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複合式引用指標
Altmetrics & ALMs簡介
陳亞寧
淡江大學資訊與圖書館學系
輔仁大學圖資系
文開樓5樓會議室
15 Dec., 2014
大綱
• 緣起
• 現有的相關指標
– JCR & WoS
– Scopus
– 華文相關指標
• Webometrics
– Google Scholar’s My
Citation
– RWWR: Ranking of
World Web ...
緣起
• 各國高等教育的研究評鑑需求與方法
– UK: Research Excellence Framework(REF, 前身
為RAE)
• Outputs(65%), Impact(20%) & Environment(15%)
– A...
參考來源
• Citation
– JCR: SCI, SSCI, & AHCI
– Scopus
• Webometrics: Google Scholar
• Open Access/IR: RWWR
• 其他
JCR
WoS
6
Scopus1
Scopus2
國圖-TCI HSS1
國圖-TCI HSS2
華藝ACI1
華藝ACI2
碩亞TACI1
碩亞TACI2
中國知識資源總庫
中國期刊全文數據庫
Citation Analysis的假設前提
• Citation of a document implies use of that document by
the citing author.→有些資料曾被閱讀, 但未被引用
• Citat...
Google Scholar1
Google Scholar2
Google Scholar3
RWWR1
RWWR2
Questions
• Scholarly Communication(formal & informal)
的範圍與類型
• Web 2.0?
• Open Data & Open Science?
既有資料庫服務策略的改變
Data Citation Index
國圖-臺灣期刊論文索引系統
華藝線上圖書館
IRs-IDEALS1
IRs-IDEALS2
eScholarship1-Books
eScholarship2-Working Paper
eScholarship3-Journal Article
WEB 2.0/SOCIAL WEB
ResearchGate1
ResearchGate2
ResearchGate3
ResearchGate4
SlideShare
figshare1
figshare2
ALTMSTRICS-PUBLISHER
Faculty 10001
Faculty 10002
JCB1
JCB2
eLife
PeerJ1
PeerJ2
PLoS Article-Level Metrics1
PLoS Article-Level Metrics2
PLoS Article-Level Metrics3
PLoS Article-Level Metrics
• Usage Stats
– PLOS websites, PMC
• Social Shares
– Facebook, Twitter
• Academic Bookmarks
– M...
PLoS Article-Level Metrics
Source: http://article-level-metrics.plos.org/alm-info/
ALTMSTRICS-AGGREGATOR
Plum1
Plum2
Plum3
Plum4
Plum5
Plum Analytics-Category1
• Usage
– Downloads, views, book holdings, ILL, document delivery
• Captures
– Favorites, bookmar...
Plum Analytics-Category2
Plum Analytics-Category3
Plum Analytics-Category4
Plum Analytics-Category5
Altmetric.com1
Altmetric.com2
Altmetric.com3
Altmetric.com4
Altmetric.com5
Altmetric.com6
• Public documents
We track a wide range of public policy documents for
mentions, and are adding more every...
Altmetric.com8
Altmetric.com9
• Activity
Medium:~2,100 news reports mention papers
each week
• Level of Insight
High: Summaries of papers...
ImpactStory1
ImpactStory2
ImpactStory3
ImpactStory4
Altmetrics的起源與定義
• 起源
– 一則Twitter訊息
• 定義
– Alternative metrics of impact
• 服務來源
– Publishers: 如PLoS等
– Aggregators: 如PLUM,...
Altmetrics的出發點
• JCR
– 以北美與歐洲為主
– 以英文為主
– 不利於
• 非英文語系的學術研究
– 過於傾斜(skewed)
Source: Alperin, 2013
Altmetrics預計目的
• Different audiences: public vs. scholarly
interest
• Different dimensions: attention, self-promotion,
or ...
Altmetrics的價值
• Author
– Readership
– Supplements to IF of journal
• Repositories
– Potential depositors and their open co...
ALMs
• PLoS and SPARC
• ALMs: Article Level Metrics
– 以個別文獻為主要對象
– 聚合不同的來源資料,尤其是社會網路化與即時性
– 能見/曝光度:學術與社會化
– 與Altmetrics不同,...
