The excretory system


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The excretory system

  1. 1. The Excretory System
  2. 2. The Excretory System is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from an organism. Excretion is the removal of metabolicwastes from the body, including toxicchemicals, excess water, carbon dioxideand salts.
  3. 3. Functions:1. Metabolic and toxic wastes removal2. Collect water and filter body fluids3. Helps maintain Homeostasis (stable internal state of the body)4. Eradicates harmful chemical build- ups
  4. 4. Metabolic WastesWaste A by product of :carbon dioxide Cellular respirationsalts Neutralizationurea Protein metabolism, Deaminationwater Dehydration synthesis and respiration
  5. 5. Excretory Organs  Lungs  Liver  Skin  Urinary system
  6. 6. Lungs A pair of cone-shaped, porous and spongy, located in the chest that are composed of bronchioles, alveoli, blood vessels, lymphatic, nerves and elastic connective tissues. As an excretory organ, it releases carbon dioxide and some water vapor as a waste product through respiration.
  7. 7. The Lungs
  8. 8. Liver Function is for deamination A process by which some proteins & other nitrogenous compounds are broken down in the liver. As a result, urea is formed.
  9. 9. The Liver
  10. 10. Skin Secretes sweatwhich is a mixtureof three metabolicwastes: water, salts,& urea through thesweat glands.Two types:-Eccrine-Apocrine
  11. 11. Urinary System A group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream. Urination or Micturition is the act by which urine (combination of salt, water, and urea), is expelled from the urinary bladder
  12. 12. Functions Excretion of urine Maintains an appropriate fluid volume Regulates the concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids Maintains normal pH of the blood
  13. 13. Components of the UrinarySystem Kidneys Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra
  14. 14. Kidneys A pair of bean shaped, reddish brown organs about the size of your fist. Measures 10-12cm in length, 5-7cm wide, and 2- 5cm thick. Site of urine manufacture Functions: filter blood , process the filtrate to form urine, produce hormones and enzymes that regulate blood pressure and red blood cell production regulate blood pH.
  15. 15. 3 Major Regions Renal Cortex - The outer layer with lots and lots of nephrons - The filtering layer Renal Medulla - Middle layer - The Collecting layer - Contains the Renal Pyramids Renal Pelvis - Center of the kidney - The Draining Layer - Connects with the ureters
  16. 16. Kidney
  17. 17. Nephrons The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney Comes from the Greek word (nephros) meaning kidney. A long tubule with a series of associated blood vessels Chief function is to regulate water and soluble substances Each kidney has more than 1,000,000 of them Each nephron is made of a cup shaped portion called Bowman’s capsule, tubules and a network of capillaries.
  18. 18. Nephro
  19. 19. How is urine formed ?Three major processes are involved in the formation of urine: filtration -filters the blood to produce a filtrate reabsorption - selectively reabsorbs needed water and essential solutes from the filtrate secretion - moves substances into the filtrate for removal as part of the urine
  20. 20. Ureters Two tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder Each is a muscular tube about 10 inches (25 cm) in length and 3mm in diameter.
  21. 21. Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. It is a hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, and sits on the pelvic floor. can hold approximately 17 to 18 ounces (500 to 530 ml) of urine.
  22. 22. Urethra A tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body The function of the urethra is to remove urine from the body through urination It measures about 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in a woman but up to 8 inches (20 cm) in a man. The urethral sphincter is a collective name for the muscles used to control the flow of urine from the urinary bladder.
  23. 23. Common Diseases of the Excretory System
  24. 24. Kidney Stones(Nephrolithiasis) Hard masses that form in the urinary tract from crystals that have separated from the urine. Causes:  Dietary factors  Recurrent UT• Symptoms:  Extreme Pain  Cramping in the back and lower abdomen  Nausea  Vomiting
  25. 25. Kidney Stones
  26. 26. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A bacterial infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Causes: ◦ Bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin near the rectum or in the vagina. ◦ Sexual Intercourse ◦ Waiting too long to urinate• Symptoms: • Painful urination • Frequent urination or urge to urinate (or both) • Fever • Flank Pain
  27. 27. Acne(Acne vulgaris) Kind of skin disorder that occurs when the oil glands in the skin are, such as affected by bacteria. Causes: ◦ Hormone changes Most acne form on the face, neck, back, chest, and shoulders.
  28. 28. Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis) Fungal infection of the skin. Occurs between the toes Caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton Symptoms:  Various degree of itching of burning  Blister and cracked skin
  29. 29. Athlete’s foot
  30. 30. Bladder Cancer A type of malignancy arising from epithelial lining of the urinary bladder Causes:  Smoking  Chemical exposures  Improper Diet Symptoms:  Blood in the urine  Frequent urination  Feeling the need to urinate without results
  31. 31. Thank You !!! XD