CONCEPT MAP • Nature • Interaction among groups • Language Socio- historical Context
Socio-historical ContextLalawigan ng Palawan, is an island province ofthe Philippines located in the Region 4. Its capitalis Puerto Princesa City, and it is the largest province inthe country in terms of total area of jurisdiction.
Geography of PalawanPalawan is composed of the long andnarrow Palawan Island, plus a number of othersmaller islands surrounding the main island.The Calamianes Group of Islands to theNortheast consists of
Geography of PalawanDurangan Island almost touches thewesternmost part of Palawan Island,while Balabac Island is located off thesouthern tip, separated from Borneo bythe Balabac Strait.
Geography of PalawanIn addition, Palawan covers the CuyoIslands in the Sulu Sea. The disputed SpratlyIslands, located a few hundred kilometers tothe west, are considered part of Palawan bythe Philippines, and is locally called theKalayaan Group of Islands.
Peoples of PalawanPalawan, the largest province inthe Philippines, is home toseveral indigenous ethnolinguistic groups:1. Batak- which means "mountain people" in Cuyonon is a group ofindigenous Filipino people that resides in the northeast portionof Palawan. They live in the rugged interiors of northeasternPalawan. Living close to nature, they are a peaceful and shypeople. These people believe in nature spirits, with whom theycommunicate through a babaylan or medium.
Peoples of Palawan2. Palaweños - Native-born lowland dwellers - They are religious, disciplined and have a highly developed community spirit - Language : Cuyonon & Agutaynen3. Palawano - also known as Palawan, is one of the unique indigenous peoples of Palawan. They are part of the large Manobo-based linguistic groups of southern Philippines. They traditionally hunt using soars and bamboo blowguns. - The Taawt Bato means "people of the rock". They are not actually a separate language or ethnic group, but rather a small community of traditional southwestern Palawanos .
Peoples of Palawan4. Tagbanwa - or "people of the world," are found in central and northern Palawan. They practice shifting cultivation of upland rice, which is considered a divine gift, and are known for their rice wine ritual called pagdiwata. Central Tagbanwas are found in the western and eastern coastal areas of central Palawan. They are concentrated in the municipalities of Aborlan, Quezon, and Puerto Princesa.
CONCEPT MAP • Nature • Interaction among groups • Language Socio- historical Context Issues • Cultural Preservation • Sustainable Eco- Tourism
Issues The struggle to save Palawan (known as thePhilippines’ Last Frontier) is not only about saving trees andrare species. It is also about nourishing the Filipino culturalheritage, so powerfully represented by those indigenouscommunities that - after escaping Spanish and Americancolonization (while resisting the new ‘mining imperialism’now) - continue to represent the living roots from which allFilipinos originate. Therefore, environmental plundering bymining companies is not only a crime against nature but it isalso a crime against culture, a sort of genocide thatannihilates the most profound roots of the Filipinos historyand ultimately plunders the cultural heritage of the wholenation!
CONCEPT MAP • Nature • Kulial • Interaction • Epics among groups • Instruments • Language Socio- Musical historical Forms Context Issues • Cultural Preservation • Sustainable Eco- Tourism
Musical FormsBird songs, Kulial songs, Epics (i.e. Kudaman) The Kudaman epic starts with a long narratedprelude in a tale pattern (50 typewritten pages)before the six to seven nights can develop. Thenights repeat the span of seven years that framesthe ritual of commemoration of the Master of Rice,Tämwäy ät Ampuq ät Paräy.
CONCEPT MAP • Nature • Kulial • Interaction • Epics among groups • Instruments • Language Socio- Musical historical Forms Context Musical Issues Context • Cultural • Music in Ritual Preservation • Soundscape • Sustainable Eco- • Creativity Tourism
Musical Context The subtle threads between Mankind and Natureinvolve all our senses and more particularly ourauditive sensitivity. Capturing tonalities, rhythms, andmelodies, we can like a bird fly down from the celestialvault to the Earth, dwelling-place of Highlander-islanders known as the Palawan who live in thesouthern part of the island by the same name. Thisaural voyage will take us to the realm of words, poetry,and music as human creations which the Palawan usesto communicate in order to live harmoniously in thisworld.
Music in Ritual The shaman sings the difficult experience of thevoyage of his double, kuruduwa, by a specific chant,the lumbaga, whose melody is in all points assimilableto any epic melodic line. And it is precisely the ordealsthat the soul of the shaman overcomes in the courseof his voyage—the encounters with the Evil Doers,Länggam or Säqitan, the discussions, the bargainingengaged in with the Invisible Beings—that constitutethe shamanic chant.
Music in Ritual• to sing tultul is to be possessed by a Täw Tultultulän. These “Epic Heroes” are a type of humanity who live in the median space and intercede between people on this earth and Ämpuq. They are a Benevolent Humanity protecting the “Real Men.” The act of chanting thus doubles with the embodiment, in the very person of the bard, of these heroic and semi-divine Beings. One can interpret this relationship as an act of possession in which the bard becomes a medium.• Epics are always chanted at night, ending at daybreak; it is forbidden to sing when the sun shines and during the day. This prohibition links the epic to the night and a sacred world. Moreover, one would never chant for amusement in a light joking manner.
Music in Ritual In the Central West highlands, is the PalawanIsland. One of the tribes in Palawan are theTAGBANUAS. The Tagbanuas has retained theirancient culture. The Calamianes Group of Islands whoelaborate funeral celebrations. Five days afterinterment, the relatives goes to the homes of thedeceased to perform funeral rites. Then the participants chant the Batac, a lengthysong recounting the significant adventures of amythical person named DUMARACOL. Thesinginggoes on for three successive nights for evening tilldawn.
Comparative Glossary of Mindoroand Palawan Music. Voice Instruments Mindoro: Mindoro: Subing / Jews harp Igway / Song Gitgit / lute Marayaw / Spirit song Agung / gong Bangsi / flute Palawan: Aruding / Jews harp Palawan: Kusyapiq / lute Kulial / Song Basal / gong Ulit / Spirit song Suling, Babarak / flute