Altmetrics
Citations Usage data
ALMs
Social
metrics
Citations Usage data
ALMs / Altmetrics
交替使用
優點
• 進一步了解影響,包括閱讀、討論、儲存、
推薦與引用等情形
• 即時性:以日為單位,而不是以年
• 涵蓋範圍更廣:包括資料集、軟體、部落
格訊息等
• 讀者:除了學者外,還包括專家、醫生、
教育者與一般大眾
Source: Piwowa...
缺點
• What sources of data should be used?
• How can we identify what research outputs are
being discussed?
• You say tomat...
Evolutional metrics and findings
• 3 Stages and Types
– Citation analysis – WoS & JCR
– Webometrics (Link Analysis) – Goog...
建議
• 留意各項需求的改變及其發展
• 資料的來源及其正確性與限制
• 數據的差異性及其標準化:不同學科領域
• 資料詮釋與應用的觀點:脈絡(context)
• 不同觀點及其多元化
• 計算方式:factor vs. count
• 不同識...
Citation Analysis假設前提
應用在Altmetrics的情境
• Citation of a document implies use of that document by
the citing author.→有些資料曾被閱...
Yahoo奇摩的一則外國消息
一則USA Today報導
References
• 蔡明月(2013) 。 數位時代資訊計量在圖書資訊學研究的應用:Altmetrics。在
2013圖書資訊學優秀學位論文奬助發表會手冊(頁15-27) 。 臺北市:國家圖書
館。
• Alperin, J.P. (20...
Reference Websites
• Altmetric.com
http://www.altmetric.com/
• ImpactStory
http://impactstory.org/
• Plum Analytics
http:/...
報告完畢,謝謝聆聽。
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Altmetrics

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Altmetrics

  1. 1. 複合式引用指標 Altmetrics & ALMs簡介 陳亞寧 淡江大學資訊與圖書館學系 輔仁大學圖資系 文開樓5樓會議室 15 Dec., 2014
  2. 2. 大綱 • 緣起 • 現有的相關指標 – JCR & WoS – Scopus – 華文相關指標 • Webometrics – Google Scholar’s My Citation – RWWR: Ranking of World Web Repositories • 既有資料庫服務策略 的改變 • 新興的服務平台及其 指標:Web 2.0/Social Web • Altmetrics • ALMs • 結語
  3. 3. 緣起 • 各國高等教育的研究評鑑需求與方法 – UK: Research Excellence Framework(REF, 前身 為RAE) • Outputs(65%), Impact(20%) & Environment(15%) – Australia: Excellence in Research for Australia(ERA , 前身為RQF) • Indicators of : research volume and activity, research application, & recognition • 量化 v.s. 質化
  4. 4. 參考來源 • Citation – JCR: SCI, SSCI, & AHCI – Scopus • Webometrics: Google Scholar • Open Access/IR: RWWR • 其他
  5. 5. JCR
  6. 6. WoS 6
  7. 7. Scopus1
  8. 8. Scopus2
  9. 9. 國圖-TCI HSS1
  10. 10. 國圖-TCI HSS2
  11. 11. 華藝ACI1
  12. 12. 華藝ACI2
  13. 13. 碩亞TACI1
  14. 14. 碩亞TACI2
  15. 15. 中國知識資源總庫 中國期刊全文數據庫
  16. 16. Citation Analysis的假設前提 • Citation of a document implies use of that document by the citing author.→有些資料曾被閱讀, 但未被引用 • Citation of a document (author, journal, etc.) reflects the merit (quality, significance, impact) of that document (author, journal, etc.). →有時是負面引用 • Citations are made to the best possible works. →有些 作品不著名, 或是導論入門型的作品並未被引用 • A cited document is related in content to the citing document; if two documents bibliographically coupled, they are related I content; and if two documents are co- cited, they are related in content. →並不一定 • All citations are equal. →並不一定 Source from: Smith, 1981
  17. 17. Google Scholar1
  18. 18. Google Scholar2
  19. 19. Google Scholar3
  20. 20. RWWR1
  21. 21. RWWR2
  22. 22. Questions • Scholarly Communication(formal & informal) 的範圍與類型 • Web 2.0? • Open Data & Open Science?
