The Excretory System is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from an organism. Excretion is the removal of metabolicwastes from the body, including toxicchemicals, excess water, carbon dioxideand salts.
Functions:1. Metabolic and toxic wastes removal2. Collect water and filter body fluids3. Helps maintain Homeostasis (stable internal state of the body)4. Eradicates harmful chemical build- ups
Metabolic WastesWaste A by product of :carbon dioxide Cellular respirationsalts Neutralizationurea Protein metabolism, Deaminationwater Dehydration synthesis and respiration
Lungs A pair of cone-shaped, porous and spongy, located in the chest that are composed of bronchioles, alveoli, blood vessels, lymphatic, nerves and elastic connective tissues. As an excretory organ, it releases carbon dioxide and some water vapor as a waste product through respiration.
Skin Secretes sweatwhich is a mixtureof three metabolicwastes: water, salts,& urea through thesweat glands.Two types:-Eccrine-Apocrine
Urinary System A group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream. Urination or Micturition is the act by which urine (combination of salt, water, and urea), is expelled from the urinary bladder
Functions Excretion of urine Maintains an appropriate fluid volume Regulates the concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids Maintains normal pH of the blood
Components of the UrinarySystem Kidneys Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra
Kidneys A pair of bean shaped, reddish brown organs about the size of your fist. Measures 10-12cm in length, 5-7cm wide, and 2- 5cm thick. Site of urine manufacture Functions: filter blood , process the filtrate to form urine, produce hormones and enzymes that regulate blood pressure and red blood cell production regulate blood pH.
3 Major Regions Renal Cortex - The outer layer with lots and lots of nephrons - The filtering layer Renal Medulla - Middle layer - The Collecting layer - Contains the Renal Pyramids Renal Pelvis - Center of the kidney - The Draining Layer - Connects with the ureters
Nephrons The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney Comes from the Greek word (nephros) meaning kidney. A long tubule with a series of associated blood vessels Chief function is to regulate water and soluble substances Each kidney has more than 1,000,000 of them Each nephron is made of a cup shaped portion called Bowman’s capsule, tubules and a network of capillaries.
How is urine formed ?Three major processes are involved in the formation of urine: filtration -filters the blood to produce a filtrate reabsorption - selectively reabsorbs needed water and essential solutes from the filtrate secretion - moves substances into the filtrate for removal as part of the urine
Ureters Two tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder Each is a muscular tube about 10 inches (25 cm) in length and 3mm in diameter.
Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. It is a hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, and sits on the pelvic floor. can hold approximately 17 to 18 ounces (500 to 530 ml) of urine.
Urethra A tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body The function of the urethra is to remove urine from the body through urination It measures about 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in a woman but up to 8 inches (20 cm) in a man. The urethral sphincter is a collective name for the muscles used to control the flow of urine from the urinary bladder.
Kidney Stones(Nephrolithiasis) Hard masses that form in the urinary tract from crystals that have separated from the urine. Causes: Dietary factors Recurrent UT• Symptoms: Extreme Pain Cramping in the back and lower abdomen Nausea Vomiting
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A bacterial infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Causes: ◦ Bacteria from the bowel that live on the skin near the rectum or in the vagina. ◦ Sexual Intercourse ◦ Waiting too long to urinate• Symptoms: • Painful urination • Frequent urination or urge to urinate (or both) • Fever • Flank Pain
Acne(Acne vulgaris) Kind of skin disorder that occurs when the oil glands in the skin are, such as affected by bacteria. Causes: ◦ Hormone changes Most acne form on the face, neck, back, chest, and shoulders.
Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis) Fungal infection of the skin. Occurs between the toes Caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton Symptoms: Various degree of itching of burning Blister and cracked skin
Bladder Cancer A type of malignancy arising from epithelial lining of the urinary bladder Causes: Smoking Chemical exposures Improper Diet Symptoms: Blood in the urine Frequent urination Feeling the need to urinate without results