Ch. 2 – The Chemistry of Life<br />Section 2-3<br />Carbon Compounds<br />or<br />A Brief Introduction to Organic Chemistr...
Carbon<br />
Why Carbon?<br />What makes carbon (C) the basis of all living things?<br />Carbon has 4 valence electrons (remember that ...
Why Carbon? (continued)<br />What makes carbon (C) the basis of all living things?<br />Carbon can also bond to other carb...
Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon bonds are very stable<br />Carbon bonds contain a lot of energy<br />
C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />...
C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />...
C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds<br />C<br />C<br />+...
Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Acetylene<br />Butadiene<br />Benzene<br />Isooctane<br />Methane<br />Carbon compounds come ...
carbon rings<br />
graphite<br />
Fatty acids – carbon “chains”<br />
Cellulose – carbon “sheet”<br />
“Buckyballs”<br />
Macromolecules<br />Carbon is good at making macromolecules.<br />Macromolecules are “giant molecules”. <br />Macromolecul...
Macromolecules<br />The giant molecules are polymers.<br />The process of connecting the little monomers into huge macromo...
Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<b...
Carbohydrates<br />Carbo- (carbon)<br />Hydrate (water)<br />CH20 units<br />1 C : 2 H : 1 O<br />
Carbohydrates<br />Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.<br />Plants and some animals also use c...
Carbohydrates<br />The monomers (small subunits) that make up large carbohydrates are called simple sugars (monosaccharide...
Monosaccharides<br />Two of the most important and common monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. <br />Both have the ch...
Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<b...
Lipids<br />Common categories of lipids are:<br />Fats<br />Oils<br />Waxes	 <br />Lipids can be used to store energy.<br ...
Lipids<br />Lipids contain mostly C and H atoms.<br />
Lipids<br />Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with fatty acids. (see pg. 46 in text)<br />
Saturated Fats<br />Saturated fats are those that contain the maximum number of H atoms (think “saturated with H”).<br />A...
Lipids<br />Unsaturated fats are those that contain at least one C=C double bond.<br />Polyunsaturated fats are those lipi...
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats<br />The chains in unsaturated fatty acids are “kinked”.<br />
Fat versus Oil<br />FAT<br /><ul><li>Fully saturated
Straight chains
Solid at room temp.</li></ul>OIL<br /><ul><li>Unsaturated
Kinked chains
Liquid at room temp.</li></li></ul><li> Are you pondering what I’m pondering?<br />Why do you think saturated fats are sol...
 Are you pondering what I’m pondering?<br />Do you think that all parts of a lipid molecule are equally attracted to water...
Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<b...
Nucleic acids<br />Nucleic acids contain O, N, C, and P. <br />Nucleic acids are huge polymers assembled from small monome...
Nucleic acids<br />Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.<br />There are two kinds of nucle...
Nucleic acids<br />DNA and RNA have different sugar molecules at their core (deoxyribose, ribose). <br />	(structure pg. 4...
Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<b...
Proteins<br />Proteins are macromolecules that contain N (nitrogen), C, H, and O. <br />Polymers of amino acids<br />
Proteins<br />Amino Acid Structure<br />Proteins are very diverse. <br />This is because there are more than 20 different ...
The structure of the twenty amino acids<br />
amino acids<br />
Types of proteins<br />Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes (enzymes are biological cat...
Biological Macromolecules - Summary<br />Carbon<br />Compounds<br />include<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic ac...
End 2-3<br />
Why Carbon? (continued)<br />C<br />C<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />...
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  1. 1. Ch. 2 – The Chemistry of Life<br />Section 2-3<br />Carbon Compounds<br />or<br />A Brief Introduction to Organic Chemistry<br />
  2. 2. Carbon<br />
  3. 3. Why Carbon?<br />What makes carbon (C) the basis of all living things?<br />Carbon has 4 valence electrons (remember that valence electrons are the ones available for bonding with other atoms).<br />This means carbon (C) can bond with many elements including hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N).<br />
  4. 4. Why Carbon? (continued)<br />What makes carbon (C) the basis of all living things?<br />Carbon can also bond to other carbon atoms giving them the ability to make chains that are almost unlimited in length.<br />No other element has the versatility of carbon (it’s a kind of “Swiss Army knife”).<br />
  5. 5. Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon bonds are very stable<br />Carbon bonds contain a lot of energy<br />
  6. 6. C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />+<br />Single bond<br />C<br />C<br />
  7. 7. C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />+<br />Double bond<br />C<br />C<br />
  8. 8. C<br />C<br />Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds<br />C<br />C<br />+<br />Triple bond<br />C<br />C<br />
  9. 9. Why Carbon? (continued)<br />Acetylene<br />Butadiene<br />Benzene<br />Isooctane<br />Methane<br />Carbon compounds come in a wide variety of shapes – like chains, rings and sheets.<br />
  10. 10. carbon rings<br />
  11. 11. graphite<br />
  12. 12. Fatty acids – carbon “chains”<br />
  13. 13. Cellulose – carbon “sheet”<br />
  14. 14. “Buckyballs”<br />