  23. 23. 既有資料庫服務策略的改變
  24. 24. Data Citation Index
  25. 25. 國圖-臺灣期刊論文索引系統
  26. 26. 華藝線上圖書館
  27. 27. IRs-IDEALS1
  28. 28. IRs-IDEALS2
  29. 29. eScholarship1-Books
  30. 30. eScholarship2-Working Paper
  31. 31. eScholarship3-Journal Article
  32. 32. WEB 2.0/SOCIAL WEB
  33. 33. ResearchGate1
  34. 34. ResearchGate2
  35. 35. ResearchGate3
  36. 36. ResearchGate4
  37. 37. SlideShare
  38. 38. figshare1
  39. 39. figshare2
  40. 40. ALTMSTRICS-PUBLISHER
  41. 41. Faculty 10001
  42. 42. Faculty 10002
  43. 43. JCB1
  44. 44. JCB2
  45. 45. eLife
  46. 46. PeerJ1
  47. 47. PeerJ2
  48. 48. PLoS Article-Level Metrics1
  49. 49. PLoS Article-Level Metrics2
  50. 50. PLoS Article-Level Metrics3
  51. 51. PLoS Article-Level Metrics • Usage Stats – PLOS websites, PMC • Social Shares – Facebook, Twitter • Academic Bookmarks – Mendeley, CiteULike • Scholarly Citations – CrossRef, Scopus, WoS, PMC • Non-scholarly Citations – ResearchBlogging, ScienceSeeker, Nature Blogs, Wikipedia Source: http://article-level-metrics.plos.org/alm-info/
  52. 52. PLoS Article-Level Metrics Source: http://article-level-metrics.plos.org/alm-info/
  53. 53. ALTMSTRICS-AGGREGATOR
  54. 54. Plum1
  55. 55. Plum2
  56. 56. Plum3
  57. 57. Plum4
  58. 58. Plum5
  59. 59. Plum Analytics-Category1 • Usage – Downloads, views, book holdings, ILL, document delivery • Captures – Favorites, bookmarks, saves, readers, groups, watchers • Mentions – Blog posts, news stories, Wikipedia articles, comments, reviews • Social media – Tweets, +1's, likes, shares, ratings • Citations – PubMed, Scopus, patents Source: http://www.plumanalytics.com/metrics.html
  60. 60. Plum Analytics-Category2
  61. 61. Plum Analytics-Category3
  62. 62. Plum Analytics-Category4
  63. 63. Plum Analytics-Category5
  64. 64. Altmetric.com1
  65. 65. Altmetric.com2
  66. 66. Altmetric.com3
  67. 67. Altmetric.com4
  68. 68. Altmetric.com5
  69. 69. Altmetric.com6 • Public documents We track a wide range of public policy documents for mentions, and are adding more every month • Social media data – Twitter, Facebook, Google+, Pinterest, Reddit, LinkedIn groups, Blogs (this is a manually curated list - currently this contains ~ 3,700 blogs), Sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), Reviews on F1000, Research Highlights in NPG journals, YouTube, & many smaller sources • Online reference manager and publisher download count data – Mendeley & CiteULike (no new data is being pulled in from Connotea - it has now closed) • Mainstream media data Source: http://support.altmetric.com/knowledgebase/articles /83335-which-data-sources-does-altmetric-track-
  70. 70. Altmetric.com8
  71. 71. Altmetric.com9 • Activity Medium:~2,100 news reports mention papers each week • Level of Insight High: Summaries of papers for a general audience • Content Creators Communicators: Journalists • Collection Time Medium: Majority of articles are collected in < 6 hours
  72. 72. ImpactStory1
  73. 73. ImpactStory2
  74. 74. ImpactStory3
  75. 75. ImpactStory4
  76. 76. Altmetrics的起源與定義 • 起源 – 一則Twitter訊息 • 定義 – Alternative metrics of impact • 服務來源 – Publishers: 如PLoS等 – Aggregators: 如PLUM, Altmetrics.com, ImpactStory等 • 中譯名 – 替代計量學(邱均平、余厚強)、選擇性計量學(劉春 麗)(間接引自, 蔡明月(2013)) – 多元指標(張慧銖)
  77. 77. Altmetrics的出發點 • JCR – 以北美與歐洲為主 – 以英文為主 – 不利於 • 非英文語系的學術研究 – 過於傾斜(skewed) Source: Alperin, 2013
  78. 78. Altmetrics預計目的 • Different audiences: public vs. scholarly interest • Different dimensions: attention, self-promotion, or impact • Different timepoint after publication: days, months, or years Source: Lin & Fenner, 2013
