Socio-historical ContextLOCATIONOccidental Mindoro is the western part of the island of Mindoro,south of Batangas. It is bounded on the north by the Calavite Passage,on the east by Oriental Mindoro, on the west by ApoEast Pass, and onthe south by the Mindoro Strait.THE LANDOccidental Mindoro consists of high rolling mountains in the east. Tothe west are coastal plains where the towns are situated. Numerousrivers flow from these mountain ranges: Pagbahan and amburao-Matamayor in the north, Mompong and Amnay in the center, andCaguray and Busuanga in the south. The climate is dry fromNovember to April and wet during the rest of the year. The provincelies in the path of destructive typhoons.
Socio-historical ContextCultural Context – Oriental Mindoro NorthMangyan group (Iraya, Tadyawan, Alangan)and South Mangyan group (Batangan, Buhid,Hanunoo)
Brief History of Mindoro• Mindoro, formerly called Mait, was known to Chinese traders even before the coming of the Spanish.• In 15 70, the Spanish began to explore the island and named it "Mina de Oro" (mineof gold) after finding some of the precious metal, though no major gold discoveries were ever made.• Missionaries became active around Ilin Island off the southern tip, Lubang Island off the northern tip,and Mamburao.
Brief History of Mindoro• Moro raids later forced them to abandon these places. In 1754, the Muslims established strongholds in Mamburao and Balete (near Sablayan). From there, they launched raids against nearby settlements. An expedition sent by Governor Simon de Anda put an end to these raids.• In the early years, Mindoro was administered as part of Bonbon, now Batangas.
Brief History of Mindoro• Early in the 17th century, the island was separated from Bonbon and organized into a corregimiento.• In 1902 the island of Lubang, which was formerly a part of Cavite, was annexed to Mindoro. In the same year Mindoro and Lubang were annexed to Marinduque when the latter became a regular province.• Mindoro became a regular province in 1921. On June 13, 1950, under Republic Act No. 505, Mindoro was divided into two provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro.
THE PEOPLE• The plains of Occidental Mindoro are inhabited by the Tagalogs and the remote forested interior by the Mangyans.• Extensive tribal settlements of Mangyans in the province belong to such sub-groups as the Iraya, Alangan, Tadyawan, Buhid, Hanunuo, and Bangon. The Mangyans are simple people. They were once coastal dwellers driven into the mountains to avoid religious conversion by the Spaniards, raids by Moro pirates, and the influx of recent migrants. They now lead a semi-nomadic existence.
IssuesThe Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107islands with a population of 84 millionspeaking over 120 languages.
Cultural Preservation &Marginalzation of Culture• Out of the 110 indigenous people (IP) groups in the country today, only four still use their original scripts. Other ethno-linguistic groups now write in the Roman alphabet of the colonizers.
the Hanunuo Mangyanscript is very muchalive and being taughtin Hanunuo Mangyanschools
Their Distinctive heritage• Mangyans, with eight different languages and cultural traditions, possess a rich and distinctive cultural and literary heritage. One manifestation is the various traditional musical instruments used during festivities, special occasions and for courting: guitar, violin, flute, gong, and jew’s-harp.
• With a pointed knife, Hanunuo Mangyans inscribe notes and poems on bamboo trees in the forests or on bamboo slats. These ambahans—written or recited in poetic language—allegorically express situations or characteristics.
• The Hanunuo and Buhid Mangyans weave and embroider their own traditional attire.
• The Iraya and Alangan Mangyans skillfully weave nito and rattan into elaborate baskets. The other groups also produce baskets, bags, hats, hammocks and other crafts made of forest vines, and all the eight tribes practice beadwork.
• Unfortunately they do not have security of land tenure. Their unrecognized traditional right over their ancestral domain is evident in the continuous influx of so-called government development projects. Private business interests have also harassed them: mining, tourism, hydro- power, and even reforestation. Illegal titling of lands by non-Mangyans also continues.• The implementation of these projects often undermines their culture and traditional right to protect, manage and utilize the resources in their ancestral domain. More important, the Mangyans have lost their land to these projects.
• The Mangyans’ subsistence-level livelihood is based on swidden cultivation: planting upland rice, sweet potatoes, corn, beans, bananas, cassava, yams and other root crops.
Mangyan education• There are few public elementary schools, no public high school, and no functional health center. Public elementary schools in Mangyan communities usually do not offer all the elementary grade levels.• Classes are multi-grade. Teachers do not report regularly. There are few or no books at all for students.
Mangyan education• Students walk for hours and make numerous river crossings to go to school, which can be dangerous for young children.
• Before the last decade, no Mangyan was elected to a municipal or higher position, further limiting the indigenous people’s opportunities to be heard and to participate in decision-making. There are also very few Mangyan government employees.• Discrimination by lowlanders hinders Mangyans from attaining the development level they deserve. Lowlanders often buy their products at very low prices. Often the Mangyans are exploited.
• The Mangyan situation illustrates the complexity of heritage conservation. To preserve the endangered traditional script, language, literature, crafts and lifestyle, there is need to improve their education, livelihood and governance.• However, any government or NGO assistance given to the Mangyans must not be done in an insensitive manner. Any kind of help must be granted with vision—in the framework of true understanding of the Mangyan culture, ensuring its preservation, but also giving the people the benefits of the 21st century.
Concept Map • Geography: • Types (Vocal, Mindoro, Mt. Instrumental) Halcon • Kaingin Socio- Musical historical Forms Context Issues • Marginalization of culture • Cultural preservation
Musical Forms • Igway (song), • Marayaw (spirit song), • Pamuybuyen (legend) - it means fear of water
Musical Forms• Flute (Bangsi),- is an external duct flute, whichhas a chip glued on to the tube ofthe flute• Jaw’s Harp (Subing),- is a bamboo jawharp
Musical Forms• Lute (Gitgit),- a three-string indigenousviolin with human hair forstrings.• Gongs (Agong),- a metal shaped like a pailwith a circle in the middle
Musical Forms• Sticks (Kalutang)- This is percussion sticks playedin pairs to produce harmonies onseconds, thirds, and fourths. Video
Musical ContextMarayaw is a genre of Iraya-Mangyansongs used to communicate withspirits in rituals for healing the sick orprotecting the community.
Musical ContextMusic for the Hanunoo is part of celebratingordinary and festive occasions. Accompanyingthemselves on these instruments as they recitetheir love poems, the Hanunoo Mangyan paycourt to the women. During the wedding rituals,songs are sung, musical instruments are played,food is eaten, and wine is drunk. The songs of theMangyan are lullabies, recollections of warexploits in the distant past, lamentations,lovelyrics, and stories based on persona.