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DIGESTION
SYSTEM
Boby Parts involve
in
Group Members:
 Warda
 Sidra
 Raheema
 Sarwat
 Sameen
 Rida
ORAL CAVITY
and
ESOPHAGUS
Oral Cavity/ Mouth:
• Inside the oral cavity, or mouth,
there are three organs that help in
the process of digestion of food.
 1) Teeth
 2) Tongue
 3) Salivary glands
1) TEETH:
 There are 32 in numbers,
found along the lateral edges
of the mouth, covered with a
layer of enamel.
 They are designed to help in
cutting and grinding of the food
into smaller pieces.
Types of Teeth:
2) TONGUE:
 It’s on the inferior portion of the mouth, just
posterior and medial to the teeth.
 Made up of several bundles of muscles and
covered in a thin, bumpy skin-like layer.
 The taste buds on the surface help to detect
what kind of flavour the food is in and send
this message to the brain.
 It also helps in pushing the food in the back
part of the mouth for swallowing.
3) SALIVARY GLANDS:
 They are found in the
mouth & throat There are
three major types:
 Paratoid (found to be
draining out the saliva
through salivary ducts,
near the upper lip.)
 Submandibular (Found
under the tongue)
 Sublingual Glands (Found
in the floor of the mouth)
 They all secrete saliva in
our mouth that moistens
the food and makes it
easy for swallowing.
PHARYNX:
 Pharynx Or throat is funnel shaped tube that
connects the posterior end of the mouth.
 It’s responsible for passing the chewed food
from the mouth to the esophagus.
 It plays a role in respiration as air from nasal
cavity on its way to larynx passes through the
pharynx.
 It has a flap of muscle called epiglottis that acts
as a switch to route the food to esophagus and
the air into larynx.
Esophagus:
 Derived from Greek word
meaning ‘carry to eat.’
 Also known as foodpipe or
gullet.
 Made up of fibromuscular
tube in which food passes
aided by peristaltic
movement from the pharynx
to the stomach.
 At the end of esophagus
there is a muscular ring
called the lower osophagal
sphincter or cardiac
sphincter. It’s function is to
close the end of the
esophagus and traps the
food in the stomach.
Diseases Of Esophagus
 Achalasia: Achalasia is a motor disorder
characterized by a complete loss of
contraction and relaxation of muscles used
to move contents down the esophagus.
 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
(GERD): is a chronic digestive disorder
where liquid content from the stomach
backs up into the esophagus, with the
most common symptom being heartburn.
STOMACH
Stomach:
 Stomach is an muscular organ
located in the left side of the upper
abdomen.
 Stomach receive food from the
esophagus.
 Food enters in stomach through a
muscular valve called esophagus
sphincter.
Function:
 Stomach is J-shaped, it can expand to
store food temporarily.
 Partial digestion of food take place in
stomach.
 Stomach release acid and enzymes for
chemical breakdown of food.
 Pepsin is responsible for protein
breakdown.
Parts of Stomach:
 Eardiac Part: It is first portion of stomach
where food contents passes from the
esophagus into the stomach.
 Fundus Part: store undigested food.
 Eorpur Part: Partial digestion occur here.
 Polyrau Part:
 It is connected to duodenum.
 This part contain valve called polyric sphincter.
 Content of stomach move to deodenum
through polyric canal.
Diseases:
 Dysepepsia: Feeling of fullness,
indegestion and pain in upper abdomen.
 Gerd: is a chronic digestive disease. GERD
occurs when stomach acid or, stomach
content, flows back into your food pipe
(esophagus).
 Peptic Ulser: Occur when stomach walls is
damaged by stomach acid.
Duodenum:
 Duodenum is a part of gasto-intestinal (GI)
tract.
 It attached to the pyloric sphincter of the
stomach on its superior end and to the jejunum
of the small intestine on its inferior end.
 The pancreas, liver and gall bladder all deliver
their digestive secretion into the duodenum,
 Through an orifis known as ampulla of vatar,
which is located roughly in the midde of
duodenum on te left side.
Duodenum: (CONT)
The walls of duodenum are made up of 4 layers:
 Mucosa: its is the inner surface of duodenum and is
contact with chyme passing through the intestinal
lumen.
 Submucosa: Layer of conective tissues that
supports the other tissue layers. Many blood vessels
and nerves pass through it.
 Muscularis: Is a layer that contain smooth muscles
tissue of duodenum.
 Serosa: That acts as the outer skin of intestine
provide a smooth, slick surface to prevent friction
between the duodenum and the surrounding organs.