  79. 79. Altmetrics的價值 • Author – Readership – Supplements to IF of journal • Repositories – Potential depositors and their open contents – Another usage statistics – Help in collection development and planning • Administrator – Showcase of university scholarship to both internal and external stakeholders – Better understand how a particular researcher’s work has been received by scholarly and lay communities Source: Konkiel & Scherer, 2013
  80. 80. ALMs • PLoS and SPARC • ALMs: Article Level Metrics – 以個別文獻為主要對象 – 聚合不同的來源資料,尤其是社會網路化與即時性 – 能見/曝光度:學術與社會化 – 與Altmetrics不同,以評估個別的文獻、期刊、學 者,及其他 – ALMs不會被某一公司或企業獨立擁有或把持 – 與現有的metrics互補 Source: Tananbaum, 2013
  81. 81. Altmetrics Citations Usage data ALMs
  82. 82. Social metrics Citations Usage data ALMs / Altmetrics 交替使用
  83. 83. 優點 • 進一步了解影響,包括閱讀、討論、儲存、 推薦與引用等情形 • 即時性:以日為單位,而不是以年 • 涵蓋範圍更廣:包括資料集、軟體、部落 格訊息等 • 讀者:除了學者外,還包括專家、醫生、 教育者與一般大眾 Source: Piwowarr, 2013
  84. 84. 缺點 • What sources of data should be used? • How can we identify what research outputs are being discussed? • You say tomato, I say tomahto? • How do we interpret the data? Source: Liu & Adie, 2013
  85. 85. Evolutional metrics and findings • 3 Stages and Types – Citation analysis – WoS & JCR – Webometrics (Link Analysis) – Google Scholar’s Metrics – Web 2.0 analysis – Altmetrics & ALMs • Scope and Granularity – Journal - Article - Data sets - PPT- Figure & Table – Country - Institute - Group - Individual • Data Source and Quality • Source – Calculation & Algorithm→Counts
  86. 86. 建議 • 留意各項需求的改變及其發展 • 資料的來源及其正確性與限制 • 數據的差異性及其標準化:不同學科領域 • 資料詮釋與應用的觀點:脈絡(context) • 不同觀點及其多元化 • 計算方式:factor vs. count • 不同識別碼及其代表資訊物件的重複問題:DOI及 其他(如:ORCID) • 標準:資料的來源及其提供的項目與定義 • Digital Preservation及數位資訊消失的問題 • 其他:不同的個人與電腦軟體程式的潛在影響
  87. 87. Citation Analysis假設前提 應用在Altmetrics的情境 • Citation of a document implies use of that document by the citing author.→有些資料曾被閱讀, 但未被引用? • Citation of a document (author, journal, etc.) reflects the merit (quality, significance, impact) of that document (author, journal, etc.). →有時是負面引用? • Citations are made to the best possible works. →有些 作品不著名, 並未被引用? • A cited document is related in content to the citing document; if two documents bibliographically coupled, they are related I content; and if two documents are co- cited, they are related in content. →並不一定? • All citations are equal. →並不一定? Source from: Smith, 1981
  88. 88. Yahoo奇摩的一則外國消息
  89. 89. 一則USA Today報導
  90. 90. References • 蔡明月(2013) 。 數位時代資訊計量在圖書資訊學研究的應用:Altmetrics。在 2013圖書資訊學優秀學位論文奬助發表會手冊(頁15-27) 。 臺北市:國家圖書 館。 • Alperin, J.P. (2013). Ask not what altmetrics can do for you, but what altmetrics can do for developing countries. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 18-21. • Konkiel, S., & Scherer, D. (2013). New opportunities for repositories in the age of altmetrics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 22-26.. • Lin, J., & Fenner, M. (2013). The many faces of article-level metrics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 27-30. • Liu, J., & Adie, E. (2013). Five challenges in altmetrics: A toolmakers’s perspective. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 31-39. • Piwowar, H. (2013). Introduction almetrics: What, why and where? Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 8-9. • Smith, L.C. (1981). Citation analysis. Library Trends, 30(1), 83-106. • Tananbaum, G. (2013). Article-level metrics: A SPARC primer. http://sparc.arl.org/sites/default/files/sparc-alm-primer.pdf
  91. 91. Reference Websites • Altmetric.com http://www.altmetric.com/ • ImpactStory http://impactstory.org/ • Plum Analytics http://www.plumanalytics.com/
  92. 92. 報告完畢,謝謝聆聽。

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