Monoclonal antibodies are
monospecific , made by
Identical immune cells that are
all clones of unique parent cell.
Have monovalent affinity,
They bind to same epitope.
Immunization of mouse
Fusion of myeloma cells and immune spleen
Culturing in HAT media
Separation of hybridoma cells
Cloning of hybridoma cells
Cell ,cell debris ,lipids,
clotted materials are first
Charged impurities such
nucleic acids and endotoxins
Quick or single step method is
is problematic for
antibodies which can easily damaged.
Whole antibody is of murine origin.
Murine variable region fused onto
human C region.
By grafting murine hyper variable
amino acid domains into human antibody.
Biosensors & Microarrays
Cancer , Transplant rejection,
Purification of drugs , Imaging
Fight against Bioterrorism
NAME TYPE TARGET APPLICATION
OKT3 Murine CD3 molecules Acute rejection
INFLIXIMAB Chimeric Inhibits TNF-a Rheumatoid
OMALIZUMAB Humanized IgE Moderate to
PALIVIZUMAB Humanized Inhibits an RSV
RSV infection in
When monoclonal antibody attaches to cancer cell :
Rituximab drug attaches to specific
protein CD20 found on B cells makes
cell more visible to immune system
Cetuximab attaches to growth factor
receptors , blocking its signal and
suppress cancer growth
Bevacizumab blocks growth signal
which attract blood vessels then tumor
By combining radioactive particle with
monoclonal antibodies, radiation are
deliver to cancer cells only , cancer cell