LIVER and
GALL
BLADDERS
Liver and Gall Bladder:
LIVER:
 Largest gland in the body (1.5 Kg)
 Under the diaphragm, within the rib
cage in the upper right quadrant of
the abdomen.
GALL BLADER:
 the small sac-shaped organ beneath
the liver, in which bile is stored after
secretion by the liver and before
release into the intestine.
 A vessel connected to the liver is
not a blood vessel, It is the bile duct.
 The bile duct carries bile from the
LIVER TO THE GALLBLADDER where
it is stored until required to aid the
digestion of fats in the small
intestine
Structure of Liver:
Lobes:
Two principal lobes: right
and left.
Right lobe further
subdivided:
Quadrate lobe and
caudate lobe
Ducts:
Common hepatic duct.
From
gallbladder:
Common bile –Joins
pancreatic duct at
hepato pancreatic duct
Functions of Liver:
 Metabolic
 Protien Synthesis
 Breakdown of fats
 Other functions – storage of vitamin A,D,B12,F…
 Excretion of waste products from bloodstream into
bile
 Vascular – storage of blood
 Bile production and secretion
 Detoxification
 Storage of glycogen
 Production of bile pigments
Functions of Gall Bladder and Bile:
 It stores Bile
 It concentrates bile
 Ejects bile into lumen
 Bile
 Emulsify dietary lipids
 Formation of micelles with
products of lipid digestion.
DISEASES OF THE LIVER
 JAUNDICE : yellowing of the skin arising
from excess of the pigment bilirubin and
typically caused by obstruction of the bile
duct.
 HEPATITIS : a disease characterized by
inflammation of the liver
 CIRRHOSIS : a chronic disease of the liver
marked by degeneration of cells,
inflammation, and thickening of tissue. It is
typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.
 CANCER OF THE LIVER : tumor in liver.
DISEASES OF THE GALLBLADDER
 Cholangitis: is inflammation in the common
bile duct.
 Gallbladder polyps: are growths in the
gallbladder that are usually harmless and
carry no symptoms
 Gallstones : a small, hard crystalline mass
formed abnormally in the gallbladder or bile
ducts from bile pigments, cholesterol, and
calcium salts. Gallstones can cause severe
pain and blockage of the bile duct.
Gall Stones
Enzymes:
Bile:
Helps the digestive process by
breaking up fats. It also drains waste
products from the liver into the
duodenum.
 It is alkaline in nature.
Bilirubin and Biliverdin:
 an orange-yellow pigment in the bile
formed.
 breakdown product of haemoglobin.
 Excess amounts in the blood produce the
yellow appearance associated with
jaundice.
 Formula: C 32 H 36 O 6 N 4 .
 Biliverdin: a green pigment excreted in bile.
When bilirubin excreted into the small bowel, its
bacteria change it into the safe green colored
called biliverdin.
PANCREAS
PANCREAS:
 The pancreas is an elongated, tapered
organ located across the back of the
abdomen, behind the stomach.
 The right side of the organ, called the
head, is the widest part of the organ
and lies in the curve of the duodenum,
the first section of the small intestine.
The tapered left side extends slightly
upward, called the body of the
pancreas, and ends near the spleen,
called the tail.
PANCREAS IS MADE UP OF
GLANDS:
 The pancreas is made up of 2 types of glands:
 Exocrine.The exocrine gland secretes digestive
enzymes.These enzymes are secreted into a
network of ducts that join the main pancreatic
duct, which runs the length of the pancreas.
 Endocrine.The endocrine gland, which consists of
the islets of Langerhans, secretes hormones into
the bloodstream.
FUNCTION:
 The pancreas has digestive and
hormonal functions:
 The enzymes secreted by the
exocrine gland in the pancreas
help break down CHO, fats,
proteins, and acids in the
duodenum. These enzymes
travel down the pancreatic duct
into the bile duct in an inactive
form. When they enter the
duodenum, they are activated.
 The exocrine tissue also secretes
a bicarbonate to neutralize
stomach acid in the duodenum.
The main hormones secreted by
the endocrine gland in the
pancreas are insulin and
glucagon, which regulate the
level of glucose in the blood, and
somatostatin, which prevents the
release of the other 2 hormones.
Small
Intestine
Small Intestine:
 Part of the gastrointestinal tract
following the stomach and followed
by the large intestine
 Where much of the digestion and
absorption of food takes place.
 Primary function is to absorb the
nutrients and minerals found in food
Size and Divisions:
 Average length of the small
intestine
 in an adult male
-22 feet 6 inches (6.9 m)
 in the adult female
-23 feet 4 inches (7.1 m)
Structure:
It is structurally divided into
three parts:
 duodenum
 jejunum
 ileum
Duodenum:
 where most of the breakdown of food in the small
intestines occurs.
 mucous cells of these glands produce an alkaline
secretion
 protects the duodenal lining from the acidity of the
chyme
 raises the luminal pH to the optimum level for pancreatic
enzyme activity
 also the point of entry for the bile and pancreatic ducts
 exhibits fingerlike or leaflike villi
 few goblet cells
Duodenum: (CONT)
The duodenum consists of four parts,
with the first three forming a "C" shape.
 first or superior part begins at the pylors,
passing laterally for a short distance before
curving into the superior duodenal flexure
 second or descending part passes from the
superior into the inferior duodenal flexure
 third or inferior part passes from the inferior
flexure, crossing the major artery and the
major vein and also the spinal column
 forth or ascending part passes over the
aorta, and curves past the pancreas to the
duodenojejunal flexure
Jejunum:
 has long leaflike vilii.
 many plicae circulares
 an intermediate number of goblet
cells
Ileum:
 final and longest section of the small intestine.
 jejunum and ileum both suspended by a double layer
of peritoneum that allows these parts to move more
freely within the abdomen.
 responsible for the final stages of protein and
carbohydrate digestion.
 has fewer villi, which are short and broad-tipped
(clublike).
 relatively abundant goblet cells
Disorders:
 colon cancer
 Small bowel bacterial overgrowth
syndrome
 Paralytic ileus
 Maropthisis
 Crohn's disease
 Celiac disease
 Carcinoid
 Meckel's Diverticulum
 Gastric dumping syndrome
 Infectious diseases
 Mesenteric ischemia
 Intussusception
Large
Intestine
Large Intestine
It has a large diameter
about 6.5 cm.
Structure: It is divided into:
• A short caecum
• A long colon
• Rectum
 Caecum:
• It is placed in the lower right side of the
• Abdominal cavity.
• It gives off a blind tube of about 18 cm long from its lower
portion known as vermiform appendix which is a vestigial organ.
 Colon:
• It is the longest part and have three regions
• Ascending colon
• Transverse colon
• Descending colon
 Rectum:
• It is the last portion of large intestine.
Functions:
• Inorganic salts,vitamins and water are
absorbed in the colon.
• Metabolic waste and inorganic
substances notably calcium in excess
in the body are excreted as salts along
the feces.
• Many symbiotic bacteria in the large
intestine synthesize amino acids some
vitamins especially vitamin K .
Anus and Egestion:
• The external opening of the anal canal
is known as anus.
• Two sphincters surround the anus.
• The internal one of smooth muscles
under the control of autonomic nervous
system.
• The outer one of striated muscle
control by voluntary nervous system.
Disoders of Gastro-
intestinal tract:
• Diarrhoea
• Dysentary
• Constipation
• Piles
• Dyspepsia
• Peptic ulcer
• Food poisoning
• Malnutrition
• Over weight and obesity
• Anorexia nervosa
• Cancers.
Thanks
for
listening!!

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Digestive system

  • 2. Group Members:  Warda  Sidra  Raheema  Sarwat  Sameen  Rida
  • 4. Oral Cavity/ Mouth: • Inside the oral cavity, or mouth, there are three organs that help in the process of digestion of food.  1) Teeth  2) Tongue  3) Salivary glands
  • 5. 1) TEETH:  There are 32 in numbers, found along the lateral edges of the mouth, covered with a layer of enamel.  They are designed to help in cutting and grinding of the food into smaller pieces.
  • 7. 2) TONGUE:  It’s on the inferior portion of the mouth, just posterior and medial to the teeth.  Made up of several bundles of muscles and covered in a thin, bumpy skin-like layer.  The taste buds on the surface help to detect what kind of flavour the food is in and send this message to the brain.  It also helps in pushing the food in the back part of the mouth for swallowing.
  • 8. 3) SALIVARY GLANDS:  They are found in the mouth & throat There are three major types:  Paratoid (found to be draining out the saliva through salivary ducts, near the upper lip.)  Submandibular (Found under the tongue)  Sublingual Glands (Found in the floor of the mouth)  They all secrete saliva in our mouth that moistens the food and makes it easy for swallowing.
  • 9. PHARYNX:  Pharynx Or throat is funnel shaped tube that connects the posterior end of the mouth.  It’s responsible for passing the chewed food from the mouth to the esophagus.  It plays a role in respiration as air from nasal cavity on its way to larynx passes through the pharynx.  It has a flap of muscle called epiglottis that acts as a switch to route the food to esophagus and the air into larynx.
  • 10. Esophagus:  Derived from Greek word meaning ‘carry to eat.’  Also known as foodpipe or gullet.  Made up of fibromuscular tube in which food passes aided by peristaltic movement from the pharynx to the stomach.  At the end of esophagus there is a muscular ring called the lower osophagal sphincter or cardiac sphincter. It’s function is to close the end of the esophagus and traps the food in the stomach.
  • 11. Diseases Of Esophagus  Achalasia: Achalasia is a motor disorder characterized by a complete loss of contraction and relaxation of muscles used to move contents down the esophagus.  Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): is a chronic digestive disorder where liquid content from the stomach backs up into the esophagus, with the most common symptom being heartburn.
  • 13. Stomach:  Stomach is an muscular organ located in the left side of the upper abdomen.  Stomach receive food from the esophagus.  Food enters in stomach through a muscular valve called esophagus sphincter.
  • 14.
  • 15. Function:  Stomach is J-shaped, it can expand to store food temporarily.  Partial digestion of food take place in stomach.  Stomach release acid and enzymes for chemical breakdown of food.  Pepsin is responsible for protein breakdown.
  • 16. Parts of Stomach:  Eardiac Part: It is first portion of stomach where food contents passes from the esophagus into the stomach.  Fundus Part: store undigested food.  Eorpur Part: Partial digestion occur here.  Polyrau Part:  It is connected to duodenum.  This part contain valve called polyric sphincter.  Content of stomach move to deodenum through polyric canal.
  • 17. Diseases:  Dysepepsia: Feeling of fullness, indegestion and pain in upper abdomen.  Gerd: is a chronic digestive disease. GERD occurs when stomach acid or, stomach content, flows back into your food pipe (esophagus).  Peptic Ulser: Occur when stomach walls is damaged by stomach acid.
  • 18. Duodenum:  Duodenum is a part of gasto-intestinal (GI) tract.  It attached to the pyloric sphincter of the stomach on its superior end and to the jejunum of the small intestine on its inferior end.  The pancreas, liver and gall bladder all deliver their digestive secretion into the duodenum,  Through an orifis known as ampulla of vatar, which is located roughly in the midde of duodenum on te left side.
  • 19. Duodenum: (CONT) The walls of duodenum are made up of 4 layers:  Mucosa: its is the inner surface of duodenum and is contact with chyme passing through the intestinal lumen.  Submucosa: Layer of conective tissues that supports the other tissue layers. Many blood vessels and nerves pass through it.  Muscularis: Is a layer that contain smooth muscles tissue of duodenum.  Serosa: That acts as the outer skin of intestine provide a smooth, slick surface to prevent friction between the duodenum and the surrounding organs.
  • 21. Liver and Gall Bladder: LIVER:  Largest gland in the body (1.5 Kg)  Under the diaphragm, within the rib cage in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. GALL BLADER:  the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.
  • 22.  A vessel connected to the liver is not a blood vessel, It is the bile duct.  The bile duct carries bile from the LIVER TO THE GALLBLADDER where it is stored until required to aid the digestion of fats in the small intestine
  • 23.
  • 24. Structure of Liver: Lobes: Two principal lobes: right and left. Right lobe further subdivided: Quadrate lobe and caudate lobe Ducts: Common hepatic duct. From gallbladder: Common bile –Joins pancreatic duct at hepato pancreatic duct
  • 25. Functions of Liver:  Metabolic  Protien Synthesis  Breakdown of fats  Other functions – storage of vitamin A,D,B12,F…  Excretion of waste products from bloodstream into bile  Vascular – storage of blood  Bile production and secretion  Detoxification  Storage of glycogen  Production of bile pigments
  • 26. Functions of Gall Bladder and Bile:  It stores Bile  It concentrates bile  Ejects bile into lumen  Bile  Emulsify dietary lipids  Formation of micelles with products of lipid digestion.
  • 27. DISEASES OF THE LIVER  JAUNDICE : yellowing of the skin arising from excess of the pigment bilirubin and typically caused by obstruction of the bile duct.  HEPATITIS : a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver  CIRRHOSIS : a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.  CANCER OF THE LIVER : tumor in liver.
  • 28. DISEASES OF THE GALLBLADDER  Cholangitis: is inflammation in the common bile duct.  Gallbladder polyps: are growths in the gallbladder that are usually harmless and carry no symptoms  Gallstones : a small, hard crystalline mass formed abnormally in the gallbladder or bile ducts from bile pigments, cholesterol, and calcium salts. Gallstones can cause severe pain and blockage of the bile duct.
  • 30. Enzymes: Bile: Helps the digestive process by breaking up fats. It also drains waste products from the liver into the duodenum.  It is alkaline in nature.
  • 31. Bilirubin and Biliverdin:  an orange-yellow pigment in the bile formed.  breakdown product of haemoglobin.  Excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance associated with jaundice.  Formula: C 32 H 36 O 6 N 4 .  Biliverdin: a green pigment excreted in bile. When bilirubin excreted into the small bowel, its bacteria change it into the safe green colored called biliverdin.
  • 33. PANCREAS:  The pancreas is an elongated, tapered organ located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.  The right side of the organ, called the head, is the widest part of the organ and lies in the curve of the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. The tapered left side extends slightly upward, called the body of the pancreas, and ends near the spleen, called the tail.
  • 34. PANCREAS IS MADE UP OF GLANDS:  The pancreas is made up of 2 types of glands:  Exocrine.The exocrine gland secretes digestive enzymes.These enzymes are secreted into a network of ducts that join the main pancreatic duct, which runs the length of the pancreas.  Endocrine.The endocrine gland, which consists of the islets of Langerhans, secretes hormones into the bloodstream.
  • 35. FUNCTION:  The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions:  The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down CHO, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated.  The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum. The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of the other 2 hormones.
  • 37. Small Intestine:  Part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine  Where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.  Primary function is to absorb the nutrients and minerals found in food
  • 38. Size and Divisions:  Average length of the small intestine  in an adult male -22 feet 6 inches (6.9 m)  in the adult female -23 feet 4 inches (7.1 m)
  • 39. Structure: It is structurally divided into three parts:  duodenum  jejunum  ileum
  • 40. Duodenum:  where most of the breakdown of food in the small intestines occurs.  mucous cells of these glands produce an alkaline secretion  protects the duodenal lining from the acidity of the chyme  raises the luminal pH to the optimum level for pancreatic enzyme activity  also the point of entry for the bile and pancreatic ducts  exhibits fingerlike or leaflike villi  few goblet cells
  • 41. Duodenum: (CONT) The duodenum consists of four parts, with the first three forming a "C" shape.  first or superior part begins at the pylors, passing laterally for a short distance before curving into the superior duodenal flexure  second or descending part passes from the superior into the inferior duodenal flexure  third or inferior part passes from the inferior flexure, crossing the major artery and the major vein and also the spinal column  forth or ascending part passes over the aorta, and curves past the pancreas to the duodenojejunal flexure
  • 42. Jejunum:  has long leaflike vilii.  many plicae circulares  an intermediate number of goblet cells
  • 43. Ileum:  final and longest section of the small intestine.  jejunum and ileum both suspended by a double layer of peritoneum that allows these parts to move more freely within the abdomen.  responsible for the final stages of protein and carbohydrate digestion.  has fewer villi, which are short and broad-tipped (clublike).  relatively abundant goblet cells
  • 44. Disorders:  colon cancer  Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome  Paralytic ileus  Maropthisis  Crohn's disease  Celiac disease  Carcinoid  Meckel's Diverticulum  Gastric dumping syndrome  Infectious diseases  Mesenteric ischemia  Intussusception
  • 46. Large Intestine It has a large diameter about 6.5 cm.
  • 47. Structure: It is divided into: • A short caecum • A long colon • Rectum  Caecum: • It is placed in the lower right side of the • Abdominal cavity. • It gives off a blind tube of about 18 cm long from its lower portion known as vermiform appendix which is a vestigial organ.  Colon: • It is the longest part and have three regions • Ascending colon • Transverse colon • Descending colon  Rectum: • It is the last portion of large intestine.
  • 48. Functions: • Inorganic salts,vitamins and water are absorbed in the colon. • Metabolic waste and inorganic substances notably calcium in excess in the body are excreted as salts along the feces. • Many symbiotic bacteria in the large intestine synthesize amino acids some vitamins especially vitamin K .
  • 49. Anus and Egestion: • The external opening of the anal canal is known as anus. • Two sphincters surround the anus. • The internal one of smooth muscles under the control of autonomic nervous system. • The outer one of striated muscle control by voluntary nervous system.
  • 50. Disoders of Gastro- intestinal tract: • Diarrhoea • Dysentary • Constipation • Piles • Dyspepsia • Peptic ulcer • Food poisoning • Malnutrition • Over weight and obesity • Anorexia nervosa • Cancers.

Editor's Notes

  1. dietary lipids are cholesterol and phospholipids.