization, and the organizations approach to work. 66
  67. 67. 2) Brand Image and Reputation: - It helps in establishing integrity.. The consequence of alack of integrity is the employee does not stay with the organization for long, contributing tothe organizations well being. To attract people to something you cannot deliver is a waste ofyour time and money.3) Management Performance:- It is a vital part in the Employer Branding process. Seniormanagement must be committed and involved in recruitment or the Employer Brandingprocess or it will be a failure.4. A combination of Functional, psychological, and Economic benefits which a new entrantexpects. Thus by creating a need based employment package an organization is benefited intwo-way.5. It also helps in Attracting and recruiting "the right" candidates Attending to shortageswithin the organization Advancing retention rates and reduce turnover Amplifying employeeengagement, commitment, and performanceEmployer branding processThe employment brand architecture as suggested by Ryan Estis the chief talent strategist forNAS Recruitment Communications, an agency of the McCann World Group for becoming anemployer of choice includes the following steps -1) Understand your business objectives2) Identify your talent needs.3) Determine the employment brand attributes.4) Look for synergy with the corporate brand.5) Develop a communications plan.6) Develop the messaging and creative content.7) Establish metrics.8) Execute and evaluate. 67
  68. 68. Taking these as the basic objectives and criterion the process of Employer branding can besummarized as following –Step 1 concept phase360 degree employer brand audit to determine the strength of your current employer brandand to determine its level of synergy with your corporate brand and business objectives.Step 2 Design phaseThe Design Phase is the process to formulate your employer brand strategy. It includes -(i) Defining your Employer Value Propositions (EVPs)(ii) Defining your EBIThe EBI is made up of two components – the Employer Brand Employee Platform whichincludes* Recruitment & induction* Compensation and benefits* Career development* Employee researchA* Reward and recognition* Communication systems* Work environmentEmployer brand strategic platform* Your firms mission, vision & values* Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)* Leadership* Corporate reputation and culture* People management policies and practices* Performance management* Innovation 68
  69. 69. iii) The Corporate brand- the employer branding process and procedures should be aimedtowards corporate branding so that betterment could be created not only among internalcustomers but also among external customers and all stakeholders.iv) Market forces - Employer branding process and techniques should be aimedtowards building a positive image of the organization in external and internalenvironment equally.Step 3 - Integration phaseThese may include:* Career website* Company intranet* Careers fair brochures* Company newsletters* Policy and procedures templates* Recruitment advertising* SponsorshipStep 4 - Evaluation phaseThe Evaluation Phase involves measuring the impact of the Employer Brand programAbove all the success of any employer brand program depends on the efficiency with whichthe need, situation for designing, implementing and monitoring an employer brand programhas been made. Not only a good understanding between the need, process, and inputs arerequired but the full utility comes when full workforce is benefited by it. 69
  70. 70. Implementing employer branding concept in organizationFollowing steps help in fruitful implementation of employer branding process they are –1. Set measurable and attainable target for employer branding which should be developmentoriented.2. Hire professional services if needed for better and result oriented activities3. Identify the needs of employees and design program as per the requirements.4.Undergo survey either attitudinal for gathering information of employees satisfaction andneeds.5. Design a full proof need based support oriented and growth focused strategy which willhelp both employee and employer for development and promotion.6. Validate the strategy with key constituencies.Supportive factors in employer branding1) Active employee involvement2) Clear understanding of what your employees of choice want in an employer.3) A clear, honest, ongoing feedback loop with employees that enable you to continuouslygather information about organizational strengths and weaknesses4) A clear understanding of what needs you address well, and what ones you dont5) A list of organizational practices and policies that weaken your employer brand and thosethat strengthen it6) A list of moment of truth experiences that help shape employees overall work experience,and a clear picture of how well you do in each area 70
  71. 71. Outcome of effective Employer BrandingThus, Employer branding gives an organization a competitive advantage. Employerbranding is a tool to attract, hire, and retain the "right fit it also has an impact onshareholder value, creating positive human capital practices, contribute to bottom-line.Strong employer brands have employer value propositions (EVPs) which arecommunicated in company actions and behaviors and evoke both emotive (e.g. I feelgood about working here) and tangible benefits (this organization cares about my careerdevelopment) for current and prospective employees. These organizations segment andcommunicate EVPs which reflect the image that the organizations want to portray to itstarget audience. A companys employer brand is reflected in the actions and behaviors ofleaders and is affected by company policies, procedures, and practices and the samewhen well planned and implemented results in profitability of organizations.ConclusionThus it can be concluded that not only there is a need of creating a satisfaction in mindsof employees (Internal customers) but there is an urgent need of creating this positivismin the minds f external customers and stakeholders. The created image has to bemonitored and sustain d in such a way so that it will help in increasing profits as well aswould create belongingness, pride, self actualization and true commitment in true wordsand spirit. 71
  72. 72. Employer branding – A new HR arenaThis is a market oriented era. If you have a good brand value in market, you will get goodresponse if not; it’s very difficult to convince people.From an HR point of view branding is very important. If your organization has a goodbrand image in the market, it will help you in getting right workforce at right time and at thesame time you will have a control over the employee cost. An organization with no brandname has to shell out lots of money to attract and retain the right candidate.Branding can be done in two ways:(1) External Branding and (2) Internal Branding.Lots of factors may influence the branding strategy of an organization, like A) Nature ofBusiness B) Nature of market C) Target reception D) Budget flexibility E) Long term mission ofthe organization F) Organizational structure. Etc. These are the few to count on but there maybe many as per the business. 72