  15. 15. Macromolecules<br />Carbon is good at making macromolecules.<br />Macromolecules are “giant molecules”. <br />Macromolecules are formed by joining huge numbers of small units together.<br />The small units are called monomers.<br />The monomers subunits may be identical or different.<br />
  16. 16. Macromolecules<br />The giant molecules are polymers.<br />The process of connecting the little monomers into huge macromolecules is known as polymerization.<br />
  17. 17. Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins <br />
  18. 18. Carbohydrates<br />Carbo- (carbon)<br />Hydrate (water)<br />CH20 units<br />1 C : 2 H : 1 O<br />
  19. 19. Carbohydrates<br />Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.<br />Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.<br />
  20. 20. Carbohydrates<br />The monomers (small subunits) that make up large carbohydrates are called simple sugars (monosaccharides).<br />Polysaccharides are large carbohydrate macromolecules made up of many monosaccharide monomers.<br />
  21. 21. Monosaccharides<br />Two of the most important and common monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. <br />Both have the chemical formula C6H12O6, but have different shapes.<br />
  22. 22. Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins <br />
  23. 23. Lipids<br />Common categories of lipids are:<br />Fats<br />Oils<br />Waxes <br />Lipids can be used to store energy.<br />Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings.<br />
  24. 24. Lipids<br />Lipids contain mostly C and H atoms.<br />
  25. 25. Lipids<br />Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with fatty acids. (see pg. 46 in text)<br />
  26. 26. Saturated Fats<br />Saturated fats are those that contain the maximum number of H atoms (think “saturated with H”).<br />Another way of thinking about saturated fats is that they have all singleC-C bonds.<br />
  27. 27. Lipids<br />Unsaturated fats are those that contain at least one C=C double bond.<br />Polyunsaturated fats are those lipids with multiple C=C double bonds.<br />
  28. 28. Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats<br />The chains in unsaturated fatty acids are “kinked”.<br />
  29. 29. Fat versus Oil<br />FAT<br /><ul><li>Fully saturated
  30. 30. Straight chains
  31. 31. Solid at room temp.</li></ul>OIL<br /><ul><li>Unsaturated
  32. 32. Kinked chains
  33. 33. Liquid at room temp.</li></li></ul><li> Are you pondering what I’m pondering?<br />Why do you think saturated fats are solids at room temperature while unsaturated fats are liquids at room temperature?<br />
  34. 34. Are you pondering what I’m pondering?<br />Do you think that all parts of a lipid molecule are equally attracted to water molecules?<br />
  35. 35. Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins <br />
  36. 36. Nucleic acids<br />Nucleic acids contain O, N, C, and P. <br />Nucleic acids are huge polymers assembled from small monomer units called nucleotides.<br />
  37. 37. Nucleic acids<br />Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.<br />There are two kinds of nucleic acids:<br />Ribonucleic acid (RNA)<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)<br />
  38. 38. Nucleic acids<br />DNA and RNA have different sugar molecules at their core (deoxyribose, ribose). <br /> (structure pg. 47)<br />
  39. 39. Macromolecules (continued)<br />There are four (4) main groups of organic macromolecules:<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins <br />
  40. 40. Proteins<br />Proteins are macromolecules that contain N (nitrogen), C, H, and O. <br />Polymers of amino acids<br />
  41. 41. Proteins<br />Amino Acid Structure<br />Proteins are very diverse. <br />This is because there are more than 20 different amino acids that can be arranged in any order in a protein.<br />See pg. 47 for amino acid structures.<br />The varying part of amino acids is called the R-group.<br />Carboxylic acid group<br />Variable portion, “R” group<br />Amino group<br />
  42. 42. The structure of the twenty amino acids<br />
  43. 43. amino acids<br />
  44. 44. Types of proteins<br />Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes (enzymes are biological catalysts).<br />Some are used to form bones and muscles.<br />Others transport substances into or out of cells<br />Still others help to fight disease (antibodies). <br />
  45. 45. Biological Macromolecules - Summary<br />Carbon<br />Compounds<br />include<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />Sugars and <br />starches<br />Fats, oils, waxes<br />Nucleotides<br />Amino Acids<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,<br />oxygen<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,<br />oxygen<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,oxygen, <br />nitrogen,<br />Carbon,hydrogen,<br />oxygen, nitrogen,<br />phosphorus<br />
  46. 46. End 2-3<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Why Carbon? (continued)<br />C<br />C<br />Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple bonds <br />C<br />C<br />+<br />Triple bond<br />C<br />C<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Saturated & Unsaturated F.A.<br />
  52. 52. Biological Macromolecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Nucleic acids<br />Proteins<br />Sugars and <br />starches<br />Fats and oils<br />Nucleotides<br />Amino Acids<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,<br />oxygen<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,<br />oxygen<br />Carbon,<br />hydrogen,oxygen, <br />nitrogen,<br />Carbon,hydrogen,<br />oxygen, nitrogen,<br />phosphorus<br />Carbon<br />Compounds<br />include<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />that consist of<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />which contain<br />

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