  73. 73. Branding strategyA) Nature of business – Branding should be based on the nature of business. Like ifan IT company goes for a fashion show, it may not yield the same results as it would have gotby going to IT Fair or something similar. A real estate company may go for some road showon property market.B) Nature of market – It is always recommended to gauge the market before going forany project which involves market risk Like if you are targeting to explore a Financial market orbanking and at the same time it is marred by some other factors like Inflation, you need todesign your strategy which could help you in overcoming the negative trend.C) Reception target – It’s always good to define the reception target or the audiences.If you are planning to sell Villas and targeting the middle class, probability is very high that youwill end up spending your time and resources in wrong direction.D) Budget flexibility – Budget always plays an important role in deciding the strategies.If your budget doesn’t allow you to spend a lot, its always recommended to partner in anyevent where other participants are not of your field and it has got at least one participant whohas got a good market value so that you can attract the crowd.E) Long term mission of organization – Also the long term as well as short termgoals of the organization should be kept in mind. If the organization does not have any longterm goals in the target market or location, it’s always recommendable not to go for brandingor it is very much required go for a small, low budgeted branding event.F) Organizational structure – Organizational structure is also very vital part fordeciding any strategy. Organizational structure is the strength of any organization and anyevent or branding can be done based on that. Like if your organization does not have lots ofhierarchy steps, you can boast of Flatness and claim of equal behavior. And if you havedifferent layers, you can market the clear definition of roles etc. 73
  74. 74. External branding –External branding refers to branding which is done by using external sources and whichmay (or may not) require some investment in monetary or other forms. Let’s see the differentmeans of doing external branding.(a) Use of job sites – As HR the first thing which comes to the mind is recruitment, soJob sites also offer good branding opportunities through different means like Pop ups, pop insetc. It’s always better to go for pop ins as most of web browsers come with pop-up blockers.(b) Banners – Banners are also a good mean for branding. Banners can be of both types’means Online Banner and Street banners. By Online banner, your organization name will beflashed on different web pages as per your choice and price. Street banners are good forbigger requirements.(c) Road shows – Road shows are also an important mean for creating brandawareness. You can organize talks, presentations, seminars etc. for attracting people towardsyour organization.(d) Corporate social responsibility – Corporate social responsibility refers tocorporate getting associated with society for some noble cause. The association can be in anymode either getting associated with a Charitable Trust or a NGO or some other publicventure. Corporate can align and attach with any of these and share the stage. Always keepin mind that choose as per you organization status meaning if you are a small firm, doassociate with a medium sized organization and if medium you can align with either of these-large or medium. Idea should be you get a nice coverage in the popularity cake.(e) Public events – Public events are one of the major ways of creating a brand image.An organization can participate in any of the public event and assuring that it does not getdisappeared in the crowd of many brands or big names. 74
  75. 75. (f) Newspapers – Branding can be done through newspapers as well. If you target thelocal public, you can go for advertisements considering the individual day circulation, targetreaders, rapport of newspaper, type of newspaper etc. If you target only to employ people foryour workforce requirement, you can place job Ads which may seem expensive at the firstglance but in terms of attracting the correct workforce, it can do magic.(g) Email – For mail ids related to job portals, you can create an auto reply which cancontain brief description of the key aspects of candidate’s and public interest and at the sametime introducing your company to the public. It should be informative as well as crispy so thatthe audience reads it and just doesn’t do Shift Delete.(h) Tagline – Create a nice, attractive tagline or a punch line for your brand and give it asignificant visibility in all your branding efforts. The tag line should be in accordance with yourorganization values, goals, work etc. so that it reflects an overall image of the brandeverywhere.(i) Align with celebrity – Aligning with a celebrity is also a good way of creating abrand image. But this may cost you big bucks and ultimately increasing your cost dramatically.This is an expensive method of branding. 75
  76. 76. Internal branding –Internal Branding is comparatively a cheaper way of branding. You can use your internalorganizational staff for this purpose.(a) Front office – Always pay attention to your front office because first impression is lastimpression. It should be kept neat and clean with a pleasant receptionist who alwaysmaintains freshness and welcomes the guests with courtesy.(b) Stays interview - HR can always conduct stay interviews in which they can interactwith the employee and ask them regarding their career prospects, there alignment with thecompany, there feedback regarding their concerned departments, etc. These feedbacks canbe analyzed and used for different purposes by which you can create an internal brand imageof the country.(c) Exit interview – An exit always carries a fair chance of initiating the chain reactionamong the employees so always be very careful in analyzing the exiting reasons so that youcan overcome the justified ones in the future.(d) Employee satisfaction – Employee satisfaction is always very important for anyorganization to grow. A satisfied employee is a productive employee. If your employee issatisfied, you can relax because they will create a good and positive rapport for the companyin the market outside.(e) Policy information – Always design your policies very strategically. A policy shouldbe designed in such a way that it holds good even after a long period of time. A frequentinternal policy change sends a message to the outer world that the company is not consistentand knowledgeable and reliable.(f) Customer orientation – Customers are always the most important factors. Alwayskeep your workforce motivated towards delivery of customer oriented services. Customerscan be of either type, internal or external